World Mycotoxin Journal

Sat, 12/05/2020 - 04:01
The inclusion of anti-mycotoxin additives (AMA) in the diet of production animals has been widely used to avoid mycotoxin exposure. In order to confirm the efficacy of such products in vivo, measurement of mycotoxins and/or their metabolites in biological fluids is preconized. This study aimed at determining the serological biomarkers of zearalenone (ZEN), α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol...
Sat, 12/05/2020 - 04:01
A structured questionnaire was used to collect information of awareness, knowledge and practices associated with aflatoxin contamination in spices from 30 retailers in Dar es Salaam. Aflatoxin contamination in spices was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection using post column derivatization. Data were statistically analysed to assess factors...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 04:01
Bentonite clays exhibit high adsorptive capacity for contaminants and is frequently used as a feed additive to reduce the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of several mycotoxins. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a secondary Fusarium toxic metabolite that can contaminate a wide range of food- and feedstuff. Since organophilic treatments is known to increase the adsorption capacity of bentonites, the aim...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:01
Aflatoxin producing fungi cause contamination of food and feed resulting in health hazards and economic loss. It is imperative to develop workable control measures throughout the food chain to prevent and reduce aflatoxin contamination. This is a critical review of contemporary published papers in the field. It is a review of reports from the original aflatoxin researches conducted on foods, from...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:01
Patulin (PAT) is a natural mycotoxin that commonly contaminates fruits and their derivative products and has been proven to induce cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in renal cells. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of apocynin, a potent phenolic antioxidant isolated from plants, on PAT-induced cell injury in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Compared with 7.5 μM PAT...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:01
The present study describes using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology for determination of patulin (PAT) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in beverages by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array (UPLC-PDA). PAT (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2-c]pyran-2(6H)-one) is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium fungi and Penicillium expansum is probably the most commonly...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:01
Several food commodities can be infected by filamentous fungi, both in the field and during storage. Some of these fungi, under appropriate conditions, are capable of producing a wide range of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, which may resist food processing and arise in the final feed and food products. Contamination of these products with mycotoxins still occurs very often and that...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:01
Today, mycotoxins are considered a serious risk for human health and the economy around the world. Hence, dealing with them in such a way as to minimise damage to food and plant materials has become an important issue. Cold atmospheric plasma and electron beam irradiation are updated and non-thermal technologies, which are recently used in detoxification of mycotoxins. Both of these technologies...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 04:02
To mitigate the risk of erosion and nutrient runoff, reduced tillage has become more prevalent in Norway. Within within recent decades, there have been some years with relatively high occurrence of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxins in Norwegian cereal grain. This is thought to have been caused by an increased inoculum potential (IP) of Fusarium spp. due to larger amount of crop residues...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 04:02
Grains and feed are severely contaminated by deoxynivalenol (DON) globally, threatening both human and animal health. Research on bio-degradation of DON, in general, is gaining attention. The aim of this research was to estimate the effect of Clostridium sp. WJ06 as a microbiological detoxification of DON based on the expression and distribution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 04:02
Mycotoxins are one of the most common types of chemical hazards related to edible oils. Although the refining process can remove such contaminations, they may still be present in the final oils due to defects during the refining steps. In addition, most oils produced in local manufactories are not refined and as such may be contaminated with mycotoxins. However, the effect of various cooking...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
Aflatoxin production by isolates of Aspergillus flavus varies, ranging from highly toxigenic to completely atoxigenic. Several mechanisms have been identified which regulate aflatoxin production including medium carbon source and oxidative stress. In recent studies, aflatoxin production has been implicated in partially ameliorating oxidative stress in A. flavus. To better understand the role of...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 04:01
The purpose of this study was to provide data on the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in artisan salamis produced in the Campania and Marche regions (Italy). For this aim, 96 different salamis were purchased from farms and small salami factories. Analysis were carried out firstly on the casings of all samples, and in a second step, in the outer and inner edible parts of those samples whose casings...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 04:01
As fish has been known for its high protein content and other health benefits, aquaculture production has started to flourish in Serbia. Common carp is the predominant species being farmed, comprising more than 80% of the total fish production in Serbia. The primary ingredients in fish feed are plant-based products, which present a risk of mycotoxin contamination, posing a potential risk to...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 04:01
Interactions between livestock management practices and toxicological outcomes of mycotoxin exposure may explain the range of tolerable toxin levels reported for various species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of concurrent mycotoxin exposure with a high starch diet in 12 beef steers in a partial cross-over experiment using a 21-day treatment period, followed by a 14-day...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 04:01
Maize is mainly affected by two fungal pathogens, Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus, causing Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus ear rot (AER), respectively. Both fungi are of concern to stakeholders as they affect crop yield and quality, contaminating maize grains with the mycotoxins fumonisins and aflatoxins. The easiest strategy to prevent pre-harvest contamination by F....
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 04:01
Contamination of food and feed items with mycotoxins causes extensive economic damage. It is therefore important to explore environmentally friendly approaches to manage these toxins with less drawbacks. Phytochemicals can provide a safe alternative to synthetic chemicals. This study was designed to investigate the detoxification potential of water-based extracts of Acacia nilotica against...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 04:02
Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium expansum, is of high concern with regard to human food safety. This study examined the stability of PAT in artificially contaminated cloudy apple juice (CAJ) produced on a semi-industrial scale using an innovative technology allowing degassing and pressing under low-oxygen conditions (VaculIQ 1000). The effects of adding ascorbic acid (AA...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 04:02
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that colonise various crops around the world and cause major damage to the agro-industrial sector on a global scale. Considering the estimative of population growth in the next decades, it is of fundamental importance the implementation of practices that help prevent the economics and social impacts of aflatoxin contamination....
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:02
Ontario has suffered widespread epidemics of Fusarium Head Blight or Gibberella Ear Rot roughly every five years since the late 1970s. We undertook a study of the chemotype and genotype of Fusarium graminearum isolated from 1,800 samples of wheat and maize collected across the cereal growing areas over three years. 468 isolates obtained were genotyped and 60 were selected for chemotyping. The...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:02
Aflatoxins represent one of the biggest public health problems in food safety, due to their toxic potential for humans and animals. They can lead to serious threats, such as hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and immunotoxicity. Maize is the most important cereal consumed in Mexico, with which tortillas, tamales, flours, toasts and other products are elaborated. The elaboration of tortillas begins...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:02
Zearalenone is a mycotoxin widely found worldwide that is produced by several fungal species. Due to its similarity to estradiol, it has been shown to have toxic effects on the reproductive system. Although various animal studies have been conducted to investigate the toxic effects of zearalenone, the mechanisms of toxicity have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:02
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. These compounds have different structures and target different organs, acting at different steps of biological processes inside the cell. Around 32 mycotoxins have been identified in fungal Penicillium spp. isolated from food and feed. Some of these species are important pathogens which contaminate food, such as maize, cereals,...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:39
In South Africa, child malnutrition is highly prevalent among children from in rural areas mostly at risk. In the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, maize is commonly used as complementary and weaning food. Previous studies conducted in parts of EC have indicated high levels of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins in home-grown maize, as well as the co-occurrence of other Fusarium mycotoxins, such as...
Mon, 03/30/2020 - 03:33
Penicillium verrucosum survives in soil and on cereal debris. It colonises grain during harvesting, drying and storage. There is no information on the relative tolerance of P. verrucosum to solute and matric stress in terms of colonisation, or on the biosynthetic toxin gene clusters or ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The objectives were to examine the effect of ionic and non-ionic solute and...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:35
Fusarium verticillioides is the primary fungus that causes Fusarium ear rot (FER) of maize. Infection results in reduced grain yield and quality due to moulding and the contamination of grain with toxic compounds namely fumonisins. Resistance to fungal infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize and maize grain is governed at different levels. In this study, the structural, physico-chemical and...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:34
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin which is one of the most abundant food contaminants. It can be normally monitored and detected by immunochromatographic assays (ICG) which have a good sensitivity and specificity and easy to operate. However, the development of normal ICG is based on traditional OTA-conjugates or chemosynthetic mimotope peptides, which are very high-cost...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:34
Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades around the world, and very much as well in China. The change of climate and farming methods are favourable for prevalence of toxigenic fungi and consequently cause the increase of mycotoxins in food and feed. Against this background, this special issue ‘Mycotoxins in China’, consisting of five review...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite mainly produced by the fungi Fusarium in agricultural crops, widely existing in feeds and cereal-based foodstuffs. Because of the high occurrence and potentials to induce a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, DON has been a very harmful exogenous dietary toxicant threating public health. The focus of this review is to summarise the DON-...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Risk characterisation of dietary exposure of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) in maize from Shandong Province was conducted in this study. A total of 520 maize samples were collected after harvesting in 2014 and 2015 from 26 selected villages in Shandong Province, China. A deterministic approach was used in the current study. The dietary intake data of...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites produced by certain types of filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Mycotoxigenic fungi and their produced mycotoxins are considered to be an important issue in food and feed safety due to their toxic effects like carcinogenicity, immunosuppression, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity on humans and...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
In 2017, 236 rice samples were collected from 42 counties in Jiangsu province, China, and analysed for Fusarium mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analyses showed that deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenone X (FUS-X), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (including FB1, FB2, and FB3), and beauvericin (BEA) were present in unhusked rice...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The effect of heating (roasting and microwave radiation heating) along with a traditional pistachio flavouring mixture (containing verjuice, thyme extract, and sodium chloride) was investigated on reducing aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in pistachios. The naturally and artificially contaminated samples were soaked in the flavouring mixture (for 5, 10 and 24 h) and then subjected to...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Maize is currently the most important crop in China. A major concern in maize production is maize ear rot caused by Fusarium spp., which results in yield losses, reduction of seed quality and the accumulation of mycotoxins in the harvested grains. To identify the importance of the different Fusarium species in maize infection, we performed a comprehensive survey on 9,000 asymptomatic and randomly...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease to cereal crops worldwide that decreases grain yield, grain quality, and causes mycotoxin contamination. FHB resulted in an estimated $2 billion USD loss in the US between 1993 and 2001, and 520 million Canadian dollars (CAD) in Canada in the 1990s. In the wheat producing areas in Canada and the United States, it is perceived that significant...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The present work aimed to establish the prevalence of mycobiota and occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin A) in spices and spice-based products, and correlate these to their manufacturers’ sizes. A total of 90 spice, sauce and paste samples were purchased; 3 manufacturer sizes (small, medium, large) × 3 types of samples (spices, sauces, pastes) × 5 brands × 2 replicates. The...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
In the present study, a method for screening non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in soil samples collected from major peanut-growing regions of China was developed. The single colonies were picked and cultured on Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA). If the reverse side of the colony on AFPA was orange-coloured, it was considered A. flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus. After the genomic...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Human exposure to mycotoxins is almost inevitable as mycotoxins are naturally occurring contaminants of large portion of food and feed. Depending on the type of mycotoxins, inter-individual mycotoxin adsorption, bioaccumulation, distribution, metabolism and excretion, can cause serious adverse health effects. Therefore, continuous biomonitoring studies of population exposure to mycotoxins are...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
This review summarises developments on the analysis of various matrices for mycotoxins that have been published in the period from mid-2018 to mid-2019. Analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone are covered in individual sections. Advances in sampling strategies are also discussed in a...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The occurrence of mycotoxins differs greatly from year to year and this variation has been attributed to climate variability. The aim of this study was to consider the variability of fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination on a small geographic scale as a possible result of local weather conditions. The presence of Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. and their related mycotoxins was...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:16
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. and poses a threat to food safety. Biodegradation may be a promising strategy for reducing the OTA contamination in the future. In this study, Aspergillus niger strain W-35 was isolated from cereals and studied for its ability to degrade OTA. Results showed that the supernatant of W-35 could degrade OTA both in...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Nutrition-rich cereal grains and oil seeds are the major sources of food and feed for human and livestock, respectively. Infected by fungi and contaminated with mycotoxins are serious problems worldwide for cereals and oil seeds before and after harvest. The growth and development activities of fungi consume seed nutrients and destroy seed structures, leading to dramatic declines of crop yield...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Since their discovery in the 1960s, aflatoxins were found to have a considerable impact on the health of humans and animals as well as the country’s economy and international trade. Aflatoxins are often found in nuts, cereals and animal feeds, which has a significant danger to the food industry. Over the years, several steps have been undertaken worldwide to minimise their contamination in crops...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is highly carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. Accordingly, sensitive, rapid and cost-effective techniques for detection of AFB1 is in urgent demand for food safety and the health of consumers. In this review, we report the current state of immunoassay formats and development, mainly based on nanomaterials for determination of AFB1. Following an introduction of the field,...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:13
Ochratoxin A (OTA) belongs among the most frequently occurring mycotoxins in coffee. In order to investigate its contamination levels in products currently available in the market, a broad set of coffee samples (103 in total) collected between 2016 and 2018 in the Czech Republic was investigated. Aqueous-methanolic extracts purified by using immunoaffinity columns were analysed by ultra-...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:15
Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut production negatively affects health and trade outcomes. Aflatoxin contamination can occur at any stage along the groundnut value chain. However, the stage immediately after harvest has proven to be the most critical stage in aflatoxin management. This study presents knowledge, perceptions and practices in aflatoxin management during groundnut drying and...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
Aspergillus spp. are a common contaminant of grapes and a major source of mycotoxins. China is the largest producer of grape in the world now, however, the toxigenic Aspergillus population on grape in this country is still largely unknown. In this study, a total of 345 strains were isolated from grapes of 13 main grapevine producing regions in China. Based on calmodulin gene sequences, eight...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
The aim was to study the effect of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC016 on the expression of apoptotic protein Bax, Bcl-2, DR4 and c-FLIP, in liver of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Four treatments were applied to inbred male Wistar rats: uncontaminated feed control, S. cerevisiae RC016 control, contaminated feed with 100 μg/kg AFB1 and contaminated feed with 100 μg/kg AFB1 + daily oral...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
Aspergillus flavus can easily infect major agricultural products and produce aflatoxin. In this study, we investigated the effect of the biocontrol bacterium Enterobacter cloacae 3J1EC on the growth of A. flavus strain 3.4408. The biocontrol bacterium played a key role in preventing infection by A. flavus. E. cloacae 3J1EC was found to inhibit the growth of A. flavus 3.4408 mycelial pellets and...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:15
Controlling proliferation and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus is a pressing challenge for global food safety and security. Marine bacterium Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain L-38 showed excellent antifungal activity toward A. flavus in vitro and in vivo. In sealed, non-contact confrontation assays, L-38 completely inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of A. flavus...

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