Zoonoses and Public Health

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:28
This observational study aimed to determine MRSA prevalence using strain‐specific real‐time PCR at the pig level, stratified by age groupings, within a pig enterprise. A total of 658 samples were collected from individual pigs (n = 618) and the piggery environment (n = 40), distributed amongst five different pig age groups. Presumptive MRSA isolates were confirmed by the presence of mecA, and...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:27
Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most common serotypes responsible for human salmonellosis in Ontario. Introduction of the Ontario Investigation Tools (OIT) in 2014 allowed for standardized case investigation and reporting. This study compared the risk factors and symptomatology for sporadic S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium cases reported in Ontario in 2015,...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:27
Background Campylobacter bacteria infect both humans and animals. Sources of human exposure include contaminated food and water, contact with animals and/or their faeces, and contact with infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to: (a) identify environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in humans in four regions of Ontario, and (b) identify pooled...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:28
The discovery of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in cattery‐confined breeding cats indicating prior or current exposure (Shapiro et al., 2015) prompted an investigation into possible sources of infection. One hypothesis was that raw meat diets containing reservoir species may provide a source of C. burnetii transmission. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether C. burnetii DNA...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:18
The reported incidence of clinical hepatitis E cases is rising in some non‐endemic countries, with concurrent concerns regarding potential hepatitis E virus (HEV) contamination of the blood supply. Therefore, the characterization of major potential sources of human HEV exposure is important to inform risk assessment and public health policy. A systematic review was conducted, including a...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:18
High prevalences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were recently found in enteric illness patients in the Qikiqtaaluk region of Nunavut, Canada, with a foodborne, waterborne or animal source of parasites suspected. Clams (Mya truncata) are a commonly consumed, culturally important and nutritious country food in Iqaluit; however, shellfish may concentrate protozoan pathogens from contaminated waters...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:18
Norovirus constitutes the most frequently identified infectious cause of disease outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water. When investigating outbreaks related to surface water, a One Health approach is insightful. Historically, there has been a focus on potential contamination of recreational water by bird droppings and a recent publication demonstrating human noroviruses in bird...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:18
We report a Brucella outbreak with seven cases in the Northern Region of Portugal in 2018–2019, associated with the consumption of fresh cheese. This outbreak has implications for risk assessment in Portuguese migrants related to this area, and it is an example of cooperation between public institutions, in a One Health based approach.
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:17
Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi‐aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:17
Malaysia is a non‐endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, seroprevalence as high as 50% among samples of aboriginal people were reported over two decades ago. A total of 207 samples collected from seven aboriginal villages in rural settlements across two states in Malaysia were analysed for anti‐HEV IgG and IgM by an enzyme‐linked immunoassay. Following the detection of...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Non‐typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a significant source of foodborne illness worldwide, with disease symptoms most often presenting as self‐limiting gastroenteritis; however, occasionally the infection spreads and becomes invasive, frequently requiring anti‐microbial treatment. The cattle‐adapted Dublin serovar of NTS has commonly been associated with invasive illness and anti‐microbial...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause diarrhoea and severe diseases in humans, such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome. STEC virulence is considered to correlate with the amount of Shiga toxins (Stx) produced, especially Stx2, whose subtype Stx2a is most frequently associated with high virulence. Stx are encoded in prophages, which play an important role in STEC pathogenesis. The...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Background In animal agriculture, antimicrobials (AM) are used to control infectious diseases whose incidence and severity vary across production systems, but may contribute to select AM resistant bacteria, potentially disseminating in humans. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a public threat, leading policymakers to implement measures to reduce antimicrobial use (AMU). Investigating AMU...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:30
From May 2013 to April 2014, 15 swine family‐run farms (17 pig litters) in two districts in Hung Yen province, near Hanoi, were virologically and epizootiologically monitored for swine influenza viruses (SIV) monthly. No SIV was isolated from nasal swabs. Maternal antibodies were detected in 10 litters, and seroconversion against SIV was detected in six litters. There was a marked difference in...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:20
Captive and free‐ranging wild bears can carry and transmit several zoonotic pathogens. A review of nearly 90 years of scientific publications concerning confirmed and potential zoonotic diseases that can be present in any of the eight species of bears in the world was conducted. The findings were organized amongst the following disease sections: bacterial, viral, protozoal, mycotic, helminth and...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:34
Background Human leptospirosis mainly affects people in close occupational contact with domestic livestock and their products in New Zealand. The disease has an unquantified impact on both human health and animal production in the country. This study aimed to estimate the burden of leptospirosis in terms of disability‐adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost associated with loss due to absence from...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:18
Background Q fever is a febrile illness caused by infection with the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is most often transmitted by inhalation of the bacteria after it is shed by infected livestock. Recent studies have found very high C. burnetii infection rates among marine mammals, but it is not known if shedding by marine mammals creates a risk of Q fever among humans. To better understand...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:20
Background The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis occurring in the municipality of Montes Claros de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil, from December 2015 to August 2016. Seven acute cases in June 2016 triggered the subsequent search. Methods A total of 251 individuals were selected through an active search, of which 114 (45.4%) agreed to participate in the research and...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:20
Q fever (caused by Coxiella burnetii) is a serious zoonotic disease that occurs almost worldwide. Occupational contact with animals increases the risk of exposure, and Q fever vaccination is recommended for veterinary workers in Australia. This study aimed to investigate C. burnetii seroprevalence among unvaccinated veterinary workers in Australia and determine factors associated with a positive...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:19
Background Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite that can have severe implications for human health. Acutely infected cats shed environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts in their faeces that contaminate soil, and soil can serve as a reservoir of infection for humans. Free‐roaming domestic cats are thought to play an important role in environmental contamination with T. gondii, but few...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:22
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains belonging to the Orthohepevirus genus are divided into four species (A–D). HEV strains included in the Orthohepevirus A species infect humans and several other mammals. Among them, the HEV‐3 and HEV‐4 genotypes are zoonotic and infect both humans and animals, of which, pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. Viruses belonging to the Orthohepevirus C species (...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:17
Towards the continuous improvement of its inspection system, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment‐based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources based on the food safety risk associated with the Canadian hatcheries falling under its jurisdiction. The objectives of the current study were to identify and select critical food safety‐...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
The occurrence of multidrug‐resistant zoonotic bacteria in animals has been increasing worldwide. Working in close contact with livestock increases the risk of carriage of these bacteria. We investigated the occurrence of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta‐lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/pAmpC‐PE) and livestock‐associated methicillin‐resistant...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 13:33
Abstract Reptile contact can result in zoonotic non‐typhoidal salmonellosis. In April 2018, Oregon Public Health Division contacted CDC about a cluster of four Salmonella serovar Fluntern (SF) illnesses in four states (OR, CA, IA, NY); patients reported contact with geckos, a popular reptile pet. PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network of food‐borne disease surveillance, subsequently...
Fri, 09/06/2019 - 11:57
Abstract We estimated that more than 11,000 people were exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in EU/EEA countries over the outbreak period October 2016–September 2018 by cross‐linking data submitted by Member States to European Food Safety Authority and EMPRES‐i. A stronger framework for collecting human exposure data is required.
Fri, 08/16/2019 - 08:32
Abstract We investigated the prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), Leptospira and Ascaris suum (A. suum) seropositivity, and of nasal methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Austrian practising veterinarians, and assessed the association with occupational swine livestock exposure. The 261 participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, intensity of...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 13:59
Abstract Wild animals are involved in zoonotic disease transmission cycles. These are generally complex and poorly understood, especially among animals adapted to life in human ecosystems. Raccoons are reservoirs and effective carriers for infectious agents such as Salmonella throughout different environments and contribute to the transference of resistance genes. This study examined the presence...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 13:13
Abstract To enhance efforts related to controlling foodborne pathogens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), information on epidemiology of non‐typhoidal Salmonella enterica (hereafter termed “Salmonella”) is limited. We quantified the overall regional and country‐specific Salmonella prevalence in different human populations and identified the most common serotypes. Published literature of...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:58
Abstract Salmonella enterica is a common food‐borne pathogen with occasional multidrug resistance (MDR). Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) is a horizontally transmissible genomic island, containing an MDR gene cluster. All Salmonella serotypes are public health concern, although there is an additional concern associated with those that harbour SGI1. In Iran, there are no data on the presence of...
Thu, 07/11/2019 - 15:23
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes 20 million infections worldwide yearly, of which only about 3.3 million are symptomatic. In developed Asian countries, HEV strains detected in human sera and in food sources were genetically similar, suggesting that indigenous HEV infections may be largely food‐borne. To assess the burden of hepatitis E in Singapore, we performed a seroepidemiologic study...
Sat, 07/06/2019 - 07:47
Abstract The issue of whether market fish can be involved in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in the marine environment is highly debated since toxoplasmosis has been diagnosed frequently in cetaceans stranded along the Mediterranean coastlines in recent times. To support the hypothesis that fishes can harbour and effectively transmit the parasite to top‐of‐the‐food‐chain marine organisms...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 05:54
Abstract Objectives This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of carbapenemase‐producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPE/K) and extended‐spectrum cephalosporinase‐producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae (ESCE/K) in healthy humans and livestock in rural Cambodia. Additionally, household practices as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K are identified. Methods Faecal...
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is currently considered as a global health concern due to the recognition of its zoonotic transmission to humans, mainly from swine, and its association with the development of severe cases of hepatitis in human risk populations. The lack of updated data on HEV state of infection in swineherds of Argentina, and the necessity of robust technologies for its...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 13:08
Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease reported worldwide. In Uganda, seropositivity has been reported in both humans and domesticated animals, including cattle. However, it remains unknown whether cattle are shedding leptospires and thus acting as potential source for human leptospirosis. We conducted this cross‐sectional study in two cattle abattoirs in Kampala, Uganda between...
Tue, 06/18/2019 - 13:03
Abstract Poultry farmers faced dual risk when mutant avian influenza (AI) virus showed the zoonotic characteristics. A/H5N1 and A/H7N9 were two dominant AI virus strains that have captured the attention of the public over the years for they have been reported to bring about greater loss to poultry and human, respectively. Previous studies mainly used quantitative methods investigating either the...
Sun, 06/09/2019 - 14:39
Abstract Livestock meat and offal contribute significantly to human nutrition as sources of high‐quality protein and micronutrients. Livestock products are increasingly in demand, particularly in low‐ and middle‐income settings where economies are growing and meat is increasingly seen as an affordable and desirable food item. Demand is also driving intensification of livestock keeping and...
Fri, 06/07/2019 - 05:58
Abstract Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution that is responsible for Q fever in humans. It is a highly infectious bacterium that can be transmitted from cattle to humans through the consumption of unpasteurized milk. We report the molecular identification of C. burnetii in raw cow's milk being sold directly for human consumption in Brazil without official...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 15:42
Abstract Food animals are considered reservoirs of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and are implicated in their zoonotic transmission in the farm‐to‐plate continuum. LA‐MRSA has been reported as a zoonotic agent that has the potential to spread to humans and may cause infections in at‐risk groups. In this study, whole genome sequencing was used to describe the genetic...
Mon, 04/29/2019 - 06:24
Abstract In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in the number of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in people annually since 2010. Most of these are thought to be indigenously acquired Orthohepevirus A genotype 3 (HEV G3), which has been linked to pork production and consumption. However, the dominant subgroup circulating in British pigs differs from that which is found in people;...
Mon, 04/15/2019 - 15:00
Abstract The role of free‐ranging wildlife in the epidemiology of enteropathogens causing clinical illness in humans and domestic animals is unclear. Salmonella enterica and anti‐microbial resistant bacteria have been detected in the faeces of raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the carriage of these bacteria in other sympatric meso‐mammals. Our objectives were to: (a) report the...
Wed, 04/03/2019 - 06:50
Abstract An epidemiological investigation was conducted in an unvaccinated dairy farming enterprise in which three workers on one of the milking herds (Herd 1) were diagnosed with leptospirosis due to serovars Hardjo (H) (n = 2) and Pomona (P) (n = 1) between January and March 2015. Blood and urine samples were collected from milking cows in Herd 1 (N = 230) and Herd 2 (N = 400), rising one‐ (R1...
Tue, 03/19/2019 - 15:00
Abstract Salmonella Kentucky is among the most frequently isolated S. enterica serovars from food animals in the United States. Recent research on isolates recovered from these animals suggests there may be geographic and host specificity signatures associated with S. Kentucky strains. However, the sources and genomic features of human clinical S. Kentucky isolated in the United States remain...
Mon, 03/18/2019 - 15:54
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains an important public health problem, and it is endemic primarily in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HEV among the general population, occupational population and swine in mainland China and its risk factors based on a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Systematic search from EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science...
Mon, 03/11/2019 - 12:10
Abstract Endemic zoonoses, such as Q fever and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis, are prevalent in South Africa, yet often undiagnosed. In this study, we reviewed the demographics and animal exposure history of patients presenting with acute febrile illness to community health clinics in Mpumalanga Province to identify trends and risk factors associated with exposure to Coxiella burnetii,...
Wed, 03/06/2019 - 08:39
Abstract CTX‐M‐type extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBL)‐producing Enterobacteriaceae have become identified in marine ecosystem constituting a serious ecological issue. In this respect, although contamination of coastal waters and seafood, and even colonization of seabirds and fishes have been increasingly reported, molecular data are lacking to elucidate the clinical impact of ESBL producers in...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 08:30
Abstract In the United States, multistate Salmonella outbreaks are most commonly linked to a food source; however, contact with live animals can also result in outbreaks of human illness. To characterize Salmonella outbreaks linked to animal contact and examine differences compared to foodborne outbreaks, we analysed data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 08:49
Abstract Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Query fever (Q fever), is among the most highly infectious zoonotic pathogens transmitted among livestock, with chronic effects challenging to veterinary and medical detection and care systems. Transmission among domestic livestock species can vary regionally due to herd management practices that determine which livestock species are raised,...
Sun, 02/10/2019 - 13:35
Abstract Influenza viruses are frequently transmitted between pigs and their handlers, and among pig handlers. However, reports on socio‐environmental variables as potential risk factors associated with transmission of influenza in West African swine production facilities are very scarce. Syndromic survey for influenza was therefore conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, in order to...
Sun, 02/10/2019 - 13:35
Abstract Practising veterinary medicine has an inherent risk of exposure to zoonotic agents, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We screened sera of veterinarians authorized to work in Finland for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with an enzyme‐linked fluorescent assay, and evaluated potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity from...
Tue, 02/05/2019 - 08:49
Abstract Human salmonellosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Infections can pass to humans by contact with contaminated substances in the food chain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella isolated from pork, chicken and beef sold in different types of retail stores in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces and to investigate the genetic...

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