Zoonoses and Public Health

Mon, 11/23/2020 - 22:10
Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Sources of infection are often difficult to identify, and are, generally, poorly understood. Recent work suggests that wildlife may represent a source of Campylobacter for human infections. Using a repeated cross‐sectional study design, raccoons were trapped on five swine farms and five conservation areas in southern...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 22:10
The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is unclear. Raccoons in North America can carry a variety of enteric bacteria, with associated antimicrobial resistance, that could infect humans and livestock. The potential for raccoons to carry these bacteria in Europe, where they are an invasive species, has not been explored. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:10
With increasing concern about the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, there is an increasing motivation to optimize antimicrobial use administrations in animal agriculture. A key component of antimicrobial stewardship is the ability to collect antimicrobial use data and ultimately use this information to assess that administrations are necessary and effective. The objective of this study...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:10
Antimicrobial use is a key selective force behind the emergence of resistant bacteria. Therefore, optimizing strategies for more efficacious and targeted antimicrobial use is an essential component of efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance. To bolster stewardship programmes in animal agriculture, processes are needed for the systematic collection of on‐farm antimicrobial use data. The...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:10
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of an acute and in most cases self‐limiting hepatitis. Of the four major HEV genotypes that infect humans, genotype 3 and 4 are zoonotic and have been identified in humans but predominantly in pigs and wild boar, which are considered the main reservoirs. However, the known host range of zoonotic HEV may be increasing to comprise additional species,...
Mon, 11/09/2020 - 22:14
The objective of this systematic review and meta‐analysis was to summarize the available knowledge on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe. A computerized literature search of electronic databases (PubMed and CAB abstracts) was performed along with hand searches of library resources for relevant papers, books, abstracts and...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:14
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite (phylum Apicomplexa), which causes a zoonotic parasitic disease, known as toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and genotypes of T. gondii in wild boars of southern Italy and thus to assess the risk of infection for consumers. The boars were inspected during the hunting season within the regional project ‘Wild Boar...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 21:29
Wet markets are a critical part of South‐East Asian culture and economy. However, their role in circulation and transmission of both endemic and emerging disease is a source of concern in a region considered a hotspot of disease emergence. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), live and dead wild animals are frequently found in wet markets, despite legislation against the...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 22:10
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have both zoonotic and anthroponotic potential and are of public and veterinary importance. Swine are intermediate hosts and ‘mixing vessels’ for generating reassortants, progenies of which may harbour pandemic propensity. Swine handlers are at the highest risk of becoming infected with IAVs from swine but there is little information on the ecology of IAVs at the human–...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 22:10
Increase in the number of small‐scale backyard poultry flocks in the USA has substantially increased human‐to‐live poultry contact, leading to increased public health risks of the transmission of multi‐drug resistant (MDR) zoonotic and food‐borne bacteria. The objective of this study was to detect the occurrence of Salmonella and MDR Gram‐negative bacteria (GNB) in the backyard poultry flock...
Sat, 07/11/2020 - 22:11
Arthropod‐borne diseases are widespread worldwide and are a complex interaction between animals, humans and ectoparasites. The understanding of the diversity and epidemiology of organisms transmitted by arthropod vectors, and the role of hosts and vectors in transmission of infections remain limited in Lao PDR. What knowledge does exist is primarily focused on more rural regions of the country....
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 22:10
Rat‐associated zoonoses transmitted through faeces or urine are of particular concern for public health because environmental exposure in homes and businesses may be frequent and undetected. To identify times and locations with greater public health risks from rats, we investigated whether rat characteristics, environmental features, socioeconomic factors, or season could predict rat infection...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 22:12
In August 2018, Public Health England (PHE) was made aware of five probable cases of Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 among individuals reporting participation in a mud‐based obstacle race. An additional four cases, identified via routine whole‐genome sequencing, were subsequently linked to the same event. Two of the nine cases were due to secondary household transmission....
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 22:10
Analysis of environmental samples obtained from the Live Poultry Markets (LPMs) of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, has revealed that the highest degree of prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI, H5N1), besides other subtypes of the LPAI virus, poses the plausible risk of transmission of these viruses between human and poultry species. The present study was conducted using the OIE risk...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 22:10
Purpose Salmonellosis is one of several reportable diseases in Ontario (ON). Two or more cases of the same serotype that are linked to a common exposure or related to one another in time and/or space are considered a potential outbreak. While laboratory data can help to determine the molecular relatedness of cases, results may take up to several weeks. This study aimed to assess the utility of...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 22:11
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the aquatic environment represents an important means of introduction and dissemination of resistance genes, and presence of resistant pathogens in surface waters may pose a public health concern to recreational and drinking water users. The purpose of this study was to explore antimicrobial resistance patterns in water samples collected from the Grand River...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:28
This observational study aimed to determine MRSA prevalence using strain‐specific real‐time PCR at the pig level, stratified by age groupings, within a pig enterprise. A total of 658 samples were collected from individual pigs (n = 618) and the piggery environment (n = 40), distributed amongst five different pig age groups. Presumptive MRSA isolates were confirmed by the presence of mecA, and...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:27
Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most common serotypes responsible for human salmonellosis in Ontario. Introduction of the Ontario Investigation Tools (OIT) in 2014 allowed for standardized case investigation and reporting. This study compared the risk factors and symptomatology for sporadic S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium cases reported in Ontario in 2015,...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:27
Background Campylobacter bacteria infect both humans and animals. Sources of human exposure include contaminated food and water, contact with animals and/or their faeces, and contact with infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to: (a) identify environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in humans in four regions of Ontario, and (b) identify pooled...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:28
The discovery of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in cattery‐confined breeding cats indicating prior or current exposure (Shapiro et al., 2015) prompted an investigation into possible sources of infection. One hypothesis was that raw meat diets containing reservoir species may provide a source of C. burnetii transmission. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether C. burnetii DNA...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:18
The reported incidence of clinical hepatitis E cases is rising in some non‐endemic countries, with concurrent concerns regarding potential hepatitis E virus (HEV) contamination of the blood supply. Therefore, the characterization of major potential sources of human HEV exposure is important to inform risk assessment and public health policy. A systematic review was conducted, including a...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:18
High prevalences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were recently found in enteric illness patients in the Qikiqtaaluk region of Nunavut, Canada, with a foodborne, waterborne or animal source of parasites suspected. Clams (Mya truncata) are a commonly consumed, culturally important and nutritious country food in Iqaluit; however, shellfish may concentrate protozoan pathogens from contaminated waters...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:18
Norovirus constitutes the most frequently identified infectious cause of disease outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water. When investigating outbreaks related to surface water, a One Health approach is insightful. Historically, there has been a focus on potential contamination of recreational water by bird droppings and a recent publication demonstrating human noroviruses in bird...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:18
We report a Brucella outbreak with seven cases in the Northern Region of Portugal in 2018–2019, associated with the consumption of fresh cheese. This outbreak has implications for risk assessment in Portuguese migrants related to this area, and it is an example of cooperation between public institutions, in a One Health based approach.
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:17
Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi‐aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:17
Malaysia is a non‐endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, seroprevalence as high as 50% among samples of aboriginal people were reported over two decades ago. A total of 207 samples collected from seven aboriginal villages in rural settlements across two states in Malaysia were analysed for anti‐HEV IgG and IgM by an enzyme‐linked immunoassay. Following the detection of...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Non‐typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a significant source of foodborne illness worldwide, with disease symptoms most often presenting as self‐limiting gastroenteritis; however, occasionally the infection spreads and becomes invasive, frequently requiring anti‐microbial treatment. The cattle‐adapted Dublin serovar of NTS has commonly been associated with invasive illness and anti‐microbial...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause diarrhoea and severe diseases in humans, such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome. STEC virulence is considered to correlate with the amount of Shiga toxins (Stx) produced, especially Stx2, whose subtype Stx2a is most frequently associated with high virulence. Stx are encoded in prophages, which play an important role in STEC pathogenesis. The...
Tue, 12/24/2019 - 03:18
Background In animal agriculture, antimicrobials (AM) are used to control infectious diseases whose incidence and severity vary across production systems, but may contribute to select AM resistant bacteria, potentially disseminating in humans. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a public threat, leading policymakers to implement measures to reduce antimicrobial use (AMU). Investigating AMU...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:30
From May 2013 to April 2014, 15 swine family‐run farms (17 pig litters) in two districts in Hung Yen province, near Hanoi, were virologically and epizootiologically monitored for swine influenza viruses (SIV) monthly. No SIV was isolated from nasal swabs. Maternal antibodies were detected in 10 litters, and seroconversion against SIV was detected in six litters. There was a marked difference in...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:20
Captive and free‐ranging wild bears can carry and transmit several zoonotic pathogens. A review of nearly 90 years of scientific publications concerning confirmed and potential zoonotic diseases that can be present in any of the eight species of bears in the world was conducted. The findings were organized amongst the following disease sections: bacterial, viral, protozoal, mycotic, helminth and...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 03:34
Background Human leptospirosis mainly affects people in close occupational contact with domestic livestock and their products in New Zealand. The disease has an unquantified impact on both human health and animal production in the country. This study aimed to estimate the burden of leptospirosis in terms of disability‐adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost associated with loss due to absence from...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:18
Background Q fever is a febrile illness caused by infection with the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is most often transmitted by inhalation of the bacteria after it is shed by infected livestock. Recent studies have found very high C. burnetii infection rates among marine mammals, but it is not known if shedding by marine mammals creates a risk of Q fever among humans. To better understand...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:20
Background The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis occurring in the municipality of Montes Claros de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil, from December 2015 to August 2016. Seven acute cases in June 2016 triggered the subsequent search. Methods A total of 251 individuals were selected through an active search, of which 114 (45.4%) agreed to participate in the research and...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:20
Q fever (caused by Coxiella burnetii) is a serious zoonotic disease that occurs almost worldwide. Occupational contact with animals increases the risk of exposure, and Q fever vaccination is recommended for veterinary workers in Australia. This study aimed to investigate C. burnetii seroprevalence among unvaccinated veterinary workers in Australia and determine factors associated with a positive...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:19
Background Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite that can have severe implications for human health. Acutely infected cats shed environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts in their faeces that contaminate soil, and soil can serve as a reservoir of infection for humans. Free‐roaming domestic cats are thought to play an important role in environmental contamination with T. gondii, but few...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:22
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains belonging to the Orthohepevirus genus are divided into four species (A–D). HEV strains included in the Orthohepevirus A species infect humans and several other mammals. Among them, the HEV‐3 and HEV‐4 genotypes are zoonotic and infect both humans and animals, of which, pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. Viruses belonging to the Orthohepevirus C species (...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:17
Towards the continuous improvement of its inspection system, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment‐based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources based on the food safety risk associated with the Canadian hatcheries falling under its jurisdiction. The objectives of the current study were to identify and select critical food safety‐...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:17
The occurrence of multidrug‐resistant zoonotic bacteria in animals has been increasing worldwide. Working in close contact with livestock increases the risk of carriage of these bacteria. We investigated the occurrence of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta‐lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/pAmpC‐PE) and livestock‐associated methicillin‐resistant...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 13:33
Abstract Reptile contact can result in zoonotic non‐typhoidal salmonellosis. In April 2018, Oregon Public Health Division contacted CDC about a cluster of four Salmonella serovar Fluntern (SF) illnesses in four states (OR, CA, IA, NY); patients reported contact with geckos, a popular reptile pet. PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network of food‐borne disease surveillance, subsequently...
Fri, 09/06/2019 - 11:57
Abstract We estimated that more than 11,000 people were exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in EU/EEA countries over the outbreak period October 2016–September 2018 by cross‐linking data submitted by Member States to European Food Safety Authority and EMPRES‐i. A stronger framework for collecting human exposure data is required.
Fri, 08/16/2019 - 08:32
Abstract We investigated the prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), Leptospira and Ascaris suum (A. suum) seropositivity, and of nasal methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Austrian practising veterinarians, and assessed the association with occupational swine livestock exposure. The 261 participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, intensity of...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 13:59
Abstract Wild animals are involved in zoonotic disease transmission cycles. These are generally complex and poorly understood, especially among animals adapted to life in human ecosystems. Raccoons are reservoirs and effective carriers for infectious agents such as Salmonella throughout different environments and contribute to the transference of resistance genes. This study examined the presence...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 13:13
Abstract To enhance efforts related to controlling foodborne pathogens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), information on epidemiology of non‐typhoidal Salmonella enterica (hereafter termed “Salmonella”) is limited. We quantified the overall regional and country‐specific Salmonella prevalence in different human populations and identified the most common serotypes. Published literature of...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:58
Abstract Salmonella enterica is a common food‐borne pathogen with occasional multidrug resistance (MDR). Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) is a horizontally transmissible genomic island, containing an MDR gene cluster. All Salmonella serotypes are public health concern, although there is an additional concern associated with those that harbour SGI1. In Iran, there are no data on the presence of...
Thu, 07/11/2019 - 15:23
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes 20 million infections worldwide yearly, of which only about 3.3 million are symptomatic. In developed Asian countries, HEV strains detected in human sera and in food sources were genetically similar, suggesting that indigenous HEV infections may be largely food‐borne. To assess the burden of hepatitis E in Singapore, we performed a seroepidemiologic study...
Sat, 07/06/2019 - 07:47
Abstract The issue of whether market fish can be involved in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in the marine environment is highly debated since toxoplasmosis has been diagnosed frequently in cetaceans stranded along the Mediterranean coastlines in recent times. To support the hypothesis that fishes can harbour and effectively transmit the parasite to top‐of‐the‐food‐chain marine organisms...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 05:54
Abstract Objectives This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of carbapenemase‐producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPE/K) and extended‐spectrum cephalosporinase‐producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae (ESCE/K) in healthy humans and livestock in rural Cambodia. Additionally, household practices as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K are identified. Methods Faecal...
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is currently considered as a global health concern due to the recognition of its zoonotic transmission to humans, mainly from swine, and its association with the development of severe cases of hepatitis in human risk populations. The lack of updated data on HEV state of infection in swineherds of Argentina, and the necessity of robust technologies for its...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 13:08
Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease reported worldwide. In Uganda, seropositivity has been reported in both humans and domesticated animals, including cattle. However, it remains unknown whether cattle are shedding leptospires and thus acting as potential source for human leptospirosis. We conducted this cross‐sectional study in two cattle abattoirs in Kampala, Uganda between...

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