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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
Chromate is one of the major anthropogenic contaminants on Earth. Leucobacter chromiiresistens is a highly chromate-resistant strain, tolerating chromate concentrations in LB medium of up to 400 mM. In response to chromate stress, L. chromiiresistens forms biofilms, which are held together via extracellular DNA. Inhibition of biofilm formation leads to drastically decreased chromate tolerance....
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a strategy for respiration in which electrons generated from metabolism are moved outside the cell to a terminal electron acceptor, such as iron or manganese oxide. EET has primarily been studied in two model systems, Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens. Metal reduction has also been reported in numerous microorganisms, including Aeromonas...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
Conjugation is an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. However, to date, the factors that significantly influence conjugation efficiency in Campylobacter spp. are still largely unknown. Given that multiple recombinant loci could independently occur within one recipient cell during...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
Commercial probiotic bacteria must be tested for acquired antibiotic resistance elements to avoid potential transfer to pathogens. The European Food Safety Authority recommends testing resistance using microdilution culture techniques previously used to establish inhibitory thresholds for the Bifidobacterium genus. Many Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains exhibit increased resistance...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a promising industrial microorganism as well as a major human pathogen. The recent emergence of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae has posed a serious threat to public health worldwide, emphasizing a dire need for novel therapeutic means against drug-resistant K. pneumoniae. Despite the critical importance of genetics in bioengineering, physiology studies, and therapeutic...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
The genome of Azospirillum brasilense encodes five RpoH sigma factors: two OxyR transcription regulators and three catalases. The aim of this study was to understand the role they play during oxidative stress and their regulatory interconnection. Out of the 5 paralogs of RpoH present in A. brasilense, inactivation of only rpoH1 renders A. brasilense heat sensitive. While transcript levels of...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 11:00
Methylmercury is a potent human neurotoxin which biomagnifies in aquatic food webs. Although anaerobic microorganisms containing the hgcA gene potentially mediate the formation of methylmercury in natural environments, the diversity of these mercury-methylating microbial communities remains largely unexplored. Previous studies have implicated sulfate-reducing bacteria as the main mercury...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 11:00
Fermented vegetables are highly popular internationally in part due to their enhanced nutritional properties, cultural history, and desirable sensorial properties. In some instances, fermented foods provide a rich source of the beneficial microbial communities that could promote gastrointestinal health. The indigenous microbiota that colonize fermentation facilities may impact food quality, food...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 11:00
Thymol, carvacrol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde are essential oil (EO) compounds with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, little is known regarding direct resistance and cross-resistance development in E. coli O157:H7 after adaptation to sublethal levels of these compounds, and information is scarce on microbial adaptive...
Wed, 10/17/2018 - 11:00
Salmonella enterica is represented by >2,600 serovars that can differ in routes of transmission, host colonization, and in resistance to antimicrobials. S. enterica is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with well-established detection methodology. Current surveillance protocols rely on the characterization of a few colonies to represent an entire sample;...
Wed, 10/17/2018 - 11:00
Daqu is a spontaneous solid-state cereal fermentation used as saccharification and starter culture in Chinese vinegar and liquor production. The evolution of microbiota in this spontaneous fermentation is controlled by the temperature profile, which reaches temperatures from 50 to 65°C for several days. Despite these high temperatures, mesophilic Enterobacteriaceae (including Cronobacter) and...
Wed, 10/17/2018 - 11:00
In the present study, we investigated whether reducing the particle size of wheat bran affects the colonizing microbial community using batch fermentations with cecal inocula from seven different chickens. We also investigated the effect of in-feed administration of regular wheat bran (WB; 1,690 μm) and wheat bran with reduced particle size (WB280; 280 μm) on the cecal microbial community...
Wed, 10/17/2018 - 11:00
Reductive dehalogenation mediated by organohalide-respiring bacteria plays a critical role in the global cycling of organohalides. Nonetheless, information on the dehalogenation enantioselectivity of organohalide-respiring bacteria remains limited. In this study, we report the enantioselective dechlorination of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Dehalococcoides mccartyi CG1. CG1...
Wed, 10/17/2018 - 11:00
Bacteria play an important role in the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments. In marine environments, Cycloclasticus is one of the most prevalent PAH-degrading bacterial genera. However, little is known regarding the degradation mechanisms for multiple PAHs by Cycloclasticus. Cycloclasticus sp. strain P1 was isolated from deep-sea sediments and is known to...
Wed, 10/17/2018 - 11:00
Acetylation is a broadly conserved mechanism of covalently modifying the proteome to precisely control protein activity. In bacteria, central metabolic enzymes and regulatory proteins, including those involved in virulence, can be targeted for acetylation. In this study, we directly link a putative acetylation system to metabolite-dependent virulence in the pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We...
Mon, 10/01/2018 - 11:00
The exosporium of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores is morphologically distinct from exosporia observed for the spores of many other species. Previous work has demonstrated that unidentified genes carried on one of the large indigenous plasmids are required for the assembly of the Bacillus megaterium exosporium. Here, we provide evidence that pBM600-encoded orthologues of the Bacillus subtilis...
Mon, 10/01/2018 - 11:00
This study describes a Q fever outbreak in a herd of 77 Alpine goats which suffered a high rate of abortions (81% [58/72]) in January 2017 and presents the results of monitoring the contamination and viability of Coxiella burnetii in the farm environment several months after the outbreak. Over the course of 7 months, we studied bacterial shedding by 35 dams with abortions to monitor C. burnetii...
Mon, 10/01/2018 - 11:00
UVC light, a strong surface disinfection technology, is used worldwide to ensure not only environmental safety but also food safety. Several drawbacks associated with the use of mercury-containing UV lamps, especially human and environmental health risks, led to the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which prohibits the manufacture and import/export of products containing mercury. Therefore, light-...
Mon, 10/01/2018 - 11:00
Spoilage and pathogenic spore-forming bacteria are a major cause of concern for producers of dairy products. Traditional agar-based detection methods employed by the dairy industry have limitations with respect to their sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to identify low-abundance sporeformers in samples of a powdered dairy product, whey powder, produced monthly over 1 year,...
Mon, 09/17/2018 - 11:00
The human gut microbiota contains a broad variety of bacteria that possess functional genes, with resultant metabolites that affect human physiology and therefore health. Dietary gallates are phenolic components that are present in many foods and beverages and are regarded as having health-promoting attributes. However, the potential for metabolism of these phenolic compounds by the human...
Mon, 09/17/2018 - 11:00
Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are important human pathogens that are frequently transmitted via consumption of contaminated raw oysters. A small amount of d-tryptophan (d-Trp) inhibits some foodborne pathogenic bacteria in high-salt environments. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of d-Trp on V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in culture media,...
Mon, 09/17/2018 - 11:00
Microbial horizontal gene transfer is a continuous process that shapes bacterial genomic adaptation to the environment and the composition of concurrent microbial ecology. This includes the potential impact of synthetic antibiotic utilization in farm animal production on overall antibiotic resistance issues; however, the mechanisms behind the evolution of microbial communities are not fully...
Mon, 09/17/2018 - 11:00
Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms occur frequently in the Yangtze River estuary and the adjacent East China Sea. These blooms have damaged marine ecosystems and caused enormous economic losses over the past 2 decades. Thus, highly efficient, low-cost, ecofriendly approaches must be developed to control P. donghaiense blooms. In this study, a bacterial strain (strain Y42) was identified as...
Mon, 09/17/2018 - 11:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species that widely contaminates food and feed. We sequenced and assembled the complete ~37-Mb genome of Aspergillus ochraceus fc-1, a well-known producer of OTA. Key genes of the OTA biosynthetic pathway were identified by comparative genomic analyses with five other sequenced OTA-producing fungi: A....
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 11:00
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. Neosporosis caused by N. caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle and nervous-system dysfunction in dogs, and identification of the virulence factors of this parasite is important for the development of control measures. Here, we used a luciferase reporter assay to screen the dense granule...
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 11:00
Campylobacter is a leading foodborne pathogen, and poultry products are major vehicles for human disease. However, determinants impacting Campylobacter colonization in poultry remain poorly understood, especially with turkeys. Here, we used a paired-farm design to concurrently investigate Campylobacter colonization and strain types in two turkey breeds (Hybrid and Nicholas) at two farms in...
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 11:00
The introduction of "solids" (i.e., complementary foods) to the milk-only diet in early infancy affects the development of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine whether a "baby-led" approach to complementary feeding that encourages the early introduction of an adult-type diet results in alterations of the gut microbiota composition compared to traditional spoon-feeding. The...
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 11:00
In this study, we assessed the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in sheep from 10 provinces in China. Fecal samples from 1,035 sheep originating from 16 farms were collected, and 295 (28.5%) were found to be Cryptosporidium positive by nested PCR. Cryptosporidium was detected at all farms, with infection rates between 5.7% and 50.0%. Three Cryptosporidium species were...
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 11:00
In this study, the prevalence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northeast Germany was determined. For that purpose, the tonsils of 503 wild boars were sampled. The presence of Y. pseudotuberculosis was studied by diagnostic PCR. Positive samples were analyzed by cultural detection using a modified cold enrichment protocol. Ten Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates were obtained, which were...
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 11:00
In this study, the changes in the global proteome of Salmonella in response to desiccation and thermal treatment were investigated by using an iTRAQ multiplex technique. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain was dried, equilibrated at high (1.0) and low (0.11) water activity (aw), and thermally treated at 75°C. The proteomes were characterized after every treatment. The proteomes...
Fri, 08/17/2018 - 11:00
The impact of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing (NEO) water treatments on the formation of sublethally injured Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cells was evaluated. When pathogens were treated with 6% NEO water, approximately 38% of the treated Yersinia population and 25% of the treated Salmonella population became sublethally injured....
Fri, 08/17/2018 - 11:00
In this study, the possibility of inactivating viral, bacterial, and fungal aerosols in a chamber-type air disinfection system by using a UVC light-emitting-diode (LED) array was investigated and inactivation rate constants of each microorganism were calculated in fitting curves of surviving populations. UVC LED array treatment effectively inactivated viral infectivity, achieving 5-log reductions...
Fri, 08/17/2018 - 11:00
Fresh produce supply chains present variable and diverse conditions that are relevant to food quality and safety because they may favor microbial growth and survival following contamination. This study presents the development of a simulation and visualization framework to model microbial dynamics on fresh produce moving through postharvest supply chain processes. The postharvest supply chain...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as an important causative agent of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite the identification of several factors contributing to infection, characterization of the virulence strategies employed by C. jejuni remains a significant challenge. Bacterial autotransporter proteins are a major class of secretory proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, and...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Quantitative information regarding the presence of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens in poikilotherms is notably scarce. Therefore, this study was designed to allow a systematic comparison of the occurrence of these standard fecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) in the excreta of wild homeothermic (ruminants, boars, carnivores, and birds) and poikilothermic (...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a widespread bacterium in the marine environment and is responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. Foodborne infections are mainly associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked fish and shellfish. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genetic profiles of V. parahaemolyticus isolates from seafood...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Historically, piscine francisellosis in various warm-, temperate-, and cold-water fish hosts has been attributed to Francisella noatunensis. From 2015 to 2016, an undescribed Francisella sp. was recovered during mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) off the Pacific coast of Central America. Despite high mortality and emaciation, limited gross findings were observed...
Tue, 07/17/2018 - 11:05
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Holotoxin-structured GM1-binding LT is a strong immunogen and an effective adjuvant, and can serve a carrier or a platform for multivalent vaccine development. However, the significance of peptide domains or epitopes of LT...
Tue, 07/17/2018 - 11:05
Genomic islands (GIs) are a type of mobile genetic element (MGE) that are present in bacterial chromosomes. They consist of a cluster of genes that produce proteins that contribute to a variety of functions, including, but not limited to, the regulation of cell metabolism, antimicrobial resistance, pathogenicity, virulence, and resistance to heavy metals. The genes carried in MGEs can be used as...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 11:05
The germination of Bacillus spores is triggered by certain amino acids and sugar molecules which permeate the outermost layers of the spore to interact with receptor complexes that reside in the inner membrane. Previous studies have shown that mutations in the hexacistronic gerP locus reduce the rate of spore germination, with experimental evidence indicating that the defect stems from reduced...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 11:05
Lysostaphin (Lst) is a potent bacteriolytic enzyme that kills Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. With high activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms, Lst has the potential to be used in industrial products, such as commercial cleansers, for decontamination. However, Lst is inhibited in the presence of monoethanolamine (MEA), a chemical widely used...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 11:05
New Zealand has a relatively high incidence of human cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), with 8.9 STEC cases per 100,000 people reported in 2016. Previous research showed living near cattle and contact with cattle feces as significant risk factors for STEC infections in humans in New Zealand, but infection was not linked to food-associated factors. During the 2014 spring...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Few studies have been conducted on the susceptibility of bacteria to biocides. A total of 182 methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from healthy or diseased humans and animals in Germany were included in the present study. Sixty-three isolates of animal origin and 119 human isolates were tested for their MICs to eight biocides or heavy metals by the broth...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Treatment of food-producing animals with antimicrobial drugs (AMD) is controversial because of concerns regarding promotion of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To investigate this concern, resistance genes in metagenomic bovine fecal samples during a clinical trial were analyzed to assess the impacts of treatment on beef feedlot cattle resistomes. Four groups of cattle were exposed, using a 2-by-2...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5' end of the chromosomal gene prfC. Hence, the integrase gene...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Wheat flour has been associated with outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), but little is known on EHEC's survival during storage and thermal processing. The objective of this study was to determine long-term viability and thermal inactivation kinetics of EHEC serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O157. Wheat flour samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of a single...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Human noroviruses are excreted in feces from infected individuals and included in wastewater. It is critical to remove/inactivate them in wastewater treatment processes, particularly in the disinfection step, before release to aquatic environments. However, the high mutation rates of human noroviruses raise concerns about the emergence of strains that are less susceptible to disinfectants and can...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutrition. Interestingly, some glycosidases have also been found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo-α-sialidase genes—three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Rhizospheric bacteria play important roles in plant tolerance and activation of heavy metals. Understanding the bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators may contribute to the development of optimized phytoextraction for metal-polluted soils. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial communities of the cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum...

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