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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Fri, 08/17/2018 - 11:00
The impact of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing (NEO) water treatments on the formation of sublethally injured Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cells was evaluated. When pathogens were treated with 6% NEO water, approximately 38% of the treated Yersinia population and 25% of the treated Salmonella population became sublethally injured....
Fri, 08/17/2018 - 11:00
In this study, the possibility of inactivating viral, bacterial, and fungal aerosols in a chamber-type air disinfection system by using a UVC light-emitting-diode (LED) array was investigated and inactivation rate constants of each microorganism were calculated in fitting curves of surviving populations. UVC LED array treatment effectively inactivated viral infectivity, achieving 5-log reductions...
Fri, 08/17/2018 - 11:00
Fresh produce supply chains present variable and diverse conditions that are relevant to food quality and safety because they may favor microbial growth and survival following contamination. This study presents the development of a simulation and visualization framework to model microbial dynamics on fresh produce moving through postharvest supply chain processes. The postharvest supply chain...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as an important causative agent of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite the identification of several factors contributing to infection, characterization of the virulence strategies employed by C. jejuni remains a significant challenge. Bacterial autotransporter proteins are a major class of secretory proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, and...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Quantitative information regarding the presence of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens in poikilotherms is notably scarce. Therefore, this study was designed to allow a systematic comparison of the occurrence of these standard fecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) in the excreta of wild homeothermic (ruminants, boars, carnivores, and birds) and poikilothermic (...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a widespread bacterium in the marine environment and is responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. Foodborne infections are mainly associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked fish and shellfish. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genetic profiles of V. parahaemolyticus isolates from seafood...
Wed, 08/01/2018 - 11:00
Historically, piscine francisellosis in various warm-, temperate-, and cold-water fish hosts has been attributed to Francisella noatunensis. From 2015 to 2016, an undescribed Francisella sp. was recovered during mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) off the Pacific coast of Central America. Despite high mortality and emaciation, limited gross findings were observed...
Tue, 07/17/2018 - 11:05
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Holotoxin-structured GM1-binding LT is a strong immunogen and an effective adjuvant, and can serve a carrier or a platform for multivalent vaccine development. However, the significance of peptide domains or epitopes of LT...
Tue, 07/17/2018 - 11:05
Genomic islands (GIs) are a type of mobile genetic element (MGE) that are present in bacterial chromosomes. They consist of a cluster of genes that produce proteins that contribute to a variety of functions, including, but not limited to, the regulation of cell metabolism, antimicrobial resistance, pathogenicity, virulence, and resistance to heavy metals. The genes carried in MGEs can be used as...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 11:05
The germination of Bacillus spores is triggered by certain amino acids and sugar molecules which permeate the outermost layers of the spore to interact with receptor complexes that reside in the inner membrane. Previous studies have shown that mutations in the hexacistronic gerP locus reduce the rate of spore germination, with experimental evidence indicating that the defect stems from reduced...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 11:05
Lysostaphin (Lst) is a potent bacteriolytic enzyme that kills Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. With high activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms, Lst has the potential to be used in industrial products, such as commercial cleansers, for decontamination. However, Lst is inhibited in the presence of monoethanolamine (MEA), a chemical widely used...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 11:05
New Zealand has a relatively high incidence of human cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), with 8.9 STEC cases per 100,000 people reported in 2016. Previous research showed living near cattle and contact with cattle feces as significant risk factors for STEC infections in humans in New Zealand, but infection was not linked to food-associated factors. During the 2014 spring...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Few studies have been conducted on the susceptibility of bacteria to biocides. A total of 182 methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from healthy or diseased humans and animals in Germany were included in the present study. Sixty-three isolates of animal origin and 119 human isolates were tested for their MICs to eight biocides or heavy metals by the broth...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Treatment of food-producing animals with antimicrobial drugs (AMD) is controversial because of concerns regarding promotion of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To investigate this concern, resistance genes in metagenomic bovine fecal samples during a clinical trial were analyzed to assess the impacts of treatment on beef feedlot cattle resistomes. Four groups of cattle were exposed, using a 2-by-2...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5' end of the chromosomal gene prfC. Hence, the integrase gene...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Wheat flour has been associated with outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), but little is known on EHEC's survival during storage and thermal processing. The objective of this study was to determine long-term viability and thermal inactivation kinetics of EHEC serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O157. Wheat flour samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of a single...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Human noroviruses are excreted in feces from infected individuals and included in wastewater. It is critical to remove/inactivate them in wastewater treatment processes, particularly in the disinfection step, before release to aquatic environments. However, the high mutation rates of human noroviruses raise concerns about the emergence of strains that are less susceptible to disinfectants and can...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 11:05
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutrition. Interestingly, some glycosidases have also been found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo-α-sialidase genes—three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Rhizospheric bacteria play important roles in plant tolerance and activation of heavy metals. Understanding the bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators may contribute to the development of optimized phytoextraction for metal-polluted soils. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial communities of the cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
The inclusion of high-quality hay (HQH), in place of concentrates, shifts dietary carbohydrate intake, and the extent to which these shifts effect epimural microbiota and epithelial gene expression of the rumen has not yet been evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 by 4 Latin square design with four dietary treatments containing HQH, with...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Lettuce has been implicated in human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. The virus is stable on the leaf surface for at least 2 weeks; however, the dynamics of virus internalization have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the internalization and distribution of HuNoV and two surrogate viruses, porcine sapovirus (SaV) and Tulane virus (TV), in lettuce and spinach. Viral...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Pathogenic soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) belonging to the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya cause diseases in potato and numerous other crops. Seed potatoes are the most important source of infection, but how pathogen-free tubers initially become infected remains an enigma. Since the 1920s, insects have been hypothesized to contribute to SRE transmission. To validate this hypothesis and to...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
In this study, the microbiota during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the edible tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, was investigated. To this end, we analyzed samples from the cricket feed, obtained before feeding as well as from the cages, and from the crickets during rearing, after harvest, and after processing into frozen, oven-dried, and smoked and oven-dried (smoked/...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Carpets and other soft surfaces have been associated with prolonged and reoccurring human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. Environmental hygiene programs are important to prevent and control HuNoV outbreaks. Despite our knowledge of HuNoV transmission via soft surfaces, no commercially available disinfectants have been evaluated on carpets. Our aim was to adapt a current standardized method for...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Spontaneous vegetable fermentations, with their rich flavors and postulated health benefits, are regaining popularity. However, their microbiology is still poorly understood, therefore raising concerns about food safety. In addition, such spontaneous fermentations form interesting cases of man-made microbial ecosystems. Here, samples from 38 carrot juice fermentations were collected through a...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 11:05
Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified antimicrobial compounds containing lanthionine and methyl-lanthionine residues. Nisin, one of the most extensively studied and used lantibiotics, has been shown to display very potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, and stable resistance is rarely observed. By binding to lipid II and forming pores in the membrane,...
Thu, 05/17/2018 - 11:05
Four isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays were developed for fast in-field identification of Bacillus anthracis. The RPA assays targeted three specific sequences (i.e., the BA_5345 chromosomal marker, the lethal factor lef [from pXO1], and the capsule-biosynthesis-related capA [from pXO2]) and a conserved sequence in the adenylate cyclase gene (adk) for the Bacillus cereus...
Thu, 05/17/2018 - 11:05
In recent years, global warming has led to a growing number of Vibrio cholerae infections in bathing water users in regions formerly unaffected by this pathogen. It is therefore of high importance to monitor V. cholerae in aquatic environments and to elucidate the main factors governing its prevalence and abundance. For this purpose, rapid and standardizable methods that can be performed by...
Tue, 05/01/2018 - 11:05
Cronobacter strains harboring the CRISPR-Cas system are important foodborne pathogens causing serious neonatal infections. However, the specific role of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial evolution remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we investigated the impact of the CRISPR-Cas system on Cronobacter evolution and obtained 137 new whole-genome Cronobacter sequences by next-generation...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 11:00
In recent years, plasma-activated solutions (PASs) have made good progress in the disinfection of medical devices, tooth whitening, and fruit preservation. In this study, we investigated the inactivation efficacy of Newcastle disease virus by PASs. Water, 0.9% NaCl, and 0.3% H2O2 were excited by plasma to obtain the corresponding solutions PAS(H2O), PAS(NaCl), and PAS(H2O2). The complete...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 11:00
Microgreens, like sprouts, are relatively fast-growing products and are generally consumed raw. Moreover, as observed for sprouts, microbial contamination from preharvest sources may also be present in the production of microgreens. In this study, two Salmonella enterica serovars (Hartford and Cubana), applied at multiple inoculation levels, were evaluated for survival and growth on alfalfa...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 11:00
The adjustment of metabolic patterns is fundamental to fungal biology and plays vital roles in adaptation to diverse ecological challenges. Nematode-trapping fungi can switch their lifestyle from saprophytic to pathogenic by developing specific trapping devices induced by nematodes to infect their prey as a response to nutrient depletion in nature. However, the chemical identity of the specific...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 11:00
To assess phenotypic bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in different strata (e.g., host populations, environmental areas, manure, or sewage effluents) for epidemiological purposes, isolates of target bacteria can be obtained from a stratum using various sample types. Also, different sample processing methods can be applied. The MIC of each target antimicrobial drug for each isolate is...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 11:00
Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei bacteria cause the majority of all shigellosis cases worldwide. However, their distributions differ, with S. sonnei predominating in middle- and high-income countries and S. flexneri predominating in low-income countries. One proposed explanation for the continued range expansion of S. sonnei is that it can survive in amoebae, which could provide a protective...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 11:00
Enhancements in swabbing technology to increase sample collection efficacy would benefit the food industry. Specifically, these enhancements would assist the food industry in implementing the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) requirements by improving environmental monitoring effectiveness. A sonicating swab device, an example of an enhanced swabbing technology, was demonstrated previously...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has emerged as a major cause of foodborne illness, representing a severe clinical and economic concern worldwide. The capacity of this pathogen to efficiently infect and survive inside the host depends on its ability to synchronize a complex network of virulence mechanisms. Therefore, the identification of new virulence...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
Fresh vegetables harbor diverse bacterial populations on their surfaces. However, information on this microbiota is limited to a few types of fresh vegetables, and little is known about how it varies with geography and host condition. Here, we analyzed bacterial communities on the floret surfaces of 66 field-grown broccoli collected from 22 farms in four farming regions of Jeju Island, South...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
Symbiotic microorganisms have been found in the hemolymph (blood) of many aquatic invertebrates, such as crabs, shrimp, and oysters. Hemolymph is a critical site in the host immune response. Currently, studies on hemolymph microorganisms are mostly performed with culture-dependent strategies using selective media (e.g., thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose [TCBS], 2216E, and LB) for enumerating...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
Salmonella spp. exhibit prolonged survivability and high tolerance to heat in low-moisture foods. The reported thermal resistance parameters of Salmonella spp. in low-moisture foods appear to be unpredictable due to various unknown factors. We report here that temperature-dependent water activity (aw, treatment temperature) plays an important role in the sharply increased thermal resistance of...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
Since the initial discovery of mcr-1 in an Escherichia coli isolate from China, the gene has also been detected in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica but is rarely reported in other Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report the isolation and identification of a Shigella flexneri strain harboring mcr-1 from stool samples in a pig farm in China from 2009. The MIC of colistin for the isolate is...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
The Escherichia coli virulence factor hemoglobin protease (Hbp) has been engineered into a surface display system that can be expressed to high density on live E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells or derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Multiple antigenic sequences can be genetically fused into the Hbp core structure for optimal exposure to the immune system. Although the...
Mon, 04/02/2018 - 11:00
Fusarium graminearum is a major plant pathogen that causes devastating diseases of cereals and produces type B trichothecene (TCTB) mycotoxins in infected grains. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of TCTB biosynthesis is required for improving strategies to control the TCTB contamination of crops and ensuring that these strategies...
Mon, 03/19/2018 - 11:00
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. Recently, HBoVs have been detected in sewage and river waters in Italy and worldwide. However, studies on their presence in other water environments and in bivalve mollusks are not yet available. In this study, 316 bivalve shellfish samples collected in three Italian regions over...
Mon, 03/19/2018 - 11:00
Campylobacter jejuni was longitudinally isolated from beef cattle housed in four confined feeding operations (CFOs) in Southern Alberta, Canada, over 18 months. All of the cattle were administered a variety of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) nontherapeutically and metaphylactically during their time in the CFOs. In total, 7,966 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from cattle. More animals were...
Mon, 03/19/2018 - 11:00
We have previously shown that the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis 174A, isolated from Citrus iyo fruit, produces a bacteriocin designated brevicin 174A, which is comprised of two antibacterial polypeptides (designated brevicins 174A-β and 174A-). We have also found a gene cluster, composed of eight open reading frames (ORFs), that contains genes for the biosynthesis of brevicin...
Mon, 03/19/2018 - 11:00
Food preservation by the use of essential oils (EOs) is being extensively studied because of the antimicrobial properties of their individual constituents (ICs). Three resistant mutants (termed CAR, CIT, and LIM) of Escherichia coli MG1655 were selected by subculturing with the ICs carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene oxide, respectively. These derivative strains showed increased MIC values of ICs...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 11:00
Secondary metabolites are an important source of pharmaceuticals and key modulators of microbe-microbe interactions. The bacterium Serratia marcescens is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of eubacteria and produces a number of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we screened for novel regulators of secondary metabolites synthesized by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 11:00
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are the basis for water quality regulations and are considered proxies for waterborne pathogens when conducting human health risk assessments. The direct detection of pathogens in water and simultaneous identification of the source of fecal contamination are possible with microarrays, circumventing the drawbacks to FIB approaches. A multigene target microarray was...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 11:00
While some species in the Bacillus cereus group are well-characterized human pathogens (e.g., B. anthracis and B. cereus sensu stricto), the pathogenicity of other species (e.g., B. pseudomycoides) either has not been characterized or is presently not well understood. To provide an updated characterization of the pathogenic potential of species in the B. cereus group, we classified a set of 52...

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