Clostridium botulinum

Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:27
The masseter is the most targeted muscle when treating hypertrophy to produce a smooth face shape. Compensatory hypertrophy is a well known clinical sequela that occurs in botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) treatments and is limited to the lower part of the masseter. Based on the masseteric hypertrophy procedure, which targets a confined area, we predicted the possibility of compensatory hypertrophy...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:26
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for overactive bladder (OAB). The pathophysiology of DM-associated OAB is multifactorial and time-dependent. Diabetic bladder dysfunction is highly associated with diabetic complications, mainly including diabetic neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic systemic inflammation and bladder urothelial inflammation may contribute to the onset of OAB...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Roberto Eleopra, Sara Rinaldo, Cesare Montecucco, Ornella Rossetto, Grazia Devigili The Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) comprises several serotypes with distinct properties, mechanisms of action, sensitivity and duration of effect in different species. The serotype A (BoNT/A) is the prevalent neurotoxin applied in human's disease. In this paper we present an overview of the current...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
Bladder oversensitivity arises from several different conditions involving the bladder, bladder outlet, systemic or central nervous system diseases. Increase of the bladder sensation results from activation of the sensory receptors in the urothelial cells or suburothelial tissues. Medical treatment targeting the overactive bladder (OAB) or interstitial cystitis (IC) might relieve oversensitive...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) for managing sleep bruxism (SB) in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty SB subjects were randomly assigned into two groups evenly. The placebo group received saline injections into each masseter muscle, and the treatment group received BoNT-A injections into each masseter muscle. Audio–...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:37
by Jaime Tejedor, Francisco J. Gutiérrez-Carmona Purpose To study the outcome of botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment (group 1) in partially accommodative esotropia with high accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, in comparison with bilateral medial rectus muscles recessions and posterior fixation (group 2). Methods In a retrospective comparative study, children aged 3–8 years old...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:27
The aim of this study was to determine if botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection into the medial hamstring can improve gait kinematics and muscle-tendon length in spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with a flexed knee gait (FKG). Twenty-nine children with spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System I–III) with FKG were recruited for this prospective study. BoNT-A was injected into...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Daniele Martinelli, Sebastiano Arceri, Livio Tronconi, Cristina TassorelliAbstractMigraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder accounted among the primary headaches. It is the expression of a complex, and not yet fully understood, pathophysiology involving the sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways. In this review we succinctly illustrate the molecular,...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:29
Clostridium botulinum is a gram positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Closing their genomes provides information about their neurotoxin cluster arrangement(s) and location (e.g. chromosome or plasmid) which cannot be assessed using draft genomes. Therefore, we tested the use of long-read sequencing (Nanopore sequencing) in combination with short-...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
Intravesical botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection is effective in reducing urgency and urinary incontinence. It temporarily inhibits the detrusor muscle contraction by blocking the release of acetylcholine (Ach) from the preganglionic and postganglionic nerves in the efferent nerves. BoNT-A also blocks ATP release from purinergic efferent nerves in the detrusor muscle. In afferent nerves, BoNT-A...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
In many countries, 400 units (U) is the maximum dose of onabotulinumtoxinA available to treat upper limb spasticity, but few studies have demonstrated the optimal use of this dose. In the double-blind phase of this randomized, controlled trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of 400 vs. 240 U onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity. Both groups received 240 U...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
The American Urological Association guidelines for the management of non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB) recommend the use of OnabotulinumtoxinA, sacral neuromodulation (SNM), and peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) as third line treatment options with no treatment hierarchy. The current study used network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of these three modalities for managing...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Zdravko LackovićAbstractIn 2010, Kissin concluded pessimistically that of the 59 new drugs introduced in the fifty-year period between 1960 and 2009 and still in use, only seven had new molecular targets. Of these, only one, sumatriptan, was effective enough to lead to the introduction of multiple drugs targeting the same target molecules (triptans) (Kissin, 2010). Morphine and...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Bernard POULAIN, Emmanuel LEMICHEZ, Michel R. POPOFFAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins responsible for a severe disease, called botulism, but are also efficient therapeutic tools with an increasing number of indications ranging from neuromuscular dysfunction to hypersecretion syndrome, pain release, depression as well as cosmetic application. BoNTs are known...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Sylvie Cornet, Cindy Périer, Mikhail KalinichevAbstractThe mouse digit abduction score (DAS) assay is commonly used to measure muscle flaccidity-inducing effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vivo. Adapting the assay to rats has been challenging, as injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) into the gastrocnemius muscle, as performed in mice, or into the tibialis anterior leads...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:24
Introduction: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent biological toxin and powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical orofacial applications. BoNT relaxes striated muscle by inhibiting acetylcholine’s release from presynaptic nerve terminals, blocking the neuromuscular junction. It also has an antinociceptive effect on sensory nerve endings, where BoNT and acetylcholine...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as chronic pain and inflammation in the pelvic organs for more than six months. There are wide ranges of clinical presentations, including pelvic pain, painful intercourse, irritable bowel syndrome, and pain during urinating. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a subdivision of CPP, and the pain syndrome may be focused within a single organ or more than one...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Anatol Kivi, Songjin Ri, Jörg WisselAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) is well established in clinical practice for more than 30 years. During this time the area of applications was broaden beyond the ophtalmologic and neurologic indications. Despite of decades of BoNT application with a huge increase of expertise and supporting methods for utilization as well, both patients and physicians...
Thu, 02/06/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Robert Webb, Patrick M. Wright, Jennifer L. Brown, Janet C. Skerry, Rebecca L. Guernieri, Theresa J. Smith, Christopher Stawicki, Leonard A. SmithAbstractBotulism is an acute neuroparalytic affliction of the motor and autonomic neurons caused by the toxins produced from Clostridium botulinum and related bacterial strains. The botulinum neurotoxins, or BoNTs, consist of a...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:42
Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is a powerful neurotoxin with long-lasting activity that blocks muscle contractions. In addition to effects on neuromuscular junctions, BTX-A also plays a role in sensory feedback loops, suggesting the potentiality for pain relief. Although the only approved indications for BTX-A in the bladder are neurogenic detrusor overactivity and refractory overactive bladder, BTX-A...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:29
Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum type A, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin, and Yersinia enterocolitica are 11 common foodborne pathogens. Traditional bacterial culture methods for detecting pathogens are time‐consuming and labor‐...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Chris Boulias, Farooq Ismail, Chetan P. PhadkeAbstractIntroductionIn patients taking warfarin, the level of anticoagulation status using the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is one consideration before botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections; however, there is wide diversity in physician approaches and preferences in using INR status and the INR cut-off values to determine...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Joseph K.C. TsuiAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) has become a therapeutic agent for a large variety of medical conditions. It is a symptomatic treatment and in most cases requires repeat injections at regular intervals. The first session is crucial in establishing rapport between the physician and the patient to ensure a continuity of treatment on a long term basis. Since the clinical...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:27
Scope Urolithin A (UA) is a gut‐derived metabolite from ellagic acid found in pomegranates, berries and nuts can down‐regulate cell proliferation and migration. Cell proliferation and cell motility require actin reorganization which is under control of ras‐related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and p21 protein‐activated kinase 1 (PAK1). The present study explored whether Urolithin A can...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:24
Intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin can occur through various routes. Foodborne botulism results after consumption of food in which botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia (i.e., Clostridium botulinum or strains of Clostridium butyricum type E or Clostridium baratii type F) have replicated and produced botulinum neurotoxin. Infection of a wound with C. botulinum and in situ production of...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
We appreciate the commentary on our article by Foster and Beard, both employees of Ipsen [...]
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
In contrast to the prevailing arguments presented in the current review, the incidence of neutralising antibody (NAb) formation is not a significant issue for any of the present type A therapeutic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) products. Furthermore, clinical non-responsiveness is poorly correlated with the presence of NAbs. The overriding evidence supports the view that the rate of NAb formation is...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
Cystoscopic onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNTA) intradetrusor injection is an efficient and durable modality for treating sensory bladder disorders. However, the inconvenience of using the cystoscopic technique and anesthesia, and the adverse effects of direct needle injection (e.g., haematuria, pain, and infections) have motivated researchers and clinicians to develop diverse injection-free procedures...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Aditya Ashok Murgai, Mandar JogAbstractThe association between tremor and dystonia has been known for many decades. Dystonic tremor is seen in the body part affected with dystonia. Tremor and dystonia can also co-exist in different body parts. Subtle dystonic posturing can be missed in patients with upper limb tremor and these patients are often misdiagnosed as essential tremor....
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:23
Avian botulism is a serious neuroparalytic disease mainly caused by a type C/D botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum group III, one of the entwined bacterial species from the Clostridium novyi sensu lato genospecies. Its isolation is very challenging due to the absence of selective media and the instability of the phage carrying the gene encoding for the neurotoxin. The present...
Mon, 01/06/2020 - 03:46
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) possess an analgesic effect through several mechanisms including an inhibition of acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction as well as an inhibition of specific pain transmitters and mediators. Animal studies have shown that a peripheral injection of BoNTs impairs the release of major pain transmitters such as substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide (...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:26
The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been extensively researched over the years in regard to its structure, mode of action, and applications. Nevertheless, the biological roles of four proteins encoded from a number of BoNT gene clusters, i.e., OrfX1-3 and P47, are unknown. Here, we investigated the diversity of orfX-p47 gene clusters using in silico analytical tools. We show that the orfX-p47...
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 03:44
Botulism is a rare but severe neurological disease in man and animals that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum and atypical strains from other Clostridium and non-Clostridium species. BoNTs are divided into more than seven toxinotypes based on neutralization with specific corresponding antisera, and each toxinotype is subdivided into subtypes according to...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:30
Author(s): Xiaojuan Shi, Chengfei Gao, Lin Wang, Xiao Chu, Qilin Shi, Hui Yang, Tieshan LiAbstractChronic inflammatory pain is a serious clinical problem caused by inflammation of the joints and degenerative diseases and greatly affects patients’ quality of life. Persistent pain states are thought to result from the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways in the spinal dorsal horn. Spinal...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:41
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) comprise seven agreed-on serotypes, A through G. In 2014, a novel chimeric neurotoxin produced by clostridial strain IBCA10-7060 was reported as BoNT/H, with subsequent names of BoNT/FA or BoNT/HA based on sequence homology of the N-terminus to BoNT/F, the C-terminus to BoNT/A and neutralization studies. The purpose of this study was to define the immunologic...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:27
Neurogenic and non-neurogenic urethral sphincter dysfunction are common causes of voiding dysfunction. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) into the urethral sphincter have been used to treat urethral sphincter dysfunction (USD) refractory to conventional treatment. Since its first use for patients with detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in 1988, BoNT-A has been applied to various causes of USD,...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Dirk DresslerAbstractBotulinum toxin (BT) drugs were introduced in the late 1980s. They are now used world wide in a large number of indications. This huge market and its future opportunities have attracted a number of companies about to enter the competition with projects to develop new BT drugs. We want to outline features of BT drugs that are relevant for their therapeutic use and...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:26
Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a large protein family that includes the most potent neurotoxins known to humankind. BoNTs delivered locally in humans at low doses are widely used pharmaceuticals. Reliable and quantitative detection of BoNTs is of paramount importance for the clinical diagnosis of botulism, basic research, drug development, potency determination, and detection in clinical,...
Fri, 12/06/2019 - 03:26
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) therapy combined with rehabilitation on motor function in post-stroke patients. Methods: The following sources up to December 31, 2018, were searched from inception for articles in English: Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL. Trials using injections of BoNT-A for upper and lower limb...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Xiaodan Li, Cyrill Brunner, Yufan Wu, Oneda Leka, Gisbert Schneider, Richard A. KammererABSTRACTA dual-receptor interaction with a polysialoganglioside and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) is required for botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) toxicity. Here, we review what is currently known about the BoNT/A-SV2 interaction based on structural studies. Currently, five crystal structures...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:40
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may negatively affect muscle growth and strength. We injected BoNT-A into the affected limbs of 14 children (4.57 ± 2.28 years) with hemiplegic CP and exhibiting tip-toeing gait on the affected side and investigated the morphological alterations in the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GCM). We...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:26
Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins are the most poisonous substances known, so much so as to be considered for a possible terrorist use. At the same time, botulinum neurotoxin type A1 is successfully used to treat a variety of human syndromes characterized by hyperactive cholinergic nerve terminals. The extreme toxicity of these neurotoxins is due to their neurospecificity and to their...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most poisonous substance known. BoNTs are also classified as tier 1 biothreat agents due to their high potency and lethality. The existence of seven BoNT serotypes (A to G), which differ by 35% to 68% in amino acid sequences, necessitates the development of serotype-specific countermeasures. We present results of a phase 1 clinical study of...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:25
The deliberate release of biological agents with terrorist or criminal intent continues to pose concerns in the current geopolitical situation. Therefore, attention is still needed to ensure preparedness against the potential use of pathogens as unconventional weapons. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one such biological threat, characterized by an extremely low lethal dose, high morbidity and...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:44
A botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) intravesical injection can improve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Patients with IC/BPS have different clinical characteristics, urodynamic features, and cystoscopic findings. This study assessed the treatment outcomes of a BoNT-A intravesical injection and aimed to identify the predictive factors of a satisfactory outcome. This...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:24
OnobotulintoxinA (OBT-A) is a treatment option for Chronic Migraine (CM). It works on central sensitization and pain but its mode of action is still unknown. To observe how OBT-A treatment works on single migraine attacks, this paper covers an over-6-month observation period through self-reported smartphone application data. This was an observational, open-label cohort study conducted on 34 CM...
Fri, 11/08/2019 - 03:26
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections and their efficacy on gross motor function for lower limb spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study included 919 injection occasions from 591 children with CP who received a lower limb BoNT-A injection between 2006 and 2016. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-...
Mon, 11/04/2019 - 03:25
Treatment for patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is always challenging for urologists. The main mechanism of the botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is inhibition of muscle contraction, but the indirect sensory modulation and anti-inflammatory effect in the bladder also play important roles in treating patients with IC/BPS. Although current guidelines consider BoNT-A...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:38
by Javier Marín, Teresa Blanco, José J. Marín, Alejandro Moreno, Elena Martitegui, Juan C. Aragüés Background Gait analysis with motion capture (MoCap) during rehabilitation can provide objective information to facilitate treatment decision making. However, designing a test to be integrated into healthcare services requires considering multiple design factors. The difficulty of integrating a ‘...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:33
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can counteract the highly frequent involuntary muscle contractions and the uncontrolled micturition events that characterize the neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to supra-sacral spinal cord lesions. The ability of the toxin to block the neurotransmitter vesicular release causes the reduction of contractions and improves the compliance of the muscle and the...

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