Clostridium botulinum

Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has been used for over 25 years in the management of pediatric lower and upper limb hypertonia, with the first reports in 1993. The most common indication is the injection of the triceps surae muscle for the correction of spastic equinus gait in children with cerebral palsy. The upper limb injection goals include improvements in function, better positioning of the...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the causing agent for botulism, in different serotypes, seven of which (A–G) are well characterized, while others, such as H or FA, are still debated. BoNTs exert their action by blocking SNARE (soluble N-ethylmale-imide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors) complex formation and vesicle...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Spores, the infectious agents of many Firmicutes, are remarkably resilient cell forms. Even distant relatives can have similar spore architectures although some display unique features; they all incorporate protective proteinaceous envelopes. We previously found that Bacillus spores can achieve these protective properties through extensive disulfide cross-linking of self-assembled arrays...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 00:00
This study assessed the safety and efficacy of three different doses of BoNT-A for persistent myofascial pain (MFP). One hundred female subjects were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 20): oral appliance (OA), saline solution (SS) and three BoNT-A groups with different doses. Pain intensity and pressure pain threshold were evaluated up to 24 weeks after treatment. Adverse effects related to...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Jun-hui Su, Ming-na Yang, Fei Teng, Xiao-long Zhang, You-gui Pan, Yue Hu, Li-bin Xiao, Li-zhen Pan, Li-xi Li, Ling-jing Jin Facial synkinesis can be present in both primary and postparalytic hemifacial spasm (HFS). The present retrospective study aimed to summarize the clinical features of synkinesis and explore an appropriate botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection strategy to manage the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is a potent protein that can selectively modulate neurotransmission from nerve endings, resulting in the blocking of neurotransmitter releases and causing muscular paralysis [...]
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 00:00
Differences in botulinum neurotoxin manufacturing, formulation, and potency evaluation can impact dose and biological activity, which ultimately affect duration of action. The potency of different labeled vials of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®; 50 U, 100 U, or 200 U vials; incobotA) versus onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®; 100 U vial; onabotA) were compared on a unit-to-unit basis to...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 22:15
Bacterial toxins are food safety hazards causing about 10% of all reported foodborne outbreaks in Europe. Pertinent to Gram‐positive pathogens, the most relevant toxins are emetic toxin and diarrheal enterotoxins of Bacillus cereus, neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum, enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens, and a family of enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and some other...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 14:04
In this study, we developed a reference labelled protein containing the partial amino acid sequence of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA). We also applied it as an internal standard to detect specific and non-toxic peptides originated from BoNTA in honey with the use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Original proteins in the honey sample were collected through a two-...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of mid-urethral sling (MUS) with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) versus MUS only in women with mixed urinary incontinence. This was a comparative observational study, and total of 73 patients were enrolled. A total of 38 and 35 patients received MUS only and MUS with BoNT-A injection, respectively. The efficacy outcome included change in...
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:36
In 2016, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) published practice guidelines for botulinum toxin (BoNT) in the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache. This article, focusing on dystonia, provides context for these guidelines through literature review. Studies that led to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of each toxin for dystonia indications are...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:36
Clostridium tetani produces a potent neurotoxin, the tetanus toxin (TeNT), which is responsible for an often-fatal neurological disease (tetanus) characterized by spastic paralysis. Prevention is efficiently acquired by vaccination with the TeNT toxoid, which is obtained by C. tetani fermentation and subsequent purification and chemical inactivation. C. tetani synthesizes TeNT in a regulated...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:38
Chronic osteoarthritis pain is an increasing worldwide problem. Treatment for osteoarthritis pain is generally inadequate or fraught with potential toxicities. Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of neuropeptide release. Paralytic toxicity is due to inhibition at the neuromuscular junction, and this effect has been utilized for treatments of painful dystonias. Pain relief following...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:38
Spasticity is a common disabling disorder in adult subjects suffering from stroke, brain injury, multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Spasticity may be a disabling symptom in people during rehabilitation and botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has become the first-line therapy for the local form. High BTX-A doses are often used in clinical practice. Advantages and limitations are...
Sat, 05/09/2020 - 03:34
The neurotoxin formed by Clostridium botulinum Group II is a major cause of foodborne botulism, a deadly intoxication. This study aims to understand the genetic diversity and spread of C. botulinum Group II strains and their neurotoxin genes. A comparative genomic study has been conducted with 208 highly diverse C. botulinum Group II strains (180 newly sequenced strains isolated from 16 countries...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:40
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most potent natural toxin known. Of the seven BoNT serotypes (A to G), types A, B, E, and F cause human botulism. Treatment of human botulism requires the development of effective toxin-neutralizing antibodies without side effects such as serum sickness and anaphylaxis. In this study, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) against serotype B...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:47
ABSTRACT The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise tetanus toxin (TT) and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT [BT]) serotypes (A to G and X) and several recently identified CNT-like proteins, including BT/En and the mosquito BoNT-like toxin Pmp1. CNTs are produced as single proteins cleaved to a light chain (LC) and a heavy chain (HC) connected by an interchain disulfide bond. LC is a zinc...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Mario González-Angulo, Charlien Clauwers, Rania Harastani, Carole Tonello, Isabel Jaime, Jordi Rovira, Chris W. Michiels Bacterial spores survive high pressure processing (HPP). Group II Clostridium botulinum is an obligate anaerobe spore-forming pathogen that can produce the botulinum neurotoxin under refrigeration. This study assessed nontoxigenic type E C. botulinum and Group II...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:37
Objective: The effects of botulinum toxin injections (BoNT) on health-related quality of life along the complex spectrum of spasticity needs further characterization to guide practitioners in a real-life therapeutic environment. Methods: In this study, we analyzed 50 consecutive and unselected patients with spasticity before and four weeks after re-injection of botulinum toxin. Health-related...
Mon, 05/04/2020 - 03:34
This study describes the nerve entry point and intramuscular nerve branching of the rhomboid major and minor, providing essential information for improved performance of botulinum toxin injections and electromyography. A modified Sihler method was performed on the rhomboid major and minor muscles (10 specimens each). The nerve entry point and intramuscular arborization areas were identified in...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:33
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by bacteria, which inhibit neurotransmitter release, specifically in their physiological target known as motor neurons (MNs). For the potency assessment of BoNTs produced for treatment in traditional and aesthetic medicine, the mouse lethality assay is still used by the majority of manufacturers, which is ethically questionable in...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:33
(1) In dystonia, the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is abnormally increased at rest and higher and longer-lasting during movement execution in comparison with healthy subjects (HS), suggesting an abnormal sensorimotor integration. These abnormalities are thought to depend on abnormal proprioceptive input coming from dystonic muscles. Since Botulinum toxin-A (BT-A) reduces...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:32
Blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia are focal dystonias characterized by involuntary and often patterned, repetitive muscle contractions. There is a long history of medical and surgical therapies, with the current first-line therapy, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), becoming standard of care in 1989. This comprehensive review utilized MEDLINE and PubMed and provides an overview of the history of...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:42
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most toxic biomolecule known to the world (⁓100 times toxic than cyanide) and has been listed as category ‘A’ biowarfare agent. In the present investigation, we cloned the catalytic domain of BoNT type ‘F’. Maximum recombinant BoNT/F protein expression was achieved at 21°C, 0.75 mM IPTG at 6 h post induction. The rBoNT/F protein was purified and confirmed...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Noora Pernu, Riikka Keto-Timonen, Miia Lindström, Hannu Korkeala Clostridium botulinum is a significant food safety concern due to its ability to produce highly potent neurotoxin and resistant endospores. Vegetarian sausages have become a popular source of plant protein and alternative for meat products. While vegetarian sausages have not been linked to botulism, numerous outbreaks due...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:37
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the causative agent of botulism in humans and animals. Only BoNT serotype A subtype 1 (BoNT/A1) is clinically used because of its high potency and long duration of action. BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A subtype 2 (BoNT/A2) have high degree of amino acid sequence similarity in light chain (LC) (96%), whereas their N‐and C‐terminal heavy chain (HN and HC) differ by 13%. LC acts...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:25
Background Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic illness. Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G)-(Equine) (BAT) manufactured by Emergent BioSolutions Canada Inc is an equine-derived heptavalent botulinum antitoxin product indicated for the treatment of symptomatic botulism following documented or suspected exposure to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G in adults and pediatric...
Mon, 04/13/2020 - 03:25
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection is regarded as a promising treatment for musculoskeletal pain. However, its efficacy for treating chronic shoulder pain remains unclear. We investigated the effectiveness of BoNT injections for chronic shoulder pain by conducting a systematic search of electronic databases up to March 2020 for randomized control trials (RCTs) that used BoNT injections for chronic...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:29
Background Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). In April 2017, 4 California residents from 2 adjacent counties were hospitalized with suspected foodborne botulism, precipitating an investigation by state and local public health departments in California. Methods We interviewed suspected botulism patients and their families, inspected...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:29
To the Editor—I read with interest the recent article by Rosen et al reporting an outbreak of botulism in 2017 that affected 10 patients in California and was related to the consumption of a commercial nacho cheese sauce contaminated with botulinum toxin [1].
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:28
Despite the long-term interest in solventogenic clostridia-based ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, clostridial butanol tolerance and its underlying mechanism remain poorly understood, which is a major obstacle hindering further improvements of this important fermentative process. In this study, a two-component system (TCS), BtrK/BtrR, was identified and demonstrated to positively...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:35
by Guang Yang, Yong Xu, Genyi Qu, Yulong Zhang Objective To systematically review outcomes in patients with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) patients who underwent sacral neuromodulation therapy (SNM) therapy after unsuccessful onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX) therapy, and to compare outcomes with those who SNM as initial therapy. Methods A systematic search of Cochrane Library, Pubmed and Embase...
Sun, 03/29/2020 - 03:24
Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injection for treating chronic migraine (CM) has developed into a new technique covering distinct injection points in the head and neck regions. The postulated analgesic mechanism implies that the injection should be administered to sensory nerves rather than to muscles. This study aimed to determine the topographical site of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) and to...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:27
The masseter is the most targeted muscle when treating hypertrophy to produce a smooth face shape. Compensatory hypertrophy is a well known clinical sequela that occurs in botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) treatments and is limited to the lower part of the masseter. Based on the masseteric hypertrophy procedure, which targets a confined area, we predicted the possibility of compensatory hypertrophy...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:26
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for overactive bladder (OAB). The pathophysiology of DM-associated OAB is multifactorial and time-dependent. Diabetic bladder dysfunction is highly associated with diabetic complications, mainly including diabetic neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic systemic inflammation and bladder urothelial inflammation may contribute to the onset of OAB...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Roberto Eleopra, Sara Rinaldo, Cesare Montecucco, Ornella Rossetto, Grazia Devigili The Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) comprises several serotypes with distinct properties, mechanisms of action, sensitivity and duration of effect in different species. The serotype A (BoNT/A) is the prevalent neurotoxin applied in human's disease. In this paper we present an overview of the current...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
Bladder oversensitivity arises from several different conditions involving the bladder, bladder outlet, systemic or central nervous system diseases. Increase of the bladder sensation results from activation of the sensory receptors in the urothelial cells or suburothelial tissues. Medical treatment targeting the overactive bladder (OAB) or interstitial cystitis (IC) might relieve oversensitive...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) for managing sleep bruxism (SB) in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty SB subjects were randomly assigned into two groups evenly. The placebo group received saline injections into each masseter muscle, and the treatment group received BoNT-A injections into each masseter muscle. Audio–...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:37
by Jaime Tejedor, Francisco J. Gutiérrez-Carmona Purpose To study the outcome of botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment (group 1) in partially accommodative esotropia with high accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, in comparison with bilateral medial rectus muscles recessions and posterior fixation (group 2). Methods In a retrospective comparative study, children aged 3–8 years old...
Fri, 02/28/2020 - 03:27
The aim of this study was to determine if botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection into the medial hamstring can improve gait kinematics and muscle-tendon length in spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with a flexed knee gait (FKG). Twenty-nine children with spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System I–III) with FKG were recruited for this prospective study. BoNT-A was injected into...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Daniele Martinelli, Sebastiano Arceri, Livio Tronconi, Cristina TassorelliAbstractMigraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder accounted among the primary headaches. It is the expression of a complex, and not yet fully understood, pathophysiology involving the sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways. In this review we succinctly illustrate the molecular,...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:29
Clostridium botulinum is a gram positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Closing their genomes provides information about their neurotoxin cluster arrangement(s) and location (e.g. chromosome or plasmid) which cannot be assessed using draft genomes. Therefore, we tested the use of long-read sequencing (Nanopore sequencing) in combination with short-...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
Intravesical botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection is effective in reducing urgency and urinary incontinence. It temporarily inhibits the detrusor muscle contraction by blocking the release of acetylcholine (Ach) from the preganglionic and postganglionic nerves in the efferent nerves. BoNT-A also blocks ATP release from purinergic efferent nerves in the detrusor muscle. In afferent nerves, BoNT-A...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
In many countries, 400 units (U) is the maximum dose of onabotulinumtoxinA available to treat upper limb spasticity, but few studies have demonstrated the optimal use of this dose. In the double-blind phase of this randomized, controlled trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of 400 vs. 240 U onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity. Both groups received 240 U...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
The American Urological Association guidelines for the management of non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB) recommend the use of OnabotulinumtoxinA, sacral neuromodulation (SNM), and peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) as third line treatment options with no treatment hierarchy. The current study used network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of these three modalities for managing...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Zdravko LackovićAbstractIn 2010, Kissin concluded pessimistically that of the 59 new drugs introduced in the fifty-year period between 1960 and 2009 and still in use, only seven had new molecular targets. Of these, only one, sumatriptan, was effective enough to lead to the introduction of multiple drugs targeting the same target molecules (triptans) (Kissin, 2010). Morphine and...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Bernard POULAIN, Emmanuel LEMICHEZ, Michel R. POPOFFAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins responsible for a severe disease, called botulism, but are also efficient therapeutic tools with an increasing number of indications ranging from neuromuscular dysfunction to hypersecretion syndrome, pain release, depression as well as cosmetic application. BoNTs are known...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Sylvie Cornet, Cindy Périer, Mikhail KalinichevAbstractThe mouse digit abduction score (DAS) assay is commonly used to measure muscle flaccidity-inducing effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vivo. Adapting the assay to rats has been challenging, as injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) into the gastrocnemius muscle, as performed in mice, or into the tibialis anterior leads...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:24
Introduction: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent biological toxin and powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical orofacial applications. BoNT relaxes striated muscle by inhibiting acetylcholine’s release from presynaptic nerve terminals, blocking the neuromuscular junction. It also has an antinociceptive effect on sensory nerve endings, where BoNT and acetylcholine...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as chronic pain and inflammation in the pelvic organs for more than six months. There are wide ranges of clinical presentations, including pelvic pain, painful intercourse, irritable bowel syndrome, and pain during urinating. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a subdivision of CPP, and the pain syndrome may be focused within a single organ or more than one...

Pages