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Clostridium botulinum

Sat, 07/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 407: Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070407 Authors: Candace S. Bever Miles Scotcher Luisa W. Cheng Robert M. Hnasko Larry H. Stanker Botulism is a devastating disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) secreted primarily by Clostridium botulinum. Mouse bioassays...
Sat, 06/08/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Author(s): Molly S. Moritz, William H. Tepp, Heather N'te Inzalaco, Eric A. Johnson, Sabine PellettAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent neurotoxins and are the causative agent of botulism, as well as valuable pharmaceuticals. BoNTs are divided into seven serotypes that comprise over 40 reported subtypes. BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 are...
Wed, 05/01/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Author(s): Di Wang, Jiaorong Qu, Haiyue Jiang, Yu JiangAbstractScars can have a dramatic impact on patients' physical appearance and function. Injection of botulinum toxin has been used to prevent scar formation at the site of injury and to remodel scars that have already formed. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and...
Thu, 04/25/2019 - 20:00
Role of Starter Cultures on the Safety of Fermented Meat Products Marta Laranjo1*, Maria Eduarda Potes1,2 and Miguel Elias1,3 1ICAAM-Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Évora, Portugal 2Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Pólo...
Tue, 04/16/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sharif Najafi, Ehsan Sanati, Mahsa Khademi, Fateme Abdorrazaghi, Reza Kazempoor Mofrad, Zahra RezasoltaniAbstractIn recent years, there is a growing interest in new medical applications of botulinum toxin, including pain control, osteoarthritis treatment, and wound healing. While clinical applications of botulinum toxin seem...
Sun, 02/24/2019 - 01:12
Available online 21 February 2019 Author(s): Santosh Keisam, Ngangyola Tuikhar, Giasuddin Ahmed, Kumaraswamy JeyaramAbstractThe microbial risk involved with natural food fermentation is largely unknown. Here, we report the prevalence of enteric bacterial pathogens in the traditional fermented foods marketed in Northeast region of India. A total of 682 samples of 39 food types (broadly categorized...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Author(s): Giulia Bellon, Andrea Venturin, Stefano Masiero, Alessandra Del FeliceAbstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by hyperalgesia, autonomic and trophic alterations of bones, muscles and skin. It is supported by neurogenic inflammation and impairment of sympathetic nervous system. Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is an...
Sat, 01/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 35: Content/Potency Assessment of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type-A by Validated Liquid Chromatography Methods and Bioassays Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010035 Authors: Bruna Xavier Rafaela Ferreira Perobelli Maurício Elesbão Walter Francielle Santos da Silva Sérgio Luiz Dalmora Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNTA) is one of the seven different serotypes (A to G)...
Mon, 12/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 4: Toxins in Fermented Foods: Prevalence and Preventions—A Mini Review Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010004 Authors: Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Periyanaina Kesika Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Fermented foods (FF) are widely consumed around the world, and FF are one of the prime sources of toxins and pathogenic microbes that are associated with several foodborne...
Fri, 11/30/2018 - 11:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous proteins known to humankind, are a family of seven (serotype A to G) immunologically distinct proteins synthesized primarily by different strains of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Being the causative agents of botulism, the toxins block neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 476: A Rapid, Sensitive, and Portable Biosensor Assay for the Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A in Complex Food Matrices Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110476 Authors: Christina C. Tam Andrew R. Flannery Luisa W. Cheng Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication can lead to the disease botulism, characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that can cause...
Wed, 11/14/2018 - 17:00
Leah E. Worton, Edith M. Gardiner, Ronald Y. Kwon, Leah M. Downey, Brandon J. Ausk, Steven D. Bain, Ted S. Gross At sufficient dose, intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin A causes muscle wasting that is physiologically consistent with surgical denervation and other types of neuromuscular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to clarify early molecular and micro-RNA alterations in skeletal...
Mon, 10/15/2018 - 17:00
Brooke L. Deatherage Kaiser, Karen K. Hill, Theresa J. Smith, Charles H. D. Williamson, Paul Keim, Jason W. Sahl, Karen L. Wahl Microorganisms alter gene and protein expression in response to environmental conditions to adapt and survive. Whereas the genetic composition of a microbe represents an organism’s biological potential, the proteins expressed provide a functional readout of the organism...
Thu, 09/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 381: Immunogenicity of a Bivalent Non-Purified Recombinant Vaccine against Botulism in Cattle Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100381 Authors: Clóvis Moreira Marcos R. A. Ferreira Carlos E. P. da Cunha Rafael A. Donassolo Paula F. Finger Gustavo M. S. G. Moreira Denis Y. Otaka Loise A. de Sousa José D. Barbosa Ângela N. Moreira Felipe M. Salvarani...
Fri, 09/07/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Author(s): Yasushi Torii, Mikio Sasaki, Min-Chul Shin, Norio Akaike, Ryuji KajiAbstractBotulinum toxin type A (subtype A1) is used as therapeutic agent for some neurological disorders causing spasticity. The toxin products have an upper dosage limit, and their adverse events, such as side effects of diffusion following high-dose...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 17:00
Maximilian B. Maier, Tobias Schweiger, Christian A. Lenz, Rudi F. Vogel The effect of high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments on the inactivation of spores of non-proteolytic type E Clostridium botulinum TMW 2.990 was investigated at high pressures (300 to 600 MPa) and elevated temperatures (80 to 100 °C) in four low-acid foods (steamed sole, green peas with ham, vegetable soup, braised veal) and...
Thu, 06/14/2018 - 17:00
Ameenat Lola Solebo, Anne-Marie Austin, Maria Theodorou, Chris Timms, Joanne Hancox, Gillian G. W. Adams Background Botulinum toxin injection chemodenervation is a well-established intervention for adult strabismus, and has also been recognised as an effective alternative to routine incisional surgery for paediatric disease. We aimed to investigate the temporal patterns of practice, indications...
Fri, 06/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 225: The Binary Toxin CDT of Clostridium difficile as a Tool for Intracellular Delivery of Bacterial Glucosyltransferase Domains Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060225 Authors: Lara-Antonia Beer Helma Tatge Carmen Schneider Maximilian Ruschig Michael Hust Jessica Barton Stefan Thiemann Viola Fühner Giulio Russo Ralf Gerhard Binary toxins are produced...
Wed, 05/30/2018 - 16:07
Publication date: July 2018 Source:, Volume 149 Author(s): Mikhail Kalinichev
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype FA, Also Known as Serotype H Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050195 Authors: Gavin Hackett Kevin Moore David Burgin Fraser Hornby Bryony Gray Mark Elliott Imran Mir Matthew Beard We have purified and characterized recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype FA (BoNT/FA). This...
Wed, 05/02/2018 - 17:00
Daniel Stern, Jasmin Weisemann, Alexander Le Blanc, Laura von Berg, Stefan Mahrhold, Janett Piesker, Michael Laue, Peter B. Luppa, Martin Bernhard Dorner, Brigitte Gertrud Dorner, Andreas Rummel The exceptional toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is mediated high avidity binding to complex polysialogangliosides and intraluminal segments of synaptic vesicle proteins embedded in the...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Antoniangela Cocco, Alberto Albanese Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for several indications. Following the pioneering years of discoveries, the recent years have witnessed an increase of new indications and new toxin brands. We review here the clinical trials on BoNTs performed since...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Joseph Jankovic The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): H.A. Jinnah, Cynthia L. Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett Background Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Francisco Cardoso The aim of this article is to provide a review of the use of injections of botulinum toxin in the management of selected symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Sialorrhea is defined as inability to control oral secretions, resulting in excessive saliva in the oropharynx. There...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Cristina Tassorelli, Grazia Sances, Micol Avenali, Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Giuseppe Nappi, Giorgio Sandrini OnabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine following the demonstration of efficacy in two large controlled trials. Data collected from pragmatic...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yingchun Zhang, Christopher P. Smith Botulinum toxin's (BoNT) success in treating several pain disorders has triggered interest in its application for pelvic pain disorders. This article summarizes results presented at the recent Neurotoxins Meeting in Madrid, Spain, in January 2017. It does not include BoNT use for Interstitial...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R. Popoff Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Kwok-ho Lam, Ruifeng Qi, Shun Liu, Amelie Kroh, Guorui Yao, Kay Perry, Andreas Rummel, Rongsheng Jin Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are causative agents of the life-threatening disease botulism. They are naturally produced by species of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum as stable and non-covalent complexes, in which...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): O. Rossetto Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known. The double receptor binding modality represents one of the most significant properties of botulinum neurotoxins and largely accounts for their incredible potency and lethality. Despite the high affinity and the very specific binding, botulinum neurotoxins are...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Phillip H. Beske, Aaron B. Bradford, Katie M. Hoffman, Sydney J. Mason, Patrick M. McNutt Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Manuela López de la Paz, Daniel Scheps, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The...
Wed, 04/25/2018 - 17:14
Publication date: May 2018 , Volume 101, Issue 5 Author(s): F. Driehuis, J.M. Wilkinson, Y. Jiang, I. Ogunade, A.T. Adesogan Silage may contain several agents that are potentially hazardous to animal health, the safety of milk or other animal food products, or both. This paper reviews published literature about microbial hazards, plant toxins, and chemical hazards. Microbial hazards...
Sat, 04/14/2018 - 00:00
Publication date: 2 July 2018 , Volume 276 Author(s): Mihanta Ramaroson, Sandrine Guillou, Albert Rossero, Sandrine Rezé, Valérie Anthoine, Nicolas Moriceau, Jean-Luc Martin, Frédérique Duranton, Monique Zagorec High Pressure Processing (HPP) and biopreservation can contribute to food safety by inactivation of bacterial contaminants. However these treatments are inefficient...
Wed, 12/20/2017 - 11:12
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017 Source: Author(s): Sabine Pellett, William H. Tepp, Guangyun Lin, Eric A. Johnson Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type FA is the only known naturally occurring chimeric BoNT of domains of BoNT/A and BoNT/F. BoNT/FA consists of an F5-like light chain (LC), a unique heavy chain (HC) translocation domain, and a HC receptor binding domain...
Mon, 11/27/2017 - 11:00
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) sample preparation methods, including the direct, on-plate formic acid, and ethanol/formic acid tube extraction methods, were evaluated for their ability to render highly pathogenic organisms nonviable and safe for handling in a biosafety level 2 laboratory. Of these, the tube extraction procedure...
Wed, 11/01/2017 - 06:46
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source: Author(s): Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani Local intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) are effective in the treatment of focal dystonias, muscle spasms, and spasticity. However, not all clinical effects of BoNT/A may be explained by its action at peripheral nerve terminals. For example, the therapeutic...
Mon, 10/30/2017 - 06:26
Publication date: 1 December 2017 Source:, Volume 139 Author(s): Daniel Scheps, Manuela López de la Paz, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of...
Sat, 10/14/2017 - 09:37
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source: Author(s): Sunaina Surana, Andrew P. Tosolini, Ione F.G. Meyer, Alexander D. Fellows, Sergey S. Novoselov, Giampietro Schiavo Tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) neurotoxins, the causative agents of tetanus and botulism, respectively, are the most potent toxic molecules known to mankind. This extreme potency is attributed...
Fri, 09/22/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 297: Humoral Response of Buffaloes to a Recombinant Vaccine against Botulism Serotypes C and D Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100297 Authors: Denis Otaka José Barbosa Clóvis Moreira Marcos Ferreira Carlos Cunha Antônio Brito Rafael Donassolo Ângela Moreira Fabrício Conceição Felipe Salvarani Botulism is a fatal intoxication caused by botulinum...
Tue, 09/19/2017 - 06:40
Publication date: November 2017 Source:, Volume 138 Author(s): Chetan P. Phadke, Vivekanand Thanikachalam, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of compartment syndrome or major bleeding episodes and compare compartment syndrome, patient and intervention characteristics in 110 patients with stroke (treated with Warfarin, new oral...
Sun, 09/03/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 269: Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Hc Subunit (BoNT Hc) and Catalytically Inactive Clostridium botulinum Holoproteins (ciBoNT HPs) as Vaccine Candidates for the Prevention of Botulism Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9090269 Authors: Robert P. Webb Theresa J. Smith Leonard A. Smith Patrick M. Wright Rebecca L. Guernieri Jennifer L. Brown Janet C. Skerry There...
Thu, 08/31/2017 - 11:04
Diverse members of the genus Clostridium produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause a flaccid paralysis known as botulism. While multiple species of clostridia produce BoNTs, the majority of human botulism cases have been attributed to Clostridium botulinum groups I and II. Recent comparative genomic studies have demonstrated the genomic diversity within these BoNT-producing species. This...
Tue, 08/15/2017 - 07:15
Summary Clostridium botulinum produces the most potent natural toxin, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), probably to create anaerobiosis and nutrients by killing the host, and forms endospores that facilitate survival in harsh conditions and transmission. Peak BoNT production coincides with initiation of sporulation in C. botulinum cultures, which suggests common regulation. Here we show that Spo0A...
Fri, 08/11/2017 - 17:00
Giulia Zanetti, Stefan Sikorra, Andreas Rummel, Nadja Krez, Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Tina Henke, Ornella Rossetto, Thomas Binz, Marco Pirazzini Botulinum neurotoxin serotype C (BoNT/C) is a neuroparalytic toxin associated with outbreaks of animal botulism, particularly in birds, and is the only BoNT known to cleave two different SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin. BoNT/C was shown to be...
Fri, 08/11/2017 - 05:33
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2017 Source: Author(s): Mark Hallett Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a widely used therapeutic in part because its mechanism of action is much wider than initially expected. Since BoNT is taken up more avidly in active presynaptic terminals, there is some selectivity for weakening muscles involved in frequent involuntary movements. BoNT blocks...
Fri, 08/11/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 247: Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9080247 Authors: Masaya Takehara Teruhisa Takagishi Soshi Seike Masataka Oda Yoshihiko Sakaguchi Junzo Hisatsune Sadayuki Ochi Keiko Kobayashi Masahiro Nagahama Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are...
Wed, 08/09/2017 - 20:00
A case of food-borne botulism occurred in Slovakia in 2015. Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated from three nearly empty commercial hummus tubes. The product, which was sold in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, was withdrawn from the market and a warning was issued immediately through the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). Further investigation revealed the...
Tue, 08/08/2017 - 03:00
Journal of Food Protection, Volume 80, Issue 9, Page 1478-1488, September 2017.

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