Clostridium botulinum

Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Zdravko LackovićAbstractIn 2010, Kissin concluded pessimistically that of the 59 new drugs introduced in the fifty-year period between 1960 and 2009 and still in use, only seven had new molecular targets. Of these, only one, sumatriptan, was effective enough to lead to the introduction of multiple drugs targeting the same target molecules (triptans) (Kissin, 2010). Morphine and...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Bernard POULAIN, Emmanuel LEMICHEZ, Michel R. POPOFFAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins responsible for a severe disease, called botulism, but are also efficient therapeutic tools with an increasing number of indications ranging from neuromuscular dysfunction to hypersecretion syndrome, pain release, depression as well as cosmetic application. BoNTs are known...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Sylvie Cornet, Cindy Périer, Mikhail KalinichevAbstractThe mouse digit abduction score (DAS) assay is commonly used to measure muscle flaccidity-inducing effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vivo. Adapting the assay to rats has been challenging, as injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) into the gastrocnemius muscle, as performed in mice, or into the tibialis anterior leads...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:24
Introduction: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent biological toxin and powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical orofacial applications. BoNT relaxes striated muscle by inhibiting acetylcholine’s release from presynaptic nerve terminals, blocking the neuromuscular junction. It also has an antinociceptive effect on sensory nerve endings, where BoNT and acetylcholine...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as chronic pain and inflammation in the pelvic organs for more than six months. There are wide ranges of clinical presentations, including pelvic pain, painful intercourse, irritable bowel syndrome, and pain during urinating. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a subdivision of CPP, and the pain syndrome may be focused within a single organ or more than one...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Anatol Kivi, Songjin Ri, Jörg WisselAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) is well established in clinical practice for more than 30 years. During this time the area of applications was broaden beyond the ophtalmologic and neurologic indications. Despite of decades of BoNT application with a huge increase of expertise and supporting methods for utilization as well, both patients and physicians...
Thu, 02/06/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Robert Webb, Patrick M. Wright, Jennifer L. Brown, Janet C. Skerry, Rebecca L. Guernieri, Theresa J. Smith, Christopher Stawicki, Leonard A. SmithAbstractBotulism is an acute neuroparalytic affliction of the motor and autonomic neurons caused by the toxins produced from Clostridium botulinum and related bacterial strains. The botulinum neurotoxins, or BoNTs, consist of a...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:42
Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is a powerful neurotoxin with long-lasting activity that blocks muscle contractions. In addition to effects on neuromuscular junctions, BTX-A also plays a role in sensory feedback loops, suggesting the potentiality for pain relief. Although the only approved indications for BTX-A in the bladder are neurogenic detrusor overactivity and refractory overactive bladder, BTX-A...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:29
Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum type A, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin, and Yersinia enterocolitica are 11 common foodborne pathogens. Traditional bacterial culture methods for detecting pathogens are time‐consuming and labor‐...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Chris Boulias, Farooq Ismail, Chetan P. PhadkeAbstractIntroductionIn patients taking warfarin, the level of anticoagulation status using the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is one consideration before botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections; however, there is wide diversity in physician approaches and preferences in using INR status and the INR cut-off values to determine...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Joseph K.C. TsuiAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) has become a therapeutic agent for a large variety of medical conditions. It is a symptomatic treatment and in most cases requires repeat injections at regular intervals. The first session is crucial in establishing rapport between the physician and the patient to ensure a continuity of treatment on a long term basis. Since the clinical...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:27
Scope Urolithin A (UA) is a gut‐derived metabolite from ellagic acid found in pomegranates, berries and nuts can down‐regulate cell proliferation and migration. Cell proliferation and cell motility require actin reorganization which is under control of ras‐related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and p21 protein‐activated kinase 1 (PAK1). The present study explored whether Urolithin A can...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:24
Intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin can occur through various routes. Foodborne botulism results after consumption of food in which botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia (i.e., Clostridium botulinum or strains of Clostridium butyricum type E or Clostridium baratii type F) have replicated and produced botulinum neurotoxin. Infection of a wound with C. botulinum and in situ production of...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
We appreciate the commentary on our article by Foster and Beard, both employees of Ipsen [...]
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
In contrast to the prevailing arguments presented in the current review, the incidence of neutralising antibody (NAb) formation is not a significant issue for any of the present type A therapeutic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) products. Furthermore, clinical non-responsiveness is poorly correlated with the presence of NAbs. The overriding evidence supports the view that the rate of NAb formation is...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
Cystoscopic onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNTA) intradetrusor injection is an efficient and durable modality for treating sensory bladder disorders. However, the inconvenience of using the cystoscopic technique and anesthesia, and the adverse effects of direct needle injection (e.g., haematuria, pain, and infections) have motivated researchers and clinicians to develop diverse injection-free procedures...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Aditya Ashok Murgai, Mandar JogAbstractThe association between tremor and dystonia has been known for many decades. Dystonic tremor is seen in the body part affected with dystonia. Tremor and dystonia can also co-exist in different body parts. Subtle dystonic posturing can be missed in patients with upper limb tremor and these patients are often misdiagnosed as essential tremor....
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:23
Avian botulism is a serious neuroparalytic disease mainly caused by a type C/D botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum group III, one of the entwined bacterial species from the Clostridium novyi sensu lato genospecies. Its isolation is very challenging due to the absence of selective media and the instability of the phage carrying the gene encoding for the neurotoxin. The present...
Mon, 01/06/2020 - 03:46
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) possess an analgesic effect through several mechanisms including an inhibition of acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction as well as an inhibition of specific pain transmitters and mediators. Animal studies have shown that a peripheral injection of BoNTs impairs the release of major pain transmitters such as substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide (...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:26
The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been extensively researched over the years in regard to its structure, mode of action, and applications. Nevertheless, the biological roles of four proteins encoded from a number of BoNT gene clusters, i.e., OrfX1-3 and P47, are unknown. Here, we investigated the diversity of orfX-p47 gene clusters using in silico analytical tools. We show that the orfX-p47...
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 03:44
Botulism is a rare but severe neurological disease in man and animals that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum and atypical strains from other Clostridium and non-Clostridium species. BoNTs are divided into more than seven toxinotypes based on neutralization with specific corresponding antisera, and each toxinotype is subdivided into subtypes according to...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:30
Author(s): Xiaojuan Shi, Chengfei Gao, Lin Wang, Xiao Chu, Qilin Shi, Hui Yang, Tieshan LiAbstractChronic inflammatory pain is a serious clinical problem caused by inflammation of the joints and degenerative diseases and greatly affects patients’ quality of life. Persistent pain states are thought to result from the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways in the spinal dorsal horn. Spinal...
Sat, 12/21/2019 - 03:41
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) comprise seven agreed-on serotypes, A through G. In 2014, a novel chimeric neurotoxin produced by clostridial strain IBCA10-7060 was reported as BoNT/H, with subsequent names of BoNT/FA or BoNT/HA based on sequence homology of the N-terminus to BoNT/F, the C-terminus to BoNT/A and neutralization studies. The purpose of this study was to define the immunologic...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:27
Neurogenic and non-neurogenic urethral sphincter dysfunction are common causes of voiding dysfunction. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) into the urethral sphincter have been used to treat urethral sphincter dysfunction (USD) refractory to conventional treatment. Since its first use for patients with detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in 1988, BoNT-A has been applied to various causes of USD,...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Dirk DresslerAbstractBotulinum toxin (BT) drugs were introduced in the late 1980s. They are now used world wide in a large number of indications. This huge market and its future opportunities have attracted a number of companies about to enter the competition with projects to develop new BT drugs. We want to outline features of BT drugs that are relevant for their therapeutic use and...
Sat, 12/07/2019 - 03:26
Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a large protein family that includes the most potent neurotoxins known to humankind. BoNTs delivered locally in humans at low doses are widely used pharmaceuticals. Reliable and quantitative detection of BoNTs is of paramount importance for the clinical diagnosis of botulism, basic research, drug development, potency determination, and detection in clinical,...
Fri, 12/06/2019 - 03:26
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) therapy combined with rehabilitation on motor function in post-stroke patients. Methods: The following sources up to December 31, 2018, were searched from inception for articles in English: Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL. Trials using injections of BoNT-A for upper and lower limb...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Xiaodan Li, Cyrill Brunner, Yufan Wu, Oneda Leka, Gisbert Schneider, Richard A. KammererABSTRACTA dual-receptor interaction with a polysialoganglioside and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) is required for botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) toxicity. Here, we review what is currently known about the BoNT/A-SV2 interaction based on structural studies. Currently, five crystal structures...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:40
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may negatively affect muscle growth and strength. We injected BoNT-A into the affected limbs of 14 children (4.57 ± 2.28 years) with hemiplegic CP and exhibiting tip-toeing gait on the affected side and investigated the morphological alterations in the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GCM). We...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:26
Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins are the most poisonous substances known, so much so as to be considered for a possible terrorist use. At the same time, botulinum neurotoxin type A1 is successfully used to treat a variety of human syndromes characterized by hyperactive cholinergic nerve terminals. The extreme toxicity of these neurotoxins is due to their neurospecificity and to their...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most poisonous substance known. BoNTs are also classified as tier 1 biothreat agents due to their high potency and lethality. The existence of seven BoNT serotypes (A to G), which differ by 35% to 68% in amino acid sequences, necessitates the development of serotype-specific countermeasures. We present results of a phase 1 clinical study of...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:25
The deliberate release of biological agents with terrorist or criminal intent continues to pose concerns in the current geopolitical situation. Therefore, attention is still needed to ensure preparedness against the potential use of pathogens as unconventional weapons. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one such biological threat, characterized by an extremely low lethal dose, high morbidity and...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:44
A botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) intravesical injection can improve the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Patients with IC/BPS have different clinical characteristics, urodynamic features, and cystoscopic findings. This study assessed the treatment outcomes of a BoNT-A intravesical injection and aimed to identify the predictive factors of a satisfactory outcome. This...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:24
OnobotulintoxinA (OBT-A) is a treatment option for Chronic Migraine (CM). It works on central sensitization and pain but its mode of action is still unknown. To observe how OBT-A treatment works on single migraine attacks, this paper covers an over-6-month observation period through self-reported smartphone application data. This was an observational, open-label cohort study conducted on 34 CM...
Fri, 11/08/2019 - 03:26
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections and their efficacy on gross motor function for lower limb spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study included 919 injection occasions from 591 children with CP who received a lower limb BoNT-A injection between 2006 and 2016. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-...
Mon, 11/04/2019 - 03:25
Treatment for patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is always challenging for urologists. The main mechanism of the botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is inhibition of muscle contraction, but the indirect sensory modulation and anti-inflammatory effect in the bladder also play important roles in treating patients with IC/BPS. Although current guidelines consider BoNT-A...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:38
by Javier Marín, Teresa Blanco, José J. Marín, Alejandro Moreno, Elena Martitegui, Juan C. Aragüés Background Gait analysis with motion capture (MoCap) during rehabilitation can provide objective information to facilitate treatment decision making. However, designing a test to be integrated into healthcare services requires considering multiple design factors. The difficulty of integrating a ‘...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:33
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can counteract the highly frequent involuntary muscle contractions and the uncontrolled micturition events that characterize the neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to supra-sacral spinal cord lesions. The ability of the toxin to block the neurotransmitter vesicular release causes the reduction of contractions and improves the compliance of the muscle and the...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:40
Author(s): Murat Kara, Eda Gürçay, Gülümser Aydın, Bayram Kaymak, Merve Sekizkardeş, Ayşen Akıncı, Derya Uludüz, Levent ÖzçakarAbstractThe treatment of chronic migraine headache is quite challenging and new alternatives are still being explored for its management. Onabotulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) applied into extracranial muscles has been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine and local...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:29
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/ CPPS) has a negative impact on the quality of life, and its etiology still remains unknown. Although many treatment protocols have been evaluated in CP/CPPS, the outcomes have usually been disappointing. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), produced from Clostridium botulinum, has been widely used to lower urinary tract dysfunctions such as...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:29
The detection of catalytically active botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be achieved by monitoring the enzymatic cleavage of soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins by the toxins’ light chains (LC) in cleavage-based assays. Thus, for sensitive BoNT detection, optimal cleavage conditions for the clinically relevant A–F...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:41
by Adrianna R. Tsang, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Mandar S. Jog Parkinson’s disease is associated with hyperactivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), contributing to motor and gait disturbances. Although deep brain stimulation of the STN alleviates certain motor dysfunction, its specific effect on gait abnormalities remains controversial. This study investigated the long-term changes in locomotion...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:31
Chronic Migraine (CM) is a disabling neurologic condition with a severe impact on functioning and quality of life. Successful therapeutic management of patients with CM is complex, and differences in therapeutic response could be attributable to genetically determined factors, sensitivity to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial and relational factors affecting the patient’s...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) appears to be one of the best intravesical treatments for interstitial cystitis/bladder painful syndrome (IC/BPS). We aimed to point out what the evidence is regarding the effects of BoNT/A intravesically injected in patients with IC/BPS. We performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing BoNT/A for IC/BPS by using Medline, EMBASE...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:30
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) urethral sphincter injections have been applied in treating voiding dysfunction but the treatment outcome is not consistent. This study analyzed treatment outcomes between patients with different bladder and urethral sphincter dysfunctions. Patients with refractory voiding dysfunction due to neurogenic or non-neurogenic etiology were treated with urethral sphincter 100...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:29
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used for the treatment of a variety of neurologic, medical and cosmetic conditions. Two serotypes, type A (BoNT-A) and type B (BoNT-B), are currently in clinical use. While considered safe and effective, their use has been rarely complicated by the development of antibodies that reduce or negate their therapeutic effect. The presence of antibodies has been...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and...
Fri, 09/20/2019 - 03:30
Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can exhibit various lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) owing to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), prostatic inflammation, and bladder response to BOO. The pathogenesis of BPH involves an imbalance of internal hormones and chronic prostatic inflammation, possibly triggered by prostatic infection, autoimmune responses, neurogenic inflammation,...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 17:00
Douglas Barker, Karen T. Gillum, Nancy A. Niemuth, Shantha Kodihalli Botulism neurotoxins are highly toxic and are potential agents for bioterrorism. The development of effective therapy is essential to counter the possible use of these toxins in military and bioterrorism scenarios, and to provide treatment in cases of natural intoxication. Guinea pigs were intoxicated with a lethal dose of...
Fri, 09/13/2019 - 03:26
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. As one of the most poisonous toxins known and a potential bioterrosism agent, BoNT is characterized by a complex mode of action comprising: internalization, translocation and proteolytic cleavage of a substrate, which inhibits synaptic exocytotic transmitter release at neuro-muscular nerve...

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