Clostridium botulinum

Thu, 01/14/2021 - 00:00
Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 00:00
Since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of blepharospasm and other facial spasms, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has evolved into a therapeutic modality for a variety of neurological and non-neurological disorders. With respect to neurologic movement disorders, BoNT has been reported to be effective for the treatment of dystonia, bruxism, tremors, tics...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 10:05
We report the complete genome (3.9-Mb chromosome, 5.9-kb plasmid) of Clostridium botulinum CJ0611A1, a type A(B) strain isolated from carrot juice distributed in Canada and linked to an international 2006 foodborne botulism outbreak. This strain encodes a full-length bont/A1 gene and a truncated bont/B gene.
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 00:00
Over the last few decades, proteins and peptides have become increasingly more common as FDA-approved drugs, despite their inefficient delivery due to their inability to cross the plasma membrane. In this context, bacterial two-component systems, termed AB toxins, use various protein-based membrane translocation mechanisms to deliver toxins into cells, and these mechanisms could provide new...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are extremely potent and can induce respiratory failure, requiring long-term intensive care to prevent death. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics and prophylactics. In contrast, equine antitoxin cannot be used prophylactically and has a short half-life. Two three-mAb combinations are in development that specifically...
Tue, 01/05/2021 - 00:00
There are still concerns about masseteric bulging due to a lack of knowledge about the internal architecture of the masseter muscle. Further investigations are therefore required of the most-effective botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection points and strategies for managing masseteric bulging. The purpose of this study was to identify safer and more effective botulinum neurotoxin injection points...
Fri, 01/01/2021 - 00:00
The response to BoNT is not uniform; a broad spectrum of responses and side-effects usually occurs. This study aimed to show special cervical dystonia cases with therapy response very different to normal treatment course which indicate the extreme ends of therapy spectrum. Patients: Clinical data and course of treatment of five long-term treated patients with cervical dystonia out of therapy...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most poisonous known biological substances, and therefore the availability of reliable, easy-to use tools for BoNT detection are important goals for food safety and human and animal health. The reference method for toxin detection and identification is the mouse bioassay (MBA). An EndoPep-MS method for BoNT differentiation has been developed based on...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection is considered an available alternative treatment for myofascial pain. However, its efficacy in treating masticatory myofascial pain syndrome (MMPS) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BTA injection into the affected muscles would significantly reduce pain and improve function, and to assess its efficacy, safety, and...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) show increasing therapeutic applications ranging from treatment of locally paralyzed muscles to cosmetic benefits. At first, in the 1970s, BoNT was used for the treatment of strabismus, however, nowadays, BoNT has multiple medical applications including the treatment of muscle hyperactivity such as strabismus, dystonia, movement disorders, hemifacial spasm, essential...
Mon, 12/21/2020 - 00:00
In this first, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and feasibility of using kinematic tremor assessment to aid in the planning of muscle selection in a multicenter setting. Reproducibility of the planning technology to other clinical sites was explored. In this trial (NCT02207946), patients with upper-limb...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype A inhibits neurotransmitter release by cleaving SNAP-25 and represents an established pharmaceutical for treating medical conditions caused by hyperactivity of cholinergic nerves. Oversecretion from non-neuronal cells is often also the cause of diseases. Notably, excessive release of inflammatory messengers is thought to contribute to diseases such as chronic...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A has been used in the treatment of chronic migraine for over a decade and has become established as a well-tolerated option for the preventive therapy of chronic migraine. Ongoing research is gradually shedding light on its mechanism of action in migraine prevention. Given that its mechanism of action is quite different from that of the new monoclonal antibodies directed...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 14:06
Botulinum toxin is the highly toxic substance that causes very dangerous neuroparalytic disease called botulism. It is produced by anaerobic and endospore forming bacteria called C. botulinum. In the absence of licensed vaccine against botulism, an immunoproteome-based approach was developed to find immunogenic proteins of C. botulinum type B for development of vaccine against botulism....
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Equinovarus/equinus foot is a pattern most commonly treated with botulinum toxin type A in patients with post-stroke spasticity involving the lower limbs; the gastrocnemius is the muscle most frequently injected. Spastic equinovarus/equinus can present a mixture of conditions, including spasticity, muscle/tendon shortening, muscle weakness and imbalance. In this study, we wanted to determine...
Sat, 12/05/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is an effective treatment for post-stroke spasticity; however, some patients cannot access treatment until ≥1 year post-stroke. This Brazilian post-marketing study (NCT02390206) assessed the achievement of person-centered goals in patients with chronic post-stroke spasticity after a BoNT-A injection. Patients had a last documented stroke ≥1 year...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 06:22
Author(s): Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, Vinay Goyal Hemi-facial spasm (HFS) is an off label but well-accepted indication for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy(Berardelli et al., 1997). BoNT has been used widely over the past few decades and has an excellent safety record. However, there are instances when patients with no neuromuscular disorders have developed symptoms of asthenia, dysphagia,...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 00:01
The extraordinarily potent clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and the seven established botulinum neurotoxin serotypes (BoNT/A-G). They are composed of four structurally independent domains: the roles of the catalytically active light chain, the translocation domain HN, and the C-terminal receptor binding domain HCC are largely resolved, but that of the HCN domain...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 00:00
Biological toxins are a heterogeneous group of high molecular as well as low molecular weight toxins produced by living organisms. Due to their physical and logistical properties, biological toxins are very attractive to terrorists for use in acts of bioterrorism. Therefore, among the group of biological toxins, several are categorized as security relevant, e.g., botulinum neurotoxins,...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 00:01
Human botulism is a severe disease characterized by flaccid paralysis and inhibition of certain gland secretions, notably salivary secretions, caused by inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Naturally acquired botulism occurs in three main forms: food-borne botulism by ingestion of preformed botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in food, botulism by intestinal colonization (infant botulism and intestinal...
Sun, 11/01/2020 - 00:00
Sialorrhea, or excessive saliva beyond the margin of the lip, is a common problem in many neurological diseases. Previously, sialorrhea has been underrecognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Despite this, many patients rank sialorrhea as one of the most debilitating complaints of Parkinson’s disease. Previous treatment for sialorrhea has been suboptimal and has been...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
The microbial safety concern in thermally processed extended shelf-life (ESL) refrigerated foods is associated with spore-forming pathogens such as nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F. These are traditionally regarded as the target pathogens in validation of thermally processed ESL foods. Their use is restricted due to their designation as select agents. In this study, the heat...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type B (BoNT/B) has been recommended as an alternative for patients who have become resistant to botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A). This study aimed to compare the clinical effect, within a patient, of four injections with low doses of rimabotulinumtoxinB with the effect of the preceding abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT/A) injections. Methods: In 17 patients with cervical dystonia (CD)...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 00:00
Two randomized, placebo-controlled studies evaluated the pulmonary function safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) for treatment of upper and/or lower limb spasticity. Patients with stable baseline respiratory status received one or two treatments with placebo, 240 U, or 360 U of onabotA. Pulmonary function tests, adverse events, and efficacy were measured at least every 6 weeks for 18 weeks (...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Sepehr Saeidiborojeni, Patricia Branco Mills, Rajiv Reebye, Heather Finlayson Our objective was to systematically review literature regarding the rationale and current evidence for peri-operative Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) injection to improve outcomes of surgeries on spastic limbs. We conducted a systematic search of databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 00:00
Chronic stroke survivors with spastic hemiplegia have various clinical presentations of ankle and foot muscle spasticity patterns. They are mechanical consequences of interactions between spasticity and weakness of surrounding muscles during walking. Four common ankle and foot spasticity patterns are described and discussed through sample cases. The patterns discussed are equinus, varus,...
Thu, 10/01/2020 - 00:01
Chemodenervation of cervical musculature using botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is established as the gold standard or treatment of choice for management of Cervical Dystonia (CD). The success of BoNT procedures is measured by improved symptomology while minimizing side effects and is dependent upon many factors including: clinical pattern recognition, identifying contributory muscles, BoNT dosage,...
Mon, 09/28/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) is one of the major causes of human botulism, which is a life-threatening disease caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles. After receptor-mediated toxin internalization into motor neurons, the translocation domain (HN) of BoNT/E transforms into a protein channel upon vesicle acidification in endosomes and delivers its protease domain (LC) across membrane to...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype E is one of three serotypes that cause the preponderance of human botulism cases and is a Tier 1 Select Agent. BoNT/E is unusual among BoNT serotypes for its rapid onset and short duration of intoxication. Here we report two large panels of unique, unrelated camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that were selected for their ability to bind to BoNT/E...
Mon, 09/21/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Ali Gücükoğlu, Erdem Saka, Tolga Uyanik, Sibel Kanat, Özgür Çadirci, Rahşan Akpinar Beekeeping industry is developing day by day in the world and accordingly, there is an increase in the variety of beekeeping products. One of these products is pollen which is the main source of proteins necessary for bees to complete their growth and development and also an excellent functional food...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 00:01
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be used therapeutically to treat a wide range of neuromuscular and neurological conditions. A collection of natural BoNT variants exists which can be classified into serologically distinct serotypes (BoNT/B), and further divided into subtypes (BoNT/B1, B2, …). BoNT subtypes share a high degree of sequence identity within the same serotype yet can...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 00:01
Clostridium botulinum Group I and Clostridium sporogenes are closely related bacteria responsible for foodborne, infant and wound botulism. A comparative genomic study with 556 highly diverse strains of C. botulinum Group I and C. sporogenes (including 417 newly sequenced strains) has been carried out to characterise the genetic diversity and spread of these bacteria and their neurotoxin genes....
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 00:01
The aim of the study was to propose a more efficient and safer botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection method for the masseter by comparing the conventional blind injection and a novel ultrasonography (US)-guided injection technique in a clinical trial. The 40 masseters from 20 healthy young Korean volunteers (10 males and 10 females with a mean age of 25.6 years) were included in this...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Jungtae Na, Esther Lee, Yu-jin Kim, Mi Ji Choi, Su-Young Kim, Jeong Sun Nam, Bum Jin Yun, Beom Joon Kim A new type A botulinum toxin (BoNT/A) preparation, JTM201 (NCBI chromosomal DNA ID: CP046450), has been developed, which comprises 900-kDa complexed toxin purified from Clostridium botulinum (strain: NCTC13319), but its safety and efficacy have not yet been evaluated. The purpose of...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 00:00
This explorative cross-sectional study aims at exploring emotional distress, psychological profiles, and the attitude towards receiving psychological support in eighty-seven patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing OnabotulinumtoxinA prophylactic treatment (OBT-A, n = 40) or withdrawal treatment (WT, n = 47). The outcomes were explored through a specific battery of questionnaires. 25% of...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 00:01
Toxins are the major pathogenicity factors produced by numerous bacteria involved in severe diseases in humans and animals. Certain pathogenic bacteria synthesize only one toxin which is responsible for all the symptoms and outcome of the disease. For example, botulinum toxins (BoNTs) and tetanus toxin (TeNT) are the unique causal factors of botulism and tetanus, respectively. Other bacteria...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz-Lora, Henrique Ballassini Abdalla, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Juliana Trindade Clemente Napimoga Analgesic mechanism of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) involves retrograde axonal transport to central nervous system, where it may interact with sensory neurons. Though, some authors suggested that BoNT/A antinociceptive action may also be associated with...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
C3 protein toxins produced by Clostridium (C.) botulinum and C. limosum are mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which specifically modify the GTPases Rho A/B/C in the cytosol of monocytic cells, thereby inhibiting Rho-mediated signal transduction in monocytes, macrophages, and osteoclasts. C3 toxins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytic cells by endocytosis and translocate from acidic...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): S. Lebrun, T. Van Nieuwenhuysen, S. Crèvecoeur, R. Vanleyssem, J. Thimister, S. Denayer, S. Jeuge, G. Daube, A. Clinquart, B. Fremaux Outgrowth and toxinogenesis of Clostridium botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic) type B were studied in cooked ham prepared with different NaNO2 (ranging from 0 to 80 mg/kg) and sodium chloride (NaCl, ranging from 12 to 19 g/kg) incorporation rates. Cured...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 00:00
To study the jitter parameters in the distant (DM) and the adjacent muscle (AM) after botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) injection in 78 patients, jitter was measured by voluntary activation in DM (n = 43), and in AM (n = 35). Patients were receiving BoNT/A injections as a treatment for movement disorders. Mean age 65.1 years (DM) and 61.9 years (AM). The mean jitter was abnormal in 13.9% (...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 06:25
Author(s): Vijay K. Juneja, Anuj S. Purohit, Max Golden, Marangeli Osoria, Kathleen A. Glass, Abhinav Mishra, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Govindaraj Devkumar, Tim B. Mohr, Udit Minocha, Meryl Silverman, Donald W. Schaffner A dynamic model to predict the germination and outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum spores in cooked ground beef was presented. Raw ground beef was inoculated with a ten-strain C...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridia species are the most potent identified natural toxins. Classically, the toxic neurological syndrome is characterized by an (afebrile) acute symmetric descending flaccid paralysis. The most know typical clinical syndrome of botulism refers to the foodborne form. All different forms are characterized by the same symptoms, caused by toxin-induced...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 00:00
The three different botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) preparations being licensed in Europe and the U.S. differ in protein content, which seems to be a major factor influencing the antigenicity of BoNT/A. In the present study, several arguments out of our research pool were collected to demonstrate that the clinical response and antigenicity were different for the three BoNT/A preparations: some...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:01
In stroke survivors, rectus femoris (RF) spasticity is often implicated in gait pattern alterations such as stiff knee gait (SKG). Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is considered the gold standard for focal spasticity treatment. However—even if the accuracy of injection is crucial for BoNT-A efficacy—instrumented guidance for BoNT-A injection is not routinely applied in clinical...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a major therapeutic agent that has been proven to be a successful treatment for different neurological disorders, with emerging novel therapeutic indications each year. BoNT/A exerts its action by blocking SNARE complex formation and vesicle release through the specific cleavage of SNAP-25 protein; the toxin is able to block the release of pro-inflammatory...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Spastic muscles are weak muscles. It is known that muscle weakness is linked to poor motor performance. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are considered as the first-line treatment for focal spasticity. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of BoNT injections on force control of spastic biceps brachii muscles in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 00:01
Previous studies have reported increased brain deposits of iron in patients with chronic migraine (CM). This study aims to determine the relation between iron deposits and outcome after treatment with OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA). Demographic and clinical data were collected for this study through a prospective cohort study including 62 CM patients treated with OnabotA in the Hospital Cl&...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 22:16
Achalasia is a primary motility disorder of the esophagus, and while there are several treatment options, there is no consensus regarding them. When therapeutic intervention for achalasia fails, a careful evaluation of the cause of the persistent or recurrent symptoms using upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and contrast radiologic studies is required to understand the cause of therapy...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 00:00
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological movement disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions. First-line therapy for CD is intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin (e.g., abobotulinumtoxinA) into the affected muscles. The objective of this systematic literature review is to assess the clinical evidence regarding the effects of abobotulinumtoxinA for treatment of...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Višnja Drinovac Vlah, Lidija Bach-Rojecky Mirror pain represents pain with complex pathophysiological background experienced at both sides of the body, usually after unilateral injury. Although observed almost 10 years ago, the phenomenon of bilateral antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) following its unilateral administration in experimental mirror-image pain (MP...

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