Clostridium botulinum

Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:29
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/ CPPS) has a negative impact on the quality of life, and its etiology still remains unknown. Although many treatment protocols have been evaluated in CP/CPPS, the outcomes have usually been disappointing. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), produced from Clostridium botulinum, has been widely used to lower urinary tract dysfunctions such as...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:29
The detection of catalytically active botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be achieved by monitoring the enzymatic cleavage of soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins by the toxins’ light chains (LC) in cleavage-based assays. Thus, for sensitive BoNT detection, optimal cleavage conditions for the clinically relevant A–F...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:41
by Adrianna R. Tsang, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Mandar S. Jog Parkinson’s disease is associated with hyperactivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), contributing to motor and gait disturbances. Although deep brain stimulation of the STN alleviates certain motor dysfunction, its specific effect on gait abnormalities remains controversial. This study investigated the long-term changes in locomotion...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:31
Chronic Migraine (CM) is a disabling neurologic condition with a severe impact on functioning and quality of life. Successful therapeutic management of patients with CM is complex, and differences in therapeutic response could be attributable to genetically determined factors, sensitivity to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial and relational factors affecting the patient’s...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) appears to be one of the best intravesical treatments for interstitial cystitis/bladder painful syndrome (IC/BPS). We aimed to point out what the evidence is regarding the effects of BoNT/A intravesically injected in patients with IC/BPS. We performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing BoNT/A for IC/BPS by using Medline, EMBASE...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:30
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) urethral sphincter injections have been applied in treating voiding dysfunction but the treatment outcome is not consistent. This study analyzed treatment outcomes between patients with different bladder and urethral sphincter dysfunctions. Patients with refractory voiding dysfunction due to neurogenic or non-neurogenic etiology were treated with urethral sphincter 100...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:29
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used for the treatment of a variety of neurologic, medical and cosmetic conditions. Two serotypes, type A (BoNT-A) and type B (BoNT-B), are currently in clinical use. While considered safe and effective, their use has been rarely complicated by the development of antibodies that reduce or negate their therapeutic effect. The presence of antibodies has been...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and...
Fri, 09/20/2019 - 03:30
Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can exhibit various lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) owing to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), prostatic inflammation, and bladder response to BOO. The pathogenesis of BPH involves an imbalance of internal hormones and chronic prostatic inflammation, possibly triggered by prostatic infection, autoimmune responses, neurogenic inflammation,...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 17:00
Douglas Barker, Karen T. Gillum, Nancy A. Niemuth, Shantha Kodihalli Botulism neurotoxins are highly toxic and are potential agents for bioterrorism. The development of effective therapy is essential to counter the possible use of these toxins in military and bioterrorism scenarios, and to provide treatment in cases of natural intoxication. Guinea pigs were intoxicated with a lethal dose of...
Fri, 09/13/2019 - 03:26
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. As one of the most poisonous toxins known and a potential bioterrosism agent, BoNT is characterized by a complex mode of action comprising: internalization, translocation and proteolytic cleavage of a substrate, which inhibits synaptic exocytotic transmitter release at neuro-muscular nerve...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 03:27
Clostridium is a broad genus of anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that can be found in different environments all around the world. The genus includes human and animal pathogens that produce potent exotoxins that cause rapid and potentially fatal diseases responsible for countless human casualties and billion-dollar annual loss to the agricultural sector. Diseases...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 528: Antibodies and Vaccines Against Botulinum Toxins: Available Measures and Novel Approaches Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090528 Authors: Rasetti-Escargueil Popoff Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. As one of the most poisonous toxins known and a potential bioterrosism agent, BoNT is...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 525: Vaccine Production to Protect Animals Against Pathogenic Clostridia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090525 Authors: Zaragoza Orellana Moonen Moutafis Marcellin Clostridium is a broad genus of anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that can be found in different environments all around the world. The genus includes human and animal...
Wed, 09/04/2019 - 03:47
Botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) recognizes nerve terminals by binding to 2 receptor components: a polysialoganglioside, predominantly GT1b, and synaptotagmin 1/2. It is widely thought that BoNT/B initially binds to GT1b then diffuses in the plane of the membrane to interact with synaptotagmin. We have addressed the hypothesis that a...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 12:01
Botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) recognizes nerve terminals by binding to 2 receptor components: a polysialoganglioside, predominantly GT1b, and synaptotagmin 1/2. It is widely thought that BoNT/B initially binds to GT1b then diffuses in the plane of the membrane to interact with synaptotagmin. We have addressed the hypothesis that a...
Mon, 09/02/2019 - 04:02
Author(s): Anna Kutschenko, Hans Bigalke, Florian Wegner, Kai WohlfarthAbstractBotulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is synthesized as a progenitor toxin complex (PTC) by Clostridium botulinum. This PTC comprises, in addition to the neurotoxin itself, neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs) which are composed of three hemagglutinins and one non-toxic, non-hemagglutinin protein. After oral ingestion, these...
Mon, 09/02/2019 - 04:02
Author(s): Jung E. Park, Ejaz A. Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F. Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark HallettAbstractBackgroundWriter's cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are the current best therapy. Past studies have...
Sun, 09/01/2019 - 03:59
Author(s): A. Prisilla, P. ChellapandiAbstractC2 toxin produced from Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D has a potential role in many pathophysiological mechanisms in birds and animals. It has encompassed an ADP ribosyltransferase subunit (C2I) and a translocation/binding subunit (C2II). In the present study, we intended to produce C2I mutant proteins as recombinant subunit vaccines by using...
Tue, 08/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 472: Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens Occurrence in Kazakh Honey Samples Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080472 Authors: Balgabay Maikanov Raikhan Mustafina Laura Auteleyeva Jan Wiśniewski Krzysztof Anusz Tomasz Grenda Krzysztof Kwiatek Magdalena Goldsztejn Magdalena Grabczak The aim of this study was to assess occurrence of Clostridium...
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 464: Camelid VHHs Fused to Human Fc Fragments Provide Long Term Protection Against Botulinum Neurotoxin A in Mice Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080464 Authors: Godakova Noskov Vinogradova Ugriumova Solovyev Esmagambetov Tukhvatulin Logunov Naroditsky Shcheblyakov Gintsburg The bacterium Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of...
Fri, 07/26/2019 - 01:06
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Author(s): Jung E. Park, Ejaz A. Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F. Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark HallettAbstractBackgroundWriter’s cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)...
Sat, 07/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 407: Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070407 Authors: Candace S. Bever Miles Scotcher Luisa W. Cheng Robert M. Hnasko Larry H. Stanker Botulism is a devastating disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) secreted primarily by Clostridium botulinum. Mouse bioassays...
Sat, 06/08/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Author(s): Molly S. Moritz, William H. Tepp, Heather N'te Inzalaco, Eric A. Johnson, Sabine PellettAbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent neurotoxins and are the causative agent of botulism, as well as valuable pharmaceuticals. BoNTs are divided into seven serotypes that comprise over 40 reported subtypes. BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 are...
Wed, 05/01/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Author(s): Di Wang, Jiaorong Qu, Haiyue Jiang, Yu JiangAbstractScars can have a dramatic impact on patients' physical appearance and function. Injection of botulinum toxin has been used to prevent scar formation at the site of injury and to remodel scars that have already formed. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and...
Thu, 04/25/2019 - 20:00
Role of Starter Cultures on the Safety of Fermented Meat Products Marta Laranjo1*, Maria Eduarda Potes1,2 and Miguel Elias1,3 1ICAAM-Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Évora, Portugal 2Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Pólo...
Tue, 04/16/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sharif Najafi, Ehsan Sanati, Mahsa Khademi, Fateme Abdorrazaghi, Reza Kazempoor Mofrad, Zahra RezasoltaniAbstractIn recent years, there is a growing interest in new medical applications of botulinum toxin, including pain control, osteoarthritis treatment, and wound healing. While clinical applications of botulinum toxin seem...
Sun, 02/24/2019 - 01:12
Available online 21 February 2019 Author(s): Santosh Keisam, Ngangyola Tuikhar, Giasuddin Ahmed, Kumaraswamy JeyaramAbstractThe microbial risk involved with natural food fermentation is largely unknown. Here, we report the prevalence of enteric bacterial pathogens in the traditional fermented foods marketed in Northeast region of India. A total of 682 samples of 39 food types (broadly categorized...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Author(s): Giulia Bellon, Andrea Venturin, Stefano Masiero, Alessandra Del FeliceAbstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by hyperalgesia, autonomic and trophic alterations of bones, muscles and skin. It is supported by neurogenic inflammation and impairment of sympathetic nervous system. Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is an...
Sat, 01/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 35: Content/Potency Assessment of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type-A by Validated Liquid Chromatography Methods and Bioassays Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010035 Authors: Bruna Xavier Rafaela Ferreira Perobelli Maurício Elesbão Walter Francielle Santos da Silva Sérgio Luiz Dalmora Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNTA) is one of the seven different serotypes (A to G)...
Mon, 12/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 4: Toxins in Fermented Foods: Prevalence and Preventions—A Mini Review Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010004 Authors: Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Periyanaina Kesika Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Fermented foods (FF) are widely consumed around the world, and FF are one of the prime sources of toxins and pathogenic microbes that are associated with several foodborne...
Fri, 11/30/2018 - 11:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous proteins known to humankind, are a family of seven (serotype A to G) immunologically distinct proteins synthesized primarily by different strains of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Being the causative agents of botulism, the toxins block neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 476: A Rapid, Sensitive, and Portable Biosensor Assay for the Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A in Complex Food Matrices Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110476 Authors: Christina C. Tam Andrew R. Flannery Luisa W. Cheng Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication can lead to the disease botulism, characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that can cause...
Wed, 11/14/2018 - 17:00
Leah E. Worton, Edith M. Gardiner, Ronald Y. Kwon, Leah M. Downey, Brandon J. Ausk, Steven D. Bain, Ted S. Gross At sufficient dose, intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin A causes muscle wasting that is physiologically consistent with surgical denervation and other types of neuromuscular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to clarify early molecular and micro-RNA alterations in skeletal...
Mon, 10/15/2018 - 17:00
Brooke L. Deatherage Kaiser, Karen K. Hill, Theresa J. Smith, Charles H. D. Williamson, Paul Keim, Jason W. Sahl, Karen L. Wahl Microorganisms alter gene and protein expression in response to environmental conditions to adapt and survive. Whereas the genetic composition of a microbe represents an organism’s biological potential, the proteins expressed provide a functional readout of the organism...
Thu, 09/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 381: Immunogenicity of a Bivalent Non-Purified Recombinant Vaccine against Botulism in Cattle Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100381 Authors: Clóvis Moreira Marcos R. A. Ferreira Carlos E. P. da Cunha Rafael A. Donassolo Paula F. Finger Gustavo M. S. G. Moreira Denis Y. Otaka Loise A. de Sousa José D. Barbosa Ângela N. Moreira Felipe M. Salvarani...
Fri, 09/07/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Author(s): Yasushi Torii, Mikio Sasaki, Min-Chul Shin, Norio Akaike, Ryuji KajiAbstractBotulinum toxin type A (subtype A1) is used as therapeutic agent for some neurological disorders causing spasticity. The toxin products have an upper dosage limit, and their adverse events, such as side effects of diffusion following high-dose...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 17:00
Maximilian B. Maier, Tobias Schweiger, Christian A. Lenz, Rudi F. Vogel The effect of high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments on the inactivation of spores of non-proteolytic type E Clostridium botulinum TMW 2.990 was investigated at high pressures (300 to 600 MPa) and elevated temperatures (80 to 100 °C) in four low-acid foods (steamed sole, green peas with ham, vegetable soup, braised veal) and...
Thu, 06/14/2018 - 17:00
Ameenat Lola Solebo, Anne-Marie Austin, Maria Theodorou, Chris Timms, Joanne Hancox, Gillian G. W. Adams Background Botulinum toxin injection chemodenervation is a well-established intervention for adult strabismus, and has also been recognised as an effective alternative to routine incisional surgery for paediatric disease. We aimed to investigate the temporal patterns of practice, indications...
Fri, 06/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 225: The Binary Toxin CDT of Clostridium difficile as a Tool for Intracellular Delivery of Bacterial Glucosyltransferase Domains Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060225 Authors: Lara-Antonia Beer Helma Tatge Carmen Schneider Maximilian Ruschig Michael Hust Jessica Barton Stefan Thiemann Viola Fühner Giulio Russo Ralf Gerhard Binary toxins are produced...
Wed, 05/30/2018 - 16:07
Publication date: July 2018 Source:, Volume 149 Author(s): Mikhail Kalinichev
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype FA, Also Known as Serotype H Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050195 Authors: Gavin Hackett Kevin Moore David Burgin Fraser Hornby Bryony Gray Mark Elliott Imran Mir Matthew Beard We have purified and characterized recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype FA (BoNT/FA). This...
Wed, 05/02/2018 - 17:00
Daniel Stern, Jasmin Weisemann, Alexander Le Blanc, Laura von Berg, Stefan Mahrhold, Janett Piesker, Michael Laue, Peter B. Luppa, Martin Bernhard Dorner, Brigitte Gertrud Dorner, Andreas Rummel The exceptional toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is mediated high avidity binding to complex polysialogangliosides and intraluminal segments of synaptic vesicle proteins embedded in the...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Antoniangela Cocco, Alberto Albanese Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for several indications. Following the pioneering years of discoveries, the recent years have witnessed an increase of new indications and new toxin brands. We review here the clinical trials on BoNTs performed since...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Joseph Jankovic The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): H.A. Jinnah, Cynthia L. Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett Background Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Francisco Cardoso The aim of this article is to provide a review of the use of injections of botulinum toxin in the management of selected symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Sialorrhea is defined as inability to control oral secretions, resulting in excessive saliva in the oropharynx. There...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Cristina Tassorelli, Grazia Sances, Micol Avenali, Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Giuseppe Nappi, Giorgio Sandrini OnabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine following the demonstration of efficacy in two large controlled trials. Data collected from pragmatic...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yingchun Zhang, Christopher P. Smith Botulinum toxin's (BoNT) success in treating several pain disorders has triggered interest in its application for pelvic pain disorders. This article summarizes results presented at the recent Neurotoxins Meeting in Madrid, Spain, in January 2017. It does not include BoNT use for Interstitial...

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