Clostridium botulinum

Tue, 10/20/2020 - 00:00
Two randomized, placebo-controlled studies evaluated the pulmonary function safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) for treatment of upper and/or lower limb spasticity. Patients with stable baseline respiratory status received one or two treatments with placebo, 240 U, or 360 U of onabotA. Pulmonary function tests, adverse events, and efficacy were measured at least every 6 weeks for 18 weeks (...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Sepehr Saeidiborojeni, Patricia Branco Mills, Rajiv Reebye, Heather Finlayson Our objective was to systematically review literature regarding the rationale and current evidence for peri-operative Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) injection to improve outcomes of surgeries on spastic limbs. We conducted a systematic search of databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 00:00
Chronic stroke survivors with spastic hemiplegia have various clinical presentations of ankle and foot muscle spasticity patterns. They are mechanical consequences of interactions between spasticity and weakness of surrounding muscles during walking. Four common ankle and foot spasticity patterns are described and discussed through sample cases. The patterns discussed are equinus, varus,...
Thu, 10/01/2020 - 00:01
Chemodenervation of cervical musculature using botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is established as the gold standard or treatment of choice for management of Cervical Dystonia (CD). The success of BoNT procedures is measured by improved symptomology while minimizing side effects and is dependent upon many factors including: clinical pattern recognition, identifying contributory muscles, BoNT dosage,...
Mon, 09/28/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) is one of the major causes of human botulism, which is a life-threatening disease caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles. After receptor-mediated toxin internalization into motor neurons, the translocation domain (HN) of BoNT/E transforms into a protein channel upon vesicle acidification in endosomes and delivers its protease domain (LC) across membrane to...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype E is one of three serotypes that cause the preponderance of human botulism cases and is a Tier 1 Select Agent. BoNT/E is unusual among BoNT serotypes for its rapid onset and short duration of intoxication. Here we report two large panels of unique, unrelated camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that were selected for their ability to bind to BoNT/E...
Mon, 09/21/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Ali Gücükoğlu, Erdem Saka, Tolga Uyanik, Sibel Kanat, Özgür Çadirci, Rahşan Akpinar Beekeeping industry is developing day by day in the world and accordingly, there is an increase in the variety of beekeeping products. One of these products is pollen which is the main source of proteins necessary for bees to complete their growth and development and also an excellent functional food...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 00:01
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be used therapeutically to treat a wide range of neuromuscular and neurological conditions. A collection of natural BoNT variants exists which can be classified into serologically distinct serotypes (BoNT/B), and further divided into subtypes (BoNT/B1, B2, …). BoNT subtypes share a high degree of sequence identity within the same serotype yet can...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 00:01
Clostridium botulinum Group I and Clostridium sporogenes are closely related bacteria responsible for foodborne, infant and wound botulism. A comparative genomic study with 556 highly diverse strains of C. botulinum Group I and C. sporogenes (including 417 newly sequenced strains) has been carried out to characterise the genetic diversity and spread of these bacteria and their neurotoxin genes....
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 00:01
The aim of the study was to propose a more efficient and safer botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection method for the masseter by comparing the conventional blind injection and a novel ultrasonography (US)-guided injection technique in a clinical trial. The 40 masseters from 20 healthy young Korean volunteers (10 males and 10 females with a mean age of 25.6 years) were included in this...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Jungtae Na, Esther Lee, Yu-jin Kim, Mi Ji Choi, Su-Young Kim, Jeong Sun Nam, Bum Jin Yun, Beom Joon Kim A new type A botulinum toxin (BoNT/A) preparation, JTM201 (NCBI chromosomal DNA ID: CP046450), has been developed, which comprises 900-kDa complexed toxin purified from Clostridium botulinum (strain: NCTC13319), but its safety and efficacy have not yet been evaluated. The purpose of...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 00:00
This explorative cross-sectional study aims at exploring emotional distress, psychological profiles, and the attitude towards receiving psychological support in eighty-seven patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing OnabotulinumtoxinA prophylactic treatment (OBT-A, n = 40) or withdrawal treatment (WT, n = 47). The outcomes were explored through a specific battery of questionnaires. 25% of...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 00:01
Toxins are the major pathogenicity factors produced by numerous bacteria involved in severe diseases in humans and animals. Certain pathogenic bacteria synthesize only one toxin which is responsible for all the symptoms and outcome of the disease. For example, botulinum toxins (BoNTs) and tetanus toxin (TeNT) are the unique causal factors of botulism and tetanus, respectively. Other bacteria...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz-Lora, Henrique Ballassini Abdalla, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Juliana Trindade Clemente Napimoga Analgesic mechanism of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) involves retrograde axonal transport to central nervous system, where it may interact with sensory neurons. Though, some authors suggested that BoNT/A antinociceptive action may also be associated with...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
C3 protein toxins produced by Clostridium (C.) botulinum and C. limosum are mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which specifically modify the GTPases Rho A/B/C in the cytosol of monocytic cells, thereby inhibiting Rho-mediated signal transduction in monocytes, macrophages, and osteoclasts. C3 toxins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytic cells by endocytosis and translocate from acidic...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): S. Lebrun, T. Van Nieuwenhuysen, S. Crèvecoeur, R. Vanleyssem, J. Thimister, S. Denayer, S. Jeuge, G. Daube, A. Clinquart, B. Fremaux Outgrowth and toxinogenesis of Clostridium botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic) type B were studied in cooked ham prepared with different NaNO2 (ranging from 0 to 80 mg/kg) and sodium chloride (NaCl, ranging from 12 to 19 g/kg) incorporation rates. Cured...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 00:00
To study the jitter parameters in the distant (DM) and the adjacent muscle (AM) after botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) injection in 78 patients, jitter was measured by voluntary activation in DM (n = 43), and in AM (n = 35). Patients were receiving BoNT/A injections as a treatment for movement disorders. Mean age 65.1 years (DM) and 61.9 years (AM). The mean jitter was abnormal in 13.9% (...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 06:25
Author(s): Vijay K. Juneja, Anuj S. Purohit, Max Golden, Marangeli Osoria, Kathleen A. Glass, Abhinav Mishra, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Govindaraj Devkumar, Tim B. Mohr, Udit Minocha, Meryl Silverman, Donald W. Schaffner A dynamic model to predict the germination and outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum spores in cooked ground beef was presented. Raw ground beef was inoculated with a ten-strain C...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridia species are the most potent identified natural toxins. Classically, the toxic neurological syndrome is characterized by an (afebrile) acute symmetric descending flaccid paralysis. The most know typical clinical syndrome of botulism refers to the foodborne form. All different forms are characterized by the same symptoms, caused by toxin-induced...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 00:00
The three different botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) preparations being licensed in Europe and the U.S. differ in protein content, which seems to be a major factor influencing the antigenicity of BoNT/A. In the present study, several arguments out of our research pool were collected to demonstrate that the clinical response and antigenicity were different for the three BoNT/A preparations: some...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:01
In stroke survivors, rectus femoris (RF) spasticity is often implicated in gait pattern alterations such as stiff knee gait (SKG). Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is considered the gold standard for focal spasticity treatment. However—even if the accuracy of injection is crucial for BoNT-A efficacy—instrumented guidance for BoNT-A injection is not routinely applied in clinical...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a major therapeutic agent that has been proven to be a successful treatment for different neurological disorders, with emerging novel therapeutic indications each year. BoNT/A exerts its action by blocking SNARE complex formation and vesicle release through the specific cleavage of SNAP-25 protein; the toxin is able to block the release of pro-inflammatory...
Sat, 08/01/2020 - 00:00
Spastic muscles are weak muscles. It is known that muscle weakness is linked to poor motor performance. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are considered as the first-line treatment for focal spasticity. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of BoNT injections on force control of spastic biceps brachii muscles in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 00:01
Previous studies have reported increased brain deposits of iron in patients with chronic migraine (CM). This study aims to determine the relation between iron deposits and outcome after treatment with OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA). Demographic and clinical data were collected for this study through a prospective cohort study including 62 CM patients treated with OnabotA in the Hospital Cl&...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 22:16
Achalasia is a primary motility disorder of the esophagus, and while there are several treatment options, there is no consensus regarding them. When therapeutic intervention for achalasia fails, a careful evaluation of the cause of the persistent or recurrent symptoms using upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and contrast radiologic studies is required to understand the cause of therapy...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 00:00
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological movement disorder characterized by sustained involuntary muscle contractions. First-line therapy for CD is intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin (e.g., abobotulinumtoxinA) into the affected muscles. The objective of this systematic literature review is to assess the clinical evidence regarding the effects of abobotulinumtoxinA for treatment of...
Mon, 07/20/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Višnja Drinovac Vlah, Lidija Bach-Rojecky Mirror pain represents pain with complex pathophysiological background experienced at both sides of the body, usually after unilateral injury. Although observed almost 10 years ago, the phenomenon of bilateral antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) following its unilateral administration in experimental mirror-image pain (MP...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 00:00
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT) in masseter muscle reduction depending on the amount of chin deviation. Exploring distinctive effects of BoNT relative to the characteristics of facial asymmetry will aid in planning and predicting treatment outcomes. Sixteen adult volunteers were classified into two groups according to the degree of menton deviation...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has been used for over 25 years in the management of pediatric lower and upper limb hypertonia, with the first reports in 1993. The most common indication is the injection of the triceps surae muscle for the correction of spastic equinus gait in children with cerebral palsy. The upper limb injection goals include improvements in function, better positioning of the...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the causing agent for botulism, in different serotypes, seven of which (A–G) are well characterized, while others, such as H or FA, are still debated. BoNTs exert their action by blocking SNARE (soluble N-ethylmale-imide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors) complex formation and vesicle...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Spores, the infectious agents of many Firmicutes, are remarkably resilient cell forms. Even distant relatives can have similar spore architectures although some display unique features; they all incorporate protective proteinaceous envelopes. We previously found that Bacillus spores can achieve these protective properties through extensive disulfide cross-linking of self-assembled arrays...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 00:00
This study assessed the safety and efficacy of three different doses of BoNT-A for persistent myofascial pain (MFP). One hundred female subjects were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 20): oral appliance (OA), saline solution (SS) and three BoNT-A groups with different doses. Pain intensity and pressure pain threshold were evaluated up to 24 weeks after treatment. Adverse effects related to...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Jun-hui Su, Ming-na Yang, Fei Teng, Xiao-long Zhang, You-gui Pan, Yue Hu, Li-bin Xiao, Li-zhen Pan, Li-xi Li, Ling-jing Jin Facial synkinesis can be present in both primary and postparalytic hemifacial spasm (HFS). The present retrospective study aimed to summarize the clinical features of synkinesis and explore an appropriate botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection strategy to manage the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is a potent protein that can selectively modulate neurotransmission from nerve endings, resulting in the blocking of neurotransmitter releases and causing muscular paralysis [...]
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 00:00
Differences in botulinum neurotoxin manufacturing, formulation, and potency evaluation can impact dose and biological activity, which ultimately affect duration of action. The potency of different labeled vials of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®; 50 U, 100 U, or 200 U vials; incobotA) versus onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®; 100 U vial; onabotA) were compared on a unit-to-unit basis to...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 22:15
Bacterial toxins are food safety hazards causing about 10% of all reported foodborne outbreaks in Europe. Pertinent to Gram‐positive pathogens, the most relevant toxins are emetic toxin and diarrheal enterotoxins of Bacillus cereus, neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum, enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens, and a family of enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and some other...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 14:04
In this study, we developed a reference labelled protein containing the partial amino acid sequence of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA). We also applied it as an internal standard to detect specific and non-toxic peptides originated from BoNTA in honey with the use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Original proteins in the honey sample were collected through a two-...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of mid-urethral sling (MUS) with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) versus MUS only in women with mixed urinary incontinence. This was a comparative observational study, and total of 73 patients were enrolled. A total of 38 and 35 patients received MUS only and MUS with BoNT-A injection, respectively. The efficacy outcome included change in...
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:36
In 2016, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) published practice guidelines for botulinum toxin (BoNT) in the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache. This article, focusing on dystonia, provides context for these guidelines through literature review. Studies that led to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of each toxin for dystonia indications are...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:36
Clostridium tetani produces a potent neurotoxin, the tetanus toxin (TeNT), which is responsible for an often-fatal neurological disease (tetanus) characterized by spastic paralysis. Prevention is efficiently acquired by vaccination with the TeNT toxoid, which is obtained by C. tetani fermentation and subsequent purification and chemical inactivation. C. tetani synthesizes TeNT in a regulated...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:38
Chronic osteoarthritis pain is an increasing worldwide problem. Treatment for osteoarthritis pain is generally inadequate or fraught with potential toxicities. Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of neuropeptide release. Paralytic toxicity is due to inhibition at the neuromuscular junction, and this effect has been utilized for treatments of painful dystonias. Pain relief following...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:38
Spasticity is a common disabling disorder in adult subjects suffering from stroke, brain injury, multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Spasticity may be a disabling symptom in people during rehabilitation and botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has become the first-line therapy for the local form. High BTX-A doses are often used in clinical practice. Advantages and limitations are...
Sat, 05/09/2020 - 03:34
The neurotoxin formed by Clostridium botulinum Group II is a major cause of foodborne botulism, a deadly intoxication. This study aims to understand the genetic diversity and spread of C. botulinum Group II strains and their neurotoxin genes. A comparative genomic study has been conducted with 208 highly diverse C. botulinum Group II strains (180 newly sequenced strains isolated from 16 countries...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:40
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most potent natural toxin known. Of the seven BoNT serotypes (A to G), types A, B, E, and F cause human botulism. Treatment of human botulism requires the development of effective toxin-neutralizing antibodies without side effects such as serum sickness and anaphylaxis. In this study, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) against serotype B...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:47
ABSTRACT The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise tetanus toxin (TT) and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT [BT]) serotypes (A to G and X) and several recently identified CNT-like proteins, including BT/En and the mosquito BoNT-like toxin Pmp1. CNTs are produced as single proteins cleaved to a light chain (LC) and a heavy chain (HC) connected by an interchain disulfide bond. LC is a zinc...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Mario González-Angulo, Charlien Clauwers, Rania Harastani, Carole Tonello, Isabel Jaime, Jordi Rovira, Chris W. Michiels Bacterial spores survive high pressure processing (HPP). Group II Clostridium botulinum is an obligate anaerobe spore-forming pathogen that can produce the botulinum neurotoxin under refrigeration. This study assessed nontoxigenic type E C. botulinum and Group II...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:37
Objective: The effects of botulinum toxin injections (BoNT) on health-related quality of life along the complex spectrum of spasticity needs further characterization to guide practitioners in a real-life therapeutic environment. Methods: In this study, we analyzed 50 consecutive and unselected patients with spasticity before and four weeks after re-injection of botulinum toxin. Health-related...
Mon, 05/04/2020 - 03:34
This study describes the nerve entry point and intramuscular nerve branching of the rhomboid major and minor, providing essential information for improved performance of botulinum toxin injections and electromyography. A modified Sihler method was performed on the rhomboid major and minor muscles (10 specimens each). The nerve entry point and intramuscular arborization areas were identified in...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:33
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by bacteria, which inhibit neurotransmitter release, specifically in their physiological target known as motor neurons (MNs). For the potency assessment of BoNTs produced for treatment in traditional and aesthetic medicine, the mouse lethality assay is still used by the majority of manufacturers, which is ethically questionable in...
Sun, 04/26/2020 - 03:33
(1) In dystonia, the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is abnormally increased at rest and higher and longer-lasting during movement execution in comparison with healthy subjects (HS), suggesting an abnormal sensorimotor integration. These abnormalities are thought to depend on abnormal proprioceptive input coming from dystonic muscles. Since Botulinum toxin-A (BT-A) reduces...

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