Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Probiotics are used as potential alternatives to antibiotics to prevent NE. It is known that Clostridium butyricum can act as a probiotic that can prevent infection. However, whether or not it exerts a beneficial effect on NE in chickens remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the impact of C. butyricum on immune...
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) contributes to diarrhea and an often-lethal enterotoxemia. CPE action starts when it binds to claudin receptors, forming a small complex (90 kDa). Six small complexes then oligomerize to create prepores, followed by insertion of beta-hairpins from CPE to form beta-barrel pores named CH-1 or CH-2. Of the ~27 members of the human claudin protein family,...
Clostridium perfringens type A causes gas gangrene characterized by myonecrosis and development of an effective therapy for treating affected patients is of clinical importance. It was recently reported that the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is greatly up-regulated by C. perfringens infection. However, the role of G-CSF in C. perfringens-mediated myonecrosis is still...
Clostridium is a broad genus of anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that can be found in different environments all around the world. The genus includes human and animal pathogens that produce potent exotoxins that cause rapid and potentially fatal diseases responsible for countless human casualties and billion-dollar annual loss to the agricultural sector. Diseases...
Author(s): A. Schoster, T. Kunz, M. Lauper, C. Graubner, S. Schmitt, J.S. WeeseAbstractOvergrowth of enteric clostridia in dysbiosis in horses with colic is presumed but scarcely investigated. The objective was to provide prevalence data of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in horses with and without gastrointestinal disease in Switzerland, and investigate microbiota differences...
Clostridium perfringens toxinotype D, toxinotype E, and gastroenteritis-linked BEC/CPILE-positive strains have never been reported in healthy children. We isolated, whole-genome sequenced and bioinformatically characterised three C. perfringens isolates—type D (IQ1), type E (IQ2) and BEC/CPILE-positive (IQ3), recovered from the stools of three healthy two-year-olds, which were further...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 543: Genomic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens BEC/CPILE-Positive, Toxinotype D and E Strains Isolated from Healthy Children
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090543
J. Simon Kroll
Lindsay J. Hall
Clostridium perfringens toxinotype D, toxinotype E, and gastroenteritis-linked BEC/CPILE-...
Clostridium perfringens is the main cause of sudden death in dogs and currently there is no vaccine to prevent it. In this study, a canine C. perfringens type A strain was used to prepare a vaccine. C. perfringens was inactivated by formaldehyde and adjuvants were added. The safety and immunological characteristics of the inactivated C. perfringens vaccine were evaluated in mice and dogs...
Available online 14 September 2019 Author(s): Victoria Stadler Tasca Ribeiro, Letícia Kraft, Paula Hansen Suss, Juliette Cieslinski, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Felipe Francisco TuonAbstractAlthough reports of infections caused by anaerobes after tissue transplantation are uncommon, contamination of allografts may result in substantial complications. Anaerobic incubation and testing of organ...
Available online 9 September 2019 Author(s): Prabhat K. Talukdar, Mahfuzur R. SarkerAbstractClostridium perfringens SM101 genome encode three serine proteases (CspA, CspB, and CspC), and genetic evidence indicates that CspB is required for processing of pro-SleC into active SleC, an enzyme essential for degradation of the peptidoglycan cortex during spore germination. In this study, the...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 525: Vaccine Production to Protect Animals Against Pathogenic Clostridia
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090525
Clostridium is a broad genus of anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that can be found in different environments all around the world. The genus includes human and animal...
The human pathogenic bacterium Clostridium perfringens secretes an enterotoxin (CpE) that targets claudins through its C-terminal receptor-binding domain (cCpE). Isoform-specific binding by CpE causes dissociation of claudins and tight junctions (TJs), resulting in cytotoxicity and breakdown of the gut epithelial barrier. Here, we present crystal structures of human claudin-9 (hCLDN-9)...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 509: Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Does Not Influence Clostridium Perfringens α-Toxin-Induced Myonecrosis in Mice
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090509
Clostridium perfringens type A causes gas gangrene characterized by myonecrosis and development of an effective...
Available online 14 August 2019 Author(s): E. Gkogka, M.W. Reij, L.G.M. Gorris, M.H. ZwieteringAbstractTo assess the risk of C. perfringens toxico-infections related to the consumption of Cornish pasties in the United Kingdom, a stochastic risk assessment model was created. Exposure to the pathogen was modelled as the result of contamination of different ingredients (i.e. beef and pepper),...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 472: Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens Occurrence in Kazakh Honey Samples
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080472
The aim of this study was to assess occurrence of Clostridium...
Available online 1 August 2019 Author(s): Lihan Huang, Changcheng LiAbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the kinetic parameters and apply Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation to predict the growth of Clostridium perfringens from spores in ground chicken meat during dynamic cooling. Inoculated samples were exposed to various cooling conditions to observe dynamic growth. A...
Gas gangrene, or clostridial myonecrosis, is usually caused by Clostridium perfringens and may occur spontaneously in association with diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, or some malignancies but more often after contamination of a deep surgical or traumatic lesion. If not controlled, clostridial myonecrosis results in multiorgan failure, shock, and death, but very little is known...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 419: Perfringolysin O-Induced Plasma Membrane Pores Trigger Actomyosin Remodeling and Endoplasmic Reticulum Redistribution
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070419
Francisco S. Mesquita
Christopher K. E. Bleck
James R. Sellers
Clostridium perfringens produces an arsenal of toxins that act together to cause...
Research progress into mechanisms of the anaerobe Clostridium perfringens associated diseases has been frustrated by the lack of reliable infection models. Wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) have emerged as a viable alternative to other models of infection since they are economic, survive at 37°C and require no specialist equipment. This study aims to establish to what extent G. mellonella...
Co‐encapsulation of lupulon and xanthohumol, as major bioactive components of hop in lecithin‐based nanoliposomes was developed by sonication method. The procedure of production was optimized by considering the duration and the power of ultrasound device as well as the concentration of lecithin as variables for the Response Surface Methodology. The average particle size, ζ‐potential, and the...
Available online 27 June 2019 Author(s): Miaoyun Li, Lihan Huang, Yaodi Zhu, Qingying WeiAbstractRoasted chicken (RC) and braised beef (BB) are two important commercial products widely consumed in China. Prepared with a mixture of different spices and other ingredients, these products may be contaminated with Clostridium perfringens spores. The spores may germinate, outgrow, and multiply to a...
Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019 Innovative Food Science & Emerging TechnologiesAuthor(s): Hee-Jeong Hwang, Ji-Hyun Seo, Chanmin Jeong, Chan-Ick Cheigh, Myong-Soo ChungAbstractThe objective of this study was to measure the inactivation efficiencies of intense pulsed light (IPL) on six types of bacteria and determine how the efficiency values are related to the spectral...
Journal of Food Protection, Volume 82, Issue 7, Page 1141-1147, July 2019.
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 326: Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Toxin Genes in Clinical Isolates of Clostridium perfringens: Coexistence of Alpha-Toxin Variant and Binary Enterotoxin Genes (bec/cpile)
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060326
Meiji Soe Aung
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens infections at health care facility-onset (HCFO) and community-onset (CO), in two health care centers (HCC) in Bogot...
Bacteriophage lysins are compelling antimicrobial proteins whose biotechnological utility and evolvability would be aided by elevated stability. Lysin catalytic domains, which evolved as modular entities distinct from cell wall binding domains, can be classified into one of several families with highly conserved structure and function, many of which contain thousands of annotated homologous...
Available online 30 April 2019 Author(s): J. Sindelar, K. Glass, R. Hanson, J.G. Sebranek, J. Cordray, J.S. DicksonAbstractPork bellies and boneless hams were smoked or cooked using unusually long processes to determine the impact of extended come-up times on the populations of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The products were...
Integrative Analyses of Long Non-coding RNA and mRNA Involved in Piglet Ileum Immune Response to Clostridium perfringens Type C Infection
Xiaoyu Huang1, Wenyang Sun1, Zunqiang Yan1, Hairen Shi1, Qiaoli Yang1, Pengfei Wang1, Shenggui Li1, Lixia Liu2, Shengguo Zhao1 and Shuangbao Gun1,3*
1College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China
2College of Life...
Role of Starter Cultures on the Safety of Fermented Meat Products
Marta Laranjo1*, Maria Eduarda Potes1,2 and Miguel Elias1,3
1ICAAM-Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Évora, Portugal
2Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Pólo...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 232: Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Damages the Mouse Small Intestine
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040232
Clostridium perfringens strains B and C cause fatal intestinal diseases in animals. The secreted pore-forming toxin delta-toxin is one of the virulence factors of the strains, but...
Large-Scale Genomic Analyses and Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens Implicated in Foodborne Outbreaks in France
Abakabir Mahamat Abdelrahim, Nicolas Radomski, Sabine Delannoy, Sofia Djellal, Marylène Le Négrate, Katia Hadjab, Patrick Fach, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne, Michel-Yves Mistou and Olivier Firmesse*
Université PARIS-EST, Agence Nationale de Sécurité...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 225: Application of an Endothelial Cell Culture Assay for the Detection of Neutralizing Anti-Clostridium Perfringens Beta-Toxin Antibodies in a Porcine Vaccination Trial
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040225
Olivia K. Richard
Background: Beta-toxin (CPB) is...
Available online 9 April 2019 Author(s): Nan Zhang, Tisong Liang, Quan Jin, Cai Shen, Yifan Zhang, Pu JingAbstractAntibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common adverse effect of antibiotic treatment. The study was to evaluate effects of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) on AAD, and changes of intestinal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). AAD model was established using Balb/c...
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin that causes the symptoms of common bacterial food poisoning and several non-foodborne human gastrointestinal diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and sporadic diarrhea. In some cases, CPE-mediated disease can be very severe or fatal due to the involvement of enterotoxemia. Therefore, the development of potential...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 177: Targeted Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Clostridium perfringens Toxins
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030177
Alena Myslivcova Fucikova
Targeted proteomics recently proved to be a technique for the detection and absolute quantification...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 138: Two Clostridium perfringens Type E Isolates in France
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030138
Michel R. Popoff
Clostridium perfringens type E is a less frequently isolated C. perfringens type and has not previously been reported in France. We have characterized two recent type E isolates, C. perfringens...
Available online 20 February 2019 Author(s): C.A Oliveira Júnior, R.O.S Silva, A.P Lage, F.M Coura, C.P Ramos, A.A. Alfieri, R.M.C Guedes, F.C.F LobatoAbstractNeonatal porcine diarrhea (NPD) is a current problem on pig farms and is caused by several enteropathogens. Among them, Clostridioides difficile stands out due to its importance in piglets and zoonotic potential. A non-toxigenic strain of C...
Available online 21 February 2019 Author(s): Santosh Keisam, Ngangyola Tuikhar, Giasuddin Ahmed, Kumaraswamy JeyaramAbstractThe microbial risk involved with natural food fermentation is largely unknown. Here, we report the prevalence of enteric bacterial pathogens in the traditional fermented foods marketed in Northeast region of India. A total of 682 samples of 39 food types (broadly categorized...
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019 Innovative Food Science & Emerging TechnologiesAuthor(s): Sang Hui Lee, Juhui Choe, Dong Jin Shin, Hae In Yong, Yukyung Choi, Yohan Yoon, Cheorun JoAbstractWe evaluated the combined effect of high pressure (HP) and vinegar addition on control of Clostridium perfringens and quality in emulsion-type pork sausages. Sausages were manufactured...
Available online 7 February 2019 Author(s): Serap Cosansu, Vijay K. Juneja, Marangeli Osoria, Sudarsan MukhopadhyayAbstractThe heat resistance (57.5–65 °C) of a three-strain cocktail of Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells in sous vide processed ground beef supplemented with 0–3% grape seed extract (GSE) was quantified. The surviving cell population was enumerated on tryptose–sulfite–...
Eimeria tenella can cause the disease coccidiosis in chickens. The direct and often detrimental impact of this parasite on chicken health, welfare, and productivity is well recognized; however, less is known about the secondary effects that infection may have on other gut pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human bacterial foodborne disease in many countries and has been...
Diet is a major determinant of intestinal microbiome composition. While studies have evaluated microbiome responses to diet variation, less is understood about how the act of feeding influences the microbiome, independent of diet type. Here, we use the clownfish Premnas biaculeatus, a species reared commonly in ornamental marine aquaculture, to test how the diversity, predicted gene content, and...
Available online 7 January 2019 Author(s): D. Lepp, S. Ojha, I. Mehdizadeh Gohari, B. Chakravarty, J.F. Prescott, J. GongAbstractNecrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease of broiler chickens that is caused primarily by Clostridium perfringens strains that produce the NetB toxin. It is controlled in North America principally through the application of in-feed antimicrobials, but...
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 1: Multiple Parameters Beyond Lipid Binding Affinity Drive Cytotoxicity of Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins
Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010001
Peter A. Keyel
The largest superfamily of bacterial virulence factors is pore-forming toxins (PFTs). PFTs are secreted by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PFTs sometimes kill...
Publication date: 16 February 2019 , Volume 291Author(s): Yuki Wakabayashi, Hirofumi Nariya, Mayo Yasugi, Tomomi Kuwahara, Mahfuzur R. Sarker, Masami MiyakeAbstractClostridium perfringens type F is a spore-forming anaerobe that causes bacterial food-borne illness in humans. The disease develops when ingested vegetative cells reach the intestinal tract and begin to form spores that produce the...
Publication date: December 2018 , Volume 227Author(s): Jake A. Lacey, Dragana Stanley, Anthony L. Keyburn, Mark Ford, Honglei Chen, Priscilla Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J. MooreAbstractProblem addressed: Clostridium perfringens is the etiological agent of necrotic enteritis in chickens. As necrotic enteritis is a gastrointestinal disease, the interactions of pathogenic C. perfringens strains...
Clostridium perfringens type F (formerly enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A) strains produce an enterotoxin (CPE) to cause acute cases of food poisoning and chronic nonfoodborne human gastrointestinal diseases (NFD), e.g., antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). NFD strains also produce NanI sialidase, an extracellular enzyme that releases sialic acids from sialyated host macromolecules. Recent...