Shigella

Wed, 10/21/2020 - 16:00
Radiation enteritis (RE) is a common complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Although studies have shown the changes of this disease at clinical, pathological and other levels, the dynamic characteristics of local microbiome and metabolomics are hitherto unknown. We aimed to examine the multi-omics features of the gut microecosystem, determining the functional correlation between...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 22:16
Shigella spp. are water‐borne pathogens responsible for mild to severe cases bacilli dysentery all around the world known as Shigellosis. The progressively increasing of antibiotic resistance among Shigella calls for developing and establishing novel alternative therapeutic methods. The present study aimed to evaluate a novel phage cocktail of lytic phages against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 16:00
The pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) is characterized by immune dysregulation, which is related to gut dysbiosis. The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiota of patients with IgAN and MN vs. healthy controls. We used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities of 44 patients with kidney biopsy-proven IgAN, 40...
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 16:00
Shigella spp. and entero-invasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause mild diarrhea to dysentery. In Netherlands, although shigellosis is a notifiable disease, there is no laboratory surveillance for Shigella spp. and EIEC in place. Consequently, the population structure for circulating Shigella spp. and EIEC isolates is not known. This study describes the phenotypic and serological characteristics...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:18
Contamination of ready‐to‐eat (RTE) foods by pathogenic bacteria may predispose consumers to foodborne diseases. This study investigated the presence of bacterial contaminants and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in three locally processed RTE foods (eko, fufu and zobo) vended in urban markets in Ogun state, Nigeria. Bacteria isolated from a total of 120 RTE food samples were identified...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Shigella is the second leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Recently, Shigella sonnei seems to be replacing Shigella flexneri in low- and middle-income countries undergoing economic development. Despite this, studies focusing on these species at the genomic level remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared the genome sequences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates from India...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 10:04
There are four bacterial species in the genus Shigella that cause shigellosis or dysentery. Shigella boydii is one of the least studied Shigella species but has been shown to be separated into three phylogenomic clades. Here, we report four complete reference sequences of the S. boydii phylogenomic clades.
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 10:04
The 4.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli strain Tj, isolated from the Varzob River in Tajikistan, is presented. This strain possesses four prophage elements related to Shigella phage SfV, E. coli O157:H7-specific phage V10, lambdoid phage HK225, and coliphage Ayreon. It contains a gene encoding a hemolysin E toxin.
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 16:00
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome requires the expression of NLRP3, which is strictly regulated by its capacity to directly recognize microbial-derived substances. Even though the involvement of caspase-1 activation in macrophages via NLRP3 and NLRC4 has been discovered, the accurate mechanisms by which Shigella infection triggers NLRP3 activation remain inadequately understood. Here, we...
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 10:03
Shigella flexneri is a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in developing countries where serotype 2a2 is the prevalent strain. To date, approximately 30 serotypes have been identified for S. flexneri and the major contribution to the emergence of new serotypes is chemical modifications of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component O antigen (Oag). Glucosylation, O-acetylation and...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 04:02
Shigella flexneri targets colonic cells in humans to initiate invasive infection processes that lead to dysentery, and direct interactions between their lipopolysaccharide O antigens and blood group A related glycans are involved in the cell adherence interactions. Here, we show that treatment with Tn and sialyl-Tn glycans, monoclonal antibodies and lectins reactive to Tn/sialyl-Tn, and luteolin...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Shigella is a major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea largely affecting children (<5 years old) living in low- and middle-income countries. Several vaccine candidates are in development, and controlled human infection models (CHIMs) can be useful tools to provide an early assessment of vaccine efficacy and potentially support licensure. A lyophilized strain of S. sonnei 53G was...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) are useful for vaccine development. To improve on existing models, we developed a CHIM using a lyophilized preparation of Shigella sonnei strain 53G produced using current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Healthy adults were enrolled in an open-label dose-ranging study. Following administration of a dose of rehydrated S. sonnei strain 53G,...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
The bacteriological diagnosis of intestinal bacterial infections has historically been based on culture on agar plates. However, culture may lack sensitivity, and some enteropathogens, such as pathovars of Escherichia coli, may escape routine diagnosis. Our goal was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Novodiag Bacterial GE+ kit for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria in acute...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
The Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS) has recently noted an increase of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Shigella sonnei isolates nationwide (3.8% in 2016 versus 37.5% in 2019). To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed 25 representative isolates (of which 14 were ESC-R) collected in Switzerland during 2016 to 2019. Whole-genome sequencing was achieved using both...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
Regulation of the environmental stress response and virulence of Shigella flexneri may involve multiple signaling pathways; however, these mechanisms are not well-defined. In bacteria, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) regulate bacterial growth, metabolism, virulence, and environmental stress response. Therefore, identifying novel functional sRNAs in S. flexneri could help elucidate pathogenic...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:30
Author(s): Nor Raihan Mohammad Shabani, Munirah Mokhtar, Chiuan Herng Leow, Qi Ying Lean, Candy Chuah, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chiuan Yee Leow Shigella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes bacterial dysentery called shigellosis. The assessment of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators produced by immune cells against this bacteria are vital in identifying the effectiveness of the...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 16:00
We investigated the in vitro effects of Lactobacillus casei ZX633 on gut microorganism composition in infants with diarrhea. For this purpose, 103 feces samples from healthy infants (healthy group) and 300 diarrhea samples from infants (diarrhea group) were collected, and diarrhea feces were treated with L. casei ZX633, which was previously isolated from healthy infant feces (treatment group). We...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 22:18
This study aims to investigate the gut microbiota and metabolites in breastfed infants with breast milk jaundice (BMJ) using gut microbiome‐metabolomics. Breastfed newborns diagnosed with BMJ and those without BMJ (control group) were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected from the participants and subjected to high‐throughput sequencing of the 16s rDNA V3 and V4 regions of the gut flora and...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 00:01
Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella flexneri is a major cause of under-five mortality in developing countries, where a novel S. flexneri serotype 1c has become very common since the 1980s. However, the origin and diversification of serotype 1c remain poorly understood. To understand the evolution of serotype 1c and their antimicrobial resistance, we sequenced and analyzed the whole-genome of...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:22
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of type of milk, fermentation time, temperature, and stirring conditions on the antibacterial activity of fermented milk by kefir grains. All fermentation conditions had a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of kefir samples against four bacteria, except for the effect of temperature on the diameter of the inhibition zone of Shigella...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 08:04
by Yuen-Yan Chang, Virginie Stévenin, Magalie Duchateau, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Veronique Hourdel, Cristina Dias Rodrigues, Mariette Matondo, Norbert Reiling, Jost Enninga Shigella flexneri invades host cells by entering within a bacteria-containing vacuole (BCV). In order to establish its niche in the host cytosol, the bacterium ruptures its BCV. Contacts between S. flexneri BCV and infection-...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:22
This study optimized storage conditions for fermented pork jerky via microbial fermentation. Lactobacillus bulogaricus was employed as starter culture, fermentation conditions and baking conditions were optimized in study. Microbial indices reflecting parameters of preserved fermented pork jerky involved the detection of total plate count, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 22:18
The objective of this study was to compare the impact of ultrasound (US; 30 kHz; 2, 4, 6, and 8 min) and malic acid (MA; 0.5 and 1%), individually and in combination, on inactivation of food borne pathogens (Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri) and the effect of US treatment on β‐carotene and total phenolics content in sweet lemon juice. The extent...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 06:29
Author(s): Hiroshi Ashida, Toshihiko Suzuki, Chihiro Sasakawa In response to bacterial infection, epithelial cells undergo several types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis, which serve to expel the infected cells and activate the innate and acquired immune responses. Shigella initially invades macrophages and subsequently surrounding enterocytes; the...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 16:00
High-fat diet (HFD) leads to enhancement in various parameters of mice like weight, fasting glucose levels, adipose tissue, and also the liver weight in male C57 BL/6 J mice. Additionally, high-fat diet causes severe liver damage with significant increase in the level of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The variations in microbiota induced by different diet were...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 08:03
Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules produced by many microorganisms, usually bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. They possess the property of reducing the tension of the membrane interfaces. No studies have been conducted on Shigella species showing the role of biosurfactant-like molecules (BLM) in pathogenicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of Shigella environmental and clinical...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:18
The developed miniaturized test (s) rapidly detects Escherichia coli/coliforms colorimetrically utilizing specific enzyme substrates and selective agents incorporated in media. High sensitivity and selectivity for target bacteria. A total of 139 milk samples were tested for presence of E.coli/coliforms using developed test (s). Abstract Current investigation was aimed to develop colorimetric...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 16:00
We here report a study characterizing the potential for edible insects to act as a prebiotic by altering the bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome, using batch cultures inoculated with fecal adult human donors. Black field cricket nymphs, grass grub larvae, and wax moth larvae were subjected to an in vitro digestion to simulate the oral, gastric, and small intestinal stages of...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 10:01
In developing countries, Shigella flexneri is the most common enteric pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Biofilm formation by S. flexneri can cause the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which poses serious threats to food safety and human health. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 12 exopolysaccharides (L-EPSs) and S. flexneri exopolysaccharides (S-EPSs) on S....
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Shigella flexneri is a major cause of bacillary dysentery in Beijing, China. The genetic features and population structure of locally circulating clones remained unclear. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of 93 S. flexneri isolates from patients in Beijing from 2005 to 2018. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a predominant lineage comprised of ST100 isolates that had acquired an...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 08:02
Several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexerni, and Rickettsia spp. use an actin-based motility process to spread in mammalian cell monolayers. Cell-to-cell spread is mediated by protrusive structures that contain bacteria encased in the host cell plasma membrane. These protrusions, which form in infected host cells, are internalized by neighboring...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 04:02
Diet greatly influences gut microbiota. Dietary methionine restriction (MR) prevents and ameliorates age-related or high-fat-induced diseases and prolongs life span. This study aimed to reveal the impact of MR on gut microbiota in middle-aged mice with low-, medium-, high-fat diets. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups with different MR and fat-content diets. Multiple indicators of...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 16:00
Previous studies have identified oral administration of antibiotics and gut-impacting drugs as critical drivers for fecal antibiotic resistance (AR) and microbiome disruption in lab mice, but the practical implications of these findings have yet to be validated in hosts nurtured in conventional environment. Using ampicillin (Amp) as a way to extrapolate the general effect of antibiotics, this...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to describe azithromycin (AZM) susceptibility patterns among Shigella isolates in Anhui, China and identify predictors of resistance with mobile element-mediated genes.MethodsA total of 517 non-duplicate Shigella isolates (449 S. flexneri and 68 S. sonnei) were collected in the Anhui Province of China from September 2011–September 2015, and screened for the...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Cell-autonomous immunity relies on the rapid detection of invasive pathogens by host proteins. Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) have emerged as key mediators of vertebrate immune defense through their ability to recognize a diverse array of intracellular pathogens and pathogen-containing cellular compartments. Human and mouse GBPs have been shown to target distinct groups of microbes,...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 04:03
Antibiotic resistance and capacity for biofilm formation of Shigella flexneri render previous prevention and control strategies minimally effective. Ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated to be useful due to its application in foods as an alternative natural preservative. However, information regarding the S. flexneri phenotype and molecular responses to FA exposure is limited. The present study...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 02:03
This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 22:14
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic interactions on antibacterial and antioxidant efficacy of two plant essential oils (EOs) Eucalyptus caesia Benth and Dracocephalum multicaule Montbr & Auch in vitro and in pear slices. Antibacterial combination effect was evaluated against seven important pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes,...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Evaluating the risk of colorectal metachronous adenoma (MA), which is a precancerous lesion, is necessary for metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC) precaution among CRC patients who had underwent surgical removal of their primary tumor. Here, discovery cohort (n = 41) and validation cohort (n = 45) of CRC patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. Mucosal and fecal samples were used for...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:38
The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different early weaning paradigms, which supplied with extra alfalfa hay, or starter feeding, or both alfalfa hay and starter feeding, along with the milk replacer, on the gastrointestinal microbial community, growth, and immune performance of yak calves. Twenty 30-day-old male yak calves were randomly assigned to four groups, including the...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Enterobacter sp. M4 and other bacterial strains were isolated from plant soft rot disease. Virulent phages such as EspM4VN isolated from soil are trending biological controls for plant disease. This phage has an icosahedral head (100 nm in diameter), a neck, and a contractile sheath (100 nm long and 18 nm wide). It belongs to the Ackermannviridae family and resembles Shigella phage Ag3 and...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) cause intestinal illness through the same pathogenic mechanism used by Shigella spp. The latter species can be typed through genomic and phenotypic methods used for E. coli and have been proposed for reclassification within E. coli species. Recently the first appearance of a highly pathogenic EIEC O96:H19 was described in Europe as the causative agent of two...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:42
Post-weaning diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) causes significant economic losses for pig producers. This study was to test the hypotheses that an ETEC challenge disrupts intestinal microbial homeostasis and the inclusion of dietary soluble (10% sugar beet pulp) or insoluble fiber (15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles) with or without exogenous carbohydrases will protect...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:51
Gut microbiome plays an important role in adult human health and diseases. However, how nutritional factors shape the initial colonization of gut bacteria in infants, especially in preterm infants, is still not completely known. In this study, we compared the effects of feeding with mothers’ own breast milk (MBM) and formula on the initial composition and gene expression of gut bacteria in...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:37
The occurrence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has become a serious problem in animals and public. The objective of this study was to identify and isolate lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:45
Shiga toxin (STx) produced by Shigella and closely related Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (STx1 and STx2) synthesized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial AB5 toxins. All three toxins target kidney cells and may cause life-threatening renal disease. While Shigella infections can be treated with antibiotics, resistance is increasing. Moreover, antibiotic therapy is contraindicated...
Sun, 05/17/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Qing Liu, Huali Su, Xiaoping Bian, Shifeng Wang, Qingke Kong Shigella flexneri 2a (Sf2a) is one of the most frequently isolated Shigella strains that causes the endemic shigellosis in developing countries. In this study, we used recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains to deliver Sf2a O-antigen and characterized the immune responses induced by the vectored O-antigen....
Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:35
Human gut bacteria contribute significantly to human health and several studies have evaluated the effects of dietary fibers on human gut bacterial ecology. However, the relationship between different degrees of fiber polymerization and human gut bacteria is unknown. Here, we analyzed three fiber substrates with different degrees of polymerization, namely carboxymethylcellulose, β-glucans, and...

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