Shigella

Sun, 01/17/2021 - 02:03
Abstract Shigellosis is a significant type of diarrhea that causes 160,000 deaths annually in a global scale. The mortality occurs mainly in children less than 5 years of age. No licensed vaccine is available, and conventional efforts for developing an effective and safe vaccine against shigellosis have not been succeeded yet. The reverse vaccinology is a novel promising method that screens...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
The lesser-known traditionally processed meat products such as beef kargyong, pork kargyong, satchu, and khyopeh are popular food items in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. The present study aimed to assess the microbiological safety of traditional meat products by identifying the potential spoilage or pathogenic bacteria, detecting the enterotoxins, and screening the antibiotic...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 12:01
ABSTRACT Biofilm is a predominant lifestyle of bacteria that comprises of cells as collectives enmeshed in a polymeric matrix. Biofilm formation is vital for bacterial species as it provides access to nutrients and protects the cells from environmental stresses. Here we show that interference in biofilm matrix production is a strategy by the competing bacterial species to reduce the ability of...
Tue, 01/05/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Small proteins are gaining increased attention due to their important functions in major biological processes throughout the domains of life. However, their small size and low sequence conservation make them difficult to identify. It is therefore not surprising that enterobacterial ryfA has escaped identification as a small protein coding gene for nearly 2 decades. Since its...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
Studies on the possible alternative supplements to breastmilk are gaining research interests. Although milk from cow, goat, and mare is nutritious, its effects on the relationship between the immune system, metabolites, and gut microbiota remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of cow, goat, and mare milk on the immune system, metabolites, and gut microbiota of...
Fri, 12/04/2020 - 16:00
Macrophages are the first encounters of invading bacteria and are responsible for engulfing and digesting pathogens through phagocytosis leading to initiation of the innate inflammatory response. Intracellular digestion occurs through a close relationship between phagocytic/endocytic and lysosomal pathways, in which proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsins, are involved. The presence of cathepsins...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 16:00
The rise of antibiotic resistance is not only a challenge for human and animal health treatments, but is also posing the risk of spreading among bacterial populations in foodstuffs. Farmed fish-related foodstuffs, the food of animal origin most consumed worldwide, are suspected to be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and resistant bacterial hazards. However, scant research has been...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
Shiga toxin-producing Shigella species and Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic bacteria that cause the bloody diarrheal diseases bacillary dysentery (Shigella spp.) and hemorrhagic colitis (STEC). Unfortunately, patients with these diarrheal diseases are at risk for developing potentially lethal extraintestinal complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), resulting in acute renal...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
The third E. coli and the Mucosal Immune System (ECMIS) meeting was held at Ghent University in Belgium from 2 to 5 June 2019. It brought together an international group of scientists interested in mechanisms of colonization, host response, and vaccine development. ECMIS distinguishes itself from related meetings on these enteropathogens by providing a greater emphasis on animal health and...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 16:00
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a chronic and progressive condition with a series of vulvovaginal, sexual, and lower urinary tract discomforts, mainly due to hypoestrogenism. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has generally been considered as the most effective treatment for GSM. In addition, vaginal microbiota is of particular significance to gynecological and reproductive illnesses...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:02
In Australia, cases of shigellosis usually occur in returned travelers from regions of shigellosis endemicity or in men who have sex with men. Resistance to multiple antibiotics has significantly increased in Shigella sonnei isolates and represents a significant public health concern. We investigate an outbreak of multidrug-resistant S. sonnei in Victoria, Australia. We undertook whole-genome...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 16:00
Every year millions of people die due to fatal waterborne diseases around the world especially in developing countries like India. Sikkim, a northeastern state of India, greatly depends on natural water sources. About 80% of the population of Sikkim depends on natural spring water for domestic as well as agricultural use. Recent waterborne disease outbreaks in the state raises a concerning...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Background Campylobacter species are among the most common causes of enteric bacterial infections worldwide. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for sexually transmitted enteric infections, including globally distributed strains of multidrug-resistant Shigella species. Methods This was a retrospective study of MSM-associated Campylobacter in Seattle, Washington and Montréal,...
Tue, 11/03/2020 - 16:00
Colibacillosis is an economically important infectious disease in poultry, caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of food-borne diseases in human circulated through poultry-derived products, including meat and chicken eggs. Vaccine control is the mainstream approach for combating these infections, but it is...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Various adjuvant effects on the immunogenicity of the candidate inactivated Puumala virus vaccine were detected in BALB/c mice. Adjuvants under study were: aluminum hydroxide, spherical particles of Tobacco mosaic virus coat protein, B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, and low endotoxic lipopolysaccharide of Shigella sonnei. Aluminum hydroxide (1 mg/ml) did not affect...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 10:03
The O-serogrouping of pathogenic Escherichia coli is a standard method for subtyping strains for epidemiological studies and controls. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity in some O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters. Through genomic studies, in addition to the types of O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters (Og-types) from conventional O-serogroup...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 16:00
Radiation enteritis (RE) is a common complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Although studies have shown the changes of this disease at clinical, pathological and other levels, the dynamic characteristics of local microbiome and metabolomics are hitherto unknown. We aimed to examine the multi-omics features of the gut microecosystem, determining the functional correlation between...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 22:16
Shigella spp. are water‐borne pathogens responsible for mild to severe cases bacilli dysentery all around the world known as Shigellosis. The progressively increasing of antibiotic resistance among Shigella calls for developing and establishing novel alternative therapeutic methods. The present study aimed to evaluate a novel phage cocktail of lytic phages against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 16:00
The pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) is characterized by immune dysregulation, which is related to gut dysbiosis. The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiota of patients with IgAN and MN vs. healthy controls. We used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities of 44 patients with kidney biopsy-proven IgAN, 40...
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 16:00
Shigella spp. and entero-invasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause mild diarrhea to dysentery. In Netherlands, although shigellosis is a notifiable disease, there is no laboratory surveillance for Shigella spp. and EIEC in place. Consequently, the population structure for circulating Shigella spp. and EIEC isolates is not known. This study describes the phenotypic and serological characteristics...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:18
Contamination of ready‐to‐eat (RTE) foods by pathogenic bacteria may predispose consumers to foodborne diseases. This study investigated the presence of bacterial contaminants and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in three locally processed RTE foods (eko, fufu and zobo) vended in urban markets in Ogun state, Nigeria. Bacteria isolated from a total of 120 RTE food samples were identified...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Shigella is the second leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Recently, Shigella sonnei seems to be replacing Shigella flexneri in low- and middle-income countries undergoing economic development. Despite this, studies focusing on these species at the genomic level remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared the genome sequences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates from India...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 10:04
There are four bacterial species in the genus Shigella that cause shigellosis or dysentery. Shigella boydii is one of the least studied Shigella species but has been shown to be separated into three phylogenomic clades. Here, we report four complete reference sequences of the S. boydii phylogenomic clades.
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 10:04
The 4.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli strain Tj, isolated from the Varzob River in Tajikistan, is presented. This strain possesses four prophage elements related to Shigella phage SfV, E. coli O157:H7-specific phage V10, lambdoid phage HK225, and coliphage Ayreon. It contains a gene encoding a hemolysin E toxin.
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 16:00
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome requires the expression of NLRP3, which is strictly regulated by its capacity to directly recognize microbial-derived substances. Even though the involvement of caspase-1 activation in macrophages via NLRP3 and NLRC4 has been discovered, the accurate mechanisms by which Shigella infection triggers NLRP3 activation remain inadequately understood. Here, we...
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 10:03
Shigella flexneri is a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in developing countries where serotype 2a2 is the prevalent strain. To date, approximately 30 serotypes have been identified for S. flexneri and the major contribution to the emergence of new serotypes is chemical modifications of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component O antigen (Oag). Glucosylation, O-acetylation and...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 04:02
Shigella flexneri targets colonic cells in humans to initiate invasive infection processes that lead to dysentery, and direct interactions between their lipopolysaccharide O antigens and blood group A related glycans are involved in the cell adherence interactions. Here, we show that treatment with Tn and sialyl-Tn glycans, monoclonal antibodies and lectins reactive to Tn/sialyl-Tn, and luteolin...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Shigella is a major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea largely affecting children (<5 years old) living in low- and middle-income countries. Several vaccine candidates are in development, and controlled human infection models (CHIMs) can be useful tools to provide an early assessment of vaccine efficacy and potentially support licensure. A lyophilized strain of S. sonnei 53G was...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) are useful for vaccine development. To improve on existing models, we developed a CHIM using a lyophilized preparation of Shigella sonnei strain 53G produced using current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Healthy adults were enrolled in an open-label dose-ranging study. Following administration of a dose of rehydrated S. sonnei strain 53G,...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
The bacteriological diagnosis of intestinal bacterial infections has historically been based on culture on agar plates. However, culture may lack sensitivity, and some enteropathogens, such as pathovars of Escherichia coli, may escape routine diagnosis. Our goal was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Novodiag Bacterial GE+ kit for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria in acute...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
The Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS) has recently noted an increase of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Shigella sonnei isolates nationwide (3.8% in 2016 versus 37.5% in 2019). To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed 25 representative isolates (of which 14 were ESC-R) collected in Switzerland during 2016 to 2019. Whole-genome sequencing was achieved using both...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
Regulation of the environmental stress response and virulence of Shigella flexneri may involve multiple signaling pathways; however, these mechanisms are not well-defined. In bacteria, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) regulate bacterial growth, metabolism, virulence, and environmental stress response. Therefore, identifying novel functional sRNAs in S. flexneri could help elucidate pathogenic...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:30
Author(s): Nor Raihan Mohammad Shabani, Munirah Mokhtar, Chiuan Herng Leow, Qi Ying Lean, Candy Chuah, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chiuan Yee Leow Shigella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes bacterial dysentery called shigellosis. The assessment of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators produced by immune cells against this bacteria are vital in identifying the effectiveness of the...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 16:00
We investigated the in vitro effects of Lactobacillus casei ZX633 on gut microorganism composition in infants with diarrhea. For this purpose, 103 feces samples from healthy infants (healthy group) and 300 diarrhea samples from infants (diarrhea group) were collected, and diarrhea feces were treated with L. casei ZX633, which was previously isolated from healthy infant feces (treatment group). We...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 22:18
This study aims to investigate the gut microbiota and metabolites in breastfed infants with breast milk jaundice (BMJ) using gut microbiome‐metabolomics. Breastfed newborns diagnosed with BMJ and those without BMJ (control group) were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected from the participants and subjected to high‐throughput sequencing of the 16s rDNA V3 and V4 regions of the gut flora and...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 00:01
Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella flexneri is a major cause of under-five mortality in developing countries, where a novel S. flexneri serotype 1c has become very common since the 1980s. However, the origin and diversification of serotype 1c remain poorly understood. To understand the evolution of serotype 1c and their antimicrobial resistance, we sequenced and analyzed the whole-genome of...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:22
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of type of milk, fermentation time, temperature, and stirring conditions on the antibacterial activity of fermented milk by kefir grains. All fermentation conditions had a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of kefir samples against four bacteria, except for the effect of temperature on the diameter of the inhibition zone of Shigella...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 08:04
by Yuen-Yan Chang, Virginie Stévenin, Magalie Duchateau, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Veronique Hourdel, Cristina Dias Rodrigues, Mariette Matondo, Norbert Reiling, Jost Enninga Shigella flexneri invades host cells by entering within a bacteria-containing vacuole (BCV). In order to establish its niche in the host cytosol, the bacterium ruptures its BCV. Contacts between S. flexneri BCV and infection-...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:22
This study optimized storage conditions for fermented pork jerky via microbial fermentation. Lactobacillus bulogaricus was employed as starter culture, fermentation conditions and baking conditions were optimized in study. Microbial indices reflecting parameters of preserved fermented pork jerky involved the detection of total plate count, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 22:18
The objective of this study was to compare the impact of ultrasound (US; 30 kHz; 2, 4, 6, and 8 min) and malic acid (MA; 0.5 and 1%), individually and in combination, on inactivation of food borne pathogens (Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri) and the effect of US treatment on β‐carotene and total phenolics content in sweet lemon juice. The extent...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 06:29
Author(s): Hiroshi Ashida, Toshihiko Suzuki, Chihiro Sasakawa In response to bacterial infection, epithelial cells undergo several types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis, which serve to expel the infected cells and activate the innate and acquired immune responses. Shigella initially invades macrophages and subsequently surrounding enterocytes; the...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 16:00
High-fat diet (HFD) leads to enhancement in various parameters of mice like weight, fasting glucose levels, adipose tissue, and also the liver weight in male C57 BL/6 J mice. Additionally, high-fat diet causes severe liver damage with significant increase in the level of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The variations in microbiota induced by different diet were...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 08:03
Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules produced by many microorganisms, usually bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. They possess the property of reducing the tension of the membrane interfaces. No studies have been conducted on Shigella species showing the role of biosurfactant-like molecules (BLM) in pathogenicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of Shigella environmental and clinical...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:18
The developed miniaturized test (s) rapidly detects Escherichia coli/coliforms colorimetrically utilizing specific enzyme substrates and selective agents incorporated in media. High sensitivity and selectivity for target bacteria. A total of 139 milk samples were tested for presence of E.coli/coliforms using developed test (s). Abstract Current investigation was aimed to develop colorimetric...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 16:00
We here report a study characterizing the potential for edible insects to act as a prebiotic by altering the bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome, using batch cultures inoculated with fecal adult human donors. Black field cricket nymphs, grass grub larvae, and wax moth larvae were subjected to an in vitro digestion to simulate the oral, gastric, and small intestinal stages of...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 10:01
In developing countries, Shigella flexneri is the most common enteric pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Biofilm formation by S. flexneri can cause the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which poses serious threats to food safety and human health. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 12 exopolysaccharides (L-EPSs) and S. flexneri exopolysaccharides (S-EPSs) on S....
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Shigella flexneri is a major cause of bacillary dysentery in Beijing, China. The genetic features and population structure of locally circulating clones remained unclear. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of 93 S. flexneri isolates from patients in Beijing from 2005 to 2018. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a predominant lineage comprised of ST100 isolates that had acquired an...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 08:02
Several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexerni, and Rickettsia spp. use an actin-based motility process to spread in mammalian cell monolayers. Cell-to-cell spread is mediated by protrusive structures that contain bacteria encased in the host cell plasma membrane. These protrusions, which form in infected host cells, are internalized by neighboring...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 04:02
Diet greatly influences gut microbiota. Dietary methionine restriction (MR) prevents and ameliorates age-related or high-fat-induced diseases and prolongs life span. This study aimed to reveal the impact of MR on gut microbiota in middle-aged mice with low-, medium-, high-fat diets. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups with different MR and fat-content diets. Multiple indicators of...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 16:00
Previous studies have identified oral administration of antibiotics and gut-impacting drugs as critical drivers for fecal antibiotic resistance (AR) and microbiome disruption in lab mice, but the practical implications of these findings have yet to be validated in hosts nurtured in conventional environment. Using ampicillin (Amp) as a way to extrapolate the general effect of antibiotics, this...

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