Shigella

Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to describe azithromycin (AZM) susceptibility patterns among Shigella isolates in Anhui, China and identify predictors of resistance with mobile element-mediated genes.MethodsA total of 517 non-duplicate Shigella isolates (449 S. flexneri and 68 S. sonnei) were collected in the Anhui Province of China from September 2011–September 2015, and screened for the...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Cell-autonomous immunity relies on the rapid detection of invasive pathogens by host proteins. Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) have emerged as key mediators of vertebrate immune defense through their ability to recognize a diverse array of intracellular pathogens and pathogen-containing cellular compartments. Human and mouse GBPs have been shown to target distinct groups of microbes,...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 04:03
Antibiotic resistance and capacity for biofilm formation of Shigella flexneri render previous prevention and control strategies minimally effective. Ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated to be useful due to its application in foods as an alternative natural preservative. However, information regarding the S. flexneri phenotype and molecular responses to FA exposure is limited. The present study...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 02:03
This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 22:14
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic interactions on antibacterial and antioxidant efficacy of two plant essential oils (EOs) Eucalyptus caesia Benth and Dracocephalum multicaule Montbr & Auch in vitro and in pear slices. Antibacterial combination effect was evaluated against seven important pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes,...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Evaluating the risk of colorectal metachronous adenoma (MA), which is a precancerous lesion, is necessary for metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC) precaution among CRC patients who had underwent surgical removal of their primary tumor. Here, discovery cohort (n = 41) and validation cohort (n = 45) of CRC patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. Mucosal and fecal samples were used for...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:38
The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different early weaning paradigms, which supplied with extra alfalfa hay, or starter feeding, or both alfalfa hay and starter feeding, along with the milk replacer, on the gastrointestinal microbial community, growth, and immune performance of yak calves. Twenty 30-day-old male yak calves were randomly assigned to four groups, including the...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Enterobacter sp. M4 and other bacterial strains were isolated from plant soft rot disease. Virulent phages such as EspM4VN isolated from soil are trending biological controls for plant disease. This phage has an icosahedral head (100 nm in diameter), a neck, and a contractile sheath (100 nm long and 18 nm wide). It belongs to the Ackermannviridae family and resembles Shigella phage Ag3 and...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) cause intestinal illness through the same pathogenic mechanism used by Shigella spp. The latter species can be typed through genomic and phenotypic methods used for E. coli and have been proposed for reclassification within E. coli species. Recently the first appearance of a highly pathogenic EIEC O96:H19 was described in Europe as the causative agent of two...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:42
Post-weaning diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) causes significant economic losses for pig producers. This study was to test the hypotheses that an ETEC challenge disrupts intestinal microbial homeostasis and the inclusion of dietary soluble (10% sugar beet pulp) or insoluble fiber (15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles) with or without exogenous carbohydrases will protect...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:51
Gut microbiome plays an important role in adult human health and diseases. However, how nutritional factors shape the initial colonization of gut bacteria in infants, especially in preterm infants, is still not completely known. In this study, we compared the effects of feeding with mothers’ own breast milk (MBM) and formula on the initial composition and gene expression of gut bacteria in...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:37
The occurrence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has become a serious problem in animals and public. The objective of this study was to identify and isolate lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:45
Shiga toxin (STx) produced by Shigella and closely related Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (STx1 and STx2) synthesized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial AB5 toxins. All three toxins target kidney cells and may cause life-threatening renal disease. While Shigella infections can be treated with antibiotics, resistance is increasing. Moreover, antibiotic therapy is contraindicated...
Sun, 05/17/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Qing Liu, Huali Su, Xiaoping Bian, Shifeng Wang, Qingke Kong Shigella flexneri 2a (Sf2a) is one of the most frequently isolated Shigella strains that causes the endemic shigellosis in developing countries. In this study, we used recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains to deliver Sf2a O-antigen and characterized the immune responses induced by the vectored O-antigen....
Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:35
Human gut bacteria contribute significantly to human health and several studies have evaluated the effects of dietary fibers on human gut bacterial ecology. However, the relationship between different degrees of fiber polymerization and human gut bacteria is unknown. Here, we analyzed three fiber substrates with different degrees of polymerization, namely carboxymethylcellulose, β-glucans, and...
Tue, 05/12/2020 - 03:34
Shiga toxins (Stxs) expressed by the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteric Shigella dysenteriae 1 pathogens are protein synthesis inhibitors. Stxs have been shown to induce apoptosis via the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in many cell types (epithelial, endothelial, and B cells) but the link between the protein synthesis inhibition and caspase activation is still unclear...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:36
The Flint, Michigan, water crisis, which unfolded as a consequence of the State of Michigan’s decision to switch to using the Flint River as the city’s drinking water source, presented multiple alarming health risks to the public. With multiple boil water advisories issued shortly after the switch in 2014, a Safe Drinking Water Act violation for elevated potentially carcinogenic disinfection...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:37
The specific etiology and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP) remain elusive, and microbial dysbiosis may play an important role in OLP. We evaluated the saliva and tissue bacterial community of patients with OLP and identified the colonization of bacteria in OLP tissues. The saliva (n = 60) and tissue (n = 24) samples from OLP patients and the healthy controls were characterized by 16S rDNA...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:39
To assess the individual effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on insulin resistance (IR), gut microbiome and gut metabolites in high‐fat diet‐induced obese (DIO) mice. Methods and results DIO mice were fed an either high‐fat diet (HFD), EPA (1% wt/wt) enriched HFD, or DHA (1% wt/wt) enriched HFD for 15 weeks. Both EPA and DHA supplementation reversed...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:35
To investigate a shigellosis outbreak in Genesee County, Michigan (including the City of Flint), and Saginaw County, Michigan, in 2016 and address community concerns about the role of the Flint water system.
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Qing. Xiu. Liu, Ying. Zhou, Xiu. Mei. Li, Dan. Dan. Ma, Shuang. Xing, Jing. Hai. Feng, Min. Hong. Zhang Respiratory tract diseases is closely related to atmosphere pollution. Ammonia is one of the harmful pollutants in the atmosphere environment, which has a great threat to human and animal respiratory tract health, but the mechanism of causing diseases is not clear. In this study,...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:25
Sequencing studies have shown that optimal vaginal microbiota (VMB) are lactobacilli-dominated and that anaerobes associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV-anaerobes) are commonly present. However, they overlooked a less prevalent but more pathogenic group of vaginal bacteria: the pathobionts that cause maternal and neonatal infections and pelvic inflammatory disease. We conducted an individual...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:36
by Camille Rey, Yuen-Yan Chang, Patricia Latour-Lambert, Hugo Varet, Caroline Proux, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Jost Enninga Microfold (M) cell host-pathogen interaction studies would benefit from the visual analysis of dynamic cellular and microbial interplays. We adapted a human in vitro M cell model to physiological bacterial infections, expression of fluorescent localization reporters...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:30
Shigella sonnei is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen. It was named ‘Sonne’s bacillus’ after Carl Olaf Sonne who described it as a causative agent of bacillary dysentery. S. sonnei is distributed worldwide and represents the most common cause of shigellosis in industrialized regions in Europe, North America, and Australia. It is currently undergoing expansion in middle...
Wed, 04/01/2020 - 03:25
Pathogenic bacteria secrete a variety of proteins that manipulate host cell function by targeting components of the plasma membrane, cytosol, or organelles. In the last decade, several studies identified bacterial factors acting within the nucleus on gene expression or other nuclear processes, which has led to the emergence of a new family of effectors called “nucleomodulins&rdquo...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:26
The giant panda is known worldwide for having successfully moved to a diet almost exclusively based on bamboo. Provided that no lignocellulose-degrading enzyme was detected in panda’s genome, bamboo digestion is believed to depend on its gut microbiome. However, pandas retain the digestive system of a carnivore, with retention times of maximum 12 h. Cultivation of their unique gut microbiome...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:34
Whole-genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of the transmission of Shigella species in England. We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 and 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics and the transmission dynamics of Shigella species. Of the 4,950...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:26
The intestinal gut microbiota is essential for maintaining host health. Concerns have been raised about the possible connection between antibiotic use, causing microbiota disturbances, and the increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases observed during the last decades. To elucidate the putative connection between antibiotic use and immune regulation, we have assessed the effects of the...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
Shigella flexneri is the principal cause of bacillary dysentery, contributing significantly to the global burden of diarrheal disease. The appearance and increase in the multi-drug resistance among Shigella strains, necessitates further genetic studies and development of improved/new drugs against the pathogen. The presence of an abundance of hypothetical proteins in the genome and how little is...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:33
Characterization of the microbiota of chickens is of current interest. The goals of the current study were to apply anaerobic isolation methods to comprehensively isolate and identify bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens and their environment. Bacterial communities within the drinking water were dominated by Escherichia, whereas communities in litter were more representative of...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:46
D. Eikmeier et al. Shigellosis outbreaks caused by Shigella with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA-Shigella) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide. We describe sexual health indicators and antimicrobial drug resistance for shigellosis cases in Minnesota, USA. We analyzed a sample of isolates received during 2012–2015 and cross-referenced cases with the...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 09:59
Luchansky, J. B., B. A. Shoyer, Y. Jung, L. E. Shane, M. Osoria, and A. C. S. Porto-Fett. The viability of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes within plant- and beef-based burgers was monitored during storage and cooking. When inoculated (ca. 3.5 log CFU/g) into 15-g portions of plant- or beef-based burgers, levels of STEC and Salmonella decreased...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 09:58
Porto-Fett, A. C. S., L. E. Shane, B. A. Shoyer, M. Osoria, Y. Jung, and J. B. Luchansky. We evaluated high pressure processing to lower levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into samples of plant or beef burgers. Multi-strain cocktails of STEC and L. monocytogenes were separately inoculated (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) into plant burgers or ground...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:38
Shigella species, the causal agents of bacillary dysentery, use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject two waves of virulence proteins, known as effectors, into the colonic epithelium to subvert host cell machinery. Prior to host cell contact and secretion of the first wave of T3SS effectors, OspD1, an effector and anti-activator protein, prevents premature production of the second wave of...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:28
Antibiotic resistance/tolerance has become a severe threat to human and animal health. To combat antibiotic-resistant/tolerant bacteria, it is of significance to improve the efficacy of traditional antibiotics. Here we show that indole potentiates tobramycin to kill stationary-phase Staphylococcus aureus cells after a short, combined treatment, with its derivative 5-methylindole being the most...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Shigella species cause diarrheal disease globally. Shigellosis is typically characterized by bloody stools and colitis with mucosal damage and is the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal death worldwide. After the pathogen is orally ingested, it invades and replicates within the colonic epithelium through mechanisms that rely on its type III secretion system (T3SS). Currently, oral...
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:42
by Michele Lunelli, Antje Kamprad, Jörg Bürger, Thorsten Mielke, Christian M. T. Spahn, Michael Kolbe The Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) needle complex is a conserved syringe-shaped protein translocation nanomachine with a mass of about 3.5 MDa essential for the survival and virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. This system is composed of a membrane-embedded basal body and an...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 04:19
RNA thermometers are cis-acting riboregulators that mediate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in response to environmental temperature. Such regulation is conferred by temperature-responsive structural changes within the RNA thermometer that directly result in differential ribosomal binding to the regulated transcript. The significance of RNA thermometers in controlling...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Zhongyang Yuan, Wei Yan, Chaoliang Wen, Jiangxia Zheng, Ning Yang, Congjiao SunABSTRACTEnterotypes are used to describe clusters of specific gut microbial community structures, but few reports exist on the identification of enterotypes in poultry. In addition, there is incomplete understanding on the role of the foregut microbiota in the digestion and absorption of nutrients in poultry...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Michał Patrzałek, Maja Kosecka-Strojek, Klaudia Lisowska-Łysiak, Magdalena Trela, Mariusz Kot, Magdalena Gawlak, Dawid Liszka, Mieczysław Sajewicz, Barbara Tombarkiewicz, Krzysztof Pawlak, Jacek Międzobrodzki, Marcin W. LisAbstractThe spatial network structure of Dergall is based on substances nontoxic to humans and the environment which, when applied on solid surfaces, creates a...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 04:04
Author(s): Priyangi A Alwis, Puthayalai Treerat, Lan Gong, Deanna Deveson Lucas, Elizabeth M Allwood, Mark Prescott, Rodney J Devenish, Ben Adler, John D BoyceAbstractTwo-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) are abundant among prokaryotes and regulate important functions, including drug resistance and virulence. The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which causes the...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Ila Anand, Wonyoung Choi, Ralph R IsbergIntravacuolar bacterial pathogens establish intracellular niches by constructing membrane-encompassed compartments. The vacuoles surrounding the bacteria are remarkably stable, facilitating microbial replication and preventing exposure to host cytoplasmically localized innate immune sensing mechanisms. To maintain integrity of the membrane...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Foteini F. Parlapani, Ilario Ferrocino, Sofia Michailidou, Anagnostis Argiriou, Serkos A. Haroutounian, Lambros Kokokiris, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Ioannis S. BoziarisAbstractBacterial communities and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profile of deepwater rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) stored at 0 °C (ice) and 4 °C were investigated using 16S amplicon based sequencing and Solid phase...
Mon, 02/03/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Reza Roohi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher HashemiAbstractThe coupled 3D and transient form of heat and Maxwell's equations were solved to determine the temperature distribution within a carrot slice in the microwave cavity during pasteurization as a clean and energy saving process. To precisely simulate the turning of the sample, the dissipated thermal energy was applied to the carrot as a...
Mon, 02/03/2020 - 03:25
CTX-MSHVplasmid transferconjugationenteric pathogensantibiotic resistance gastroenteritis
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:29
Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum type A, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin, and Yersinia enterocolitica are 11 common foodborne pathogens. Traditional bacterial culture methods for detecting pathogens are time‐consuming and labor‐...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:35
by Jamie L. Burgess, Heather B. Case, R. Alan Burgess, Nicholas E. Dickenson Type three secretion systems (T3SS) are complex nano-machines that evolved to inject bacterial effector proteins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Many high-priority human pathogens rely on one or more T3SSs to cause disease and evade host immune responses, underscoring the need to better understand the...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:35
by Tania Henríquez, Juan Carlos Salazar, Massimiliano Marvasi, Ajit Shah, Gino Corsini, Cecilia S. Toro In recent years, multidrug resistance of Shigella strains associated with genetic elements like pathogenicity islands, have become a public health problem. The Shigella resistance locus pathogenicity island (SRL PAI) of S. flexneri 2a harbors a 16Kbp region that contributes to the multidrug...

Pages