Shigella

Fri, 06/18/2021 - 16:00
The problem of antibiotic resistance has prompted researchers around the globe to search for new antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides are naturally secreted by almost all the living organisms to fight infections and can be safer alternatives to chemical antibiotics. Lactoferrin (LF) is a known antimicrobial protein present in all body secretions. In this study, LF was...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 00:00
Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 are enterohemorrhagic bacteria that induce hemorrhagic colitis. This, in turn, may result in potentially lethal complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, and neurological abnormalities. Both species of bacteria produce Shiga toxins (Stxs), a phage-encoded...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 02:05
Stingless bees are the main pollinators in tropical and subtropical regions. However, there are only a few studies on the structure and composition of bacteria in the gut and beebread of stingless bees, especially in China. To address this shortage of information, we characterized the microbiota of three common species of stingless bees (Lepidotrigona terminata, Lepidotrigona ventralis and...
Mon, 06/07/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Feng Chen, Xiang Miao, Zixin Lin, Yu Xiu, Lingling Shi, Qian Zhang, Dongcheng Liang, Shanzhi Lin, Boxiang He Current trend in food safety and public health is focusing on the use of natural antimicrobials. The Lindera glauca fruit with rich resource and essential oil has emerged as potential application in China. This work aimed to detect chemical compounds of L. glauca fruit essential...
Thu, 06/03/2021 - 16:00
Shigella flexneri, causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) as its primary virulence factor. The T3SS injectisome delivers effector proteins into host cells to promote entry and create an important intracellular niche. The injectisome’s cytoplasmic sorting platform (SP) is a critical assembly that contributes to substrate selection and...
Wed, 06/02/2021 - 00:00
This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) (ATCC 19615), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (ATCC 27853), Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) (ATCC 12022), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) (ATCC 14028), Haemophillus influenzae...
Tue, 06/01/2021 - 12:01
In a cohort of infants, we found that lack of the Lewis histo-blood group antigen was associated with increased susceptibility to shigellosis. Broadly inhibiting fucosylation in epithelial cells in vitro decreased invasion by Shigella flexneri. These results support a role for fucosylated glycans in susceptibility to shigellosis.
Tue, 06/01/2021 - 12:01
Background Prolonged enteropathogen shedding after diarrhea complicates the identification of etiology in subsequent episodes and is an important driver of pathogen transmission. A standardized approach has not been applied to estimate the duration of shedding for a wide range of pathogens. Methods We used a multisite birth cohort of children 0–24 months of age from whom diarrheal and monthly...
Mon, 05/31/2021 - 22:13
Journal of Food Science, EarlyView. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Shigella flexneri isolated from drinking water and retail raw food samples in Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1,020 different samples were collected from various areas of Peshawar between January 2016 and May 2017, followed by identification of S. flexneri through biochemical,...
Sat, 05/29/2021 - 12:00
ABSTRACT Stachys pilifera Benth is an endemic species of Stachys family found in Iran with a wide application as an herbal tea. The objective of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the essential oil from the aerial parts of S. pilifera. Essential oil (EO) composition analysis showed that cis-Chrysanthenyl acetate (24.9%), viridiflorol (18.3%),...
Fri, 05/21/2021 - 02:03
Abstract Shigella flexneri (Sh. flexneri), a common foodborne pathogen, has become one of the main threats to food safety and human health due to its high pathogenicity and persistent infection. The objective of this study was to explore the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities and the possible mechanism of thymoquinone (TQ) against Sh. flexneri. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 06:13
Author(s): Iqbal Nisa, Muhammad Qasim, Arnold Driessen, Jeroen Nijland, Fazal Adnan, Malik Nawaz Shuja, Hazir Rahman Bacillary diarrhea caused by Shigella flexneri is mediated by various virulence factors which make it the leading agent of diarrhea in developing countries. Previously, a high prevalence of S. flexneri, associated with diarrhea has been reported in Pakistan but no data is available...
Tue, 05/18/2021 - 12:00
Background Azithromycin is frequently used to treat shigellosis; however, clinical outcomes are uncertain. Methods We performed an observational cohort study in Bangladesh of patients with invasive diarrhea treated empirically with azithromycin. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion post hoc on all Shigella isolates and clinical response was correlated...
Tue, 05/18/2021 - 10:02
Shigella is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea globally and the causative agent of shigellosis and bacillary dysentery. Associated with 80 to 165 million cases of diarrhea and >13% of diarrheal deaths, in many regions, Shigella exposure is ubiquitous while infection is heterogenous. To characterize host-genetic susceptibility to Shigella-associated diarrhea, we performed two...
Sat, 05/15/2021 - 08:05
by Nirupama Shivakumar, Ambily Sivadas, Sarita Devi, Farook Jahoor, John McLaughlin, Craig P. Smith, Anura V. Kurpad, Arpita Mukhopadhyay Gut microbiota has been implicated as a modifier of childhood growth. Here, 16S rRNA sequencing-based fecal microbiota profiles of 18–24 month old Indian children were evaluated (n = 41), in relation to their anthropometric parameters, intestinal permeability,...
Thu, 05/13/2021 - 16:00
The foodborne pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica causes gastrointestinal infections worldwide. In the spring of 2019, the Swedish Public Health Agency and Statens Serum Institut in Denmark independently identified an outbreak caused by Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 that after sequence comparison turned out to be a cross-border outbreak. A trace-back investigation suggested shipments of fresh...
Thu, 05/13/2021 - 16:00
The ocular surface possesses its own bacterial microbiota. Once given a chance, opportunistic pathogens within ocular microbiota may lead to corneal infection like bacterial keratitis (BK). To reveal the possible factor that makes people vulnerable to BK from the perspective of ocular bacterial microbiota, as well as to compare diagnostic information provided by high-throughput 16S rDNA...
Tue, 05/11/2021 - 12:00
ABSTRACT Many cytosolic bacterial pathogens hijack the host actin polymerization machinery to form actin tails that promote direct cell-to-cell spread, enabling these pathogens to avoid extracellular immune defenses. However, these pathogens are still susceptible to intracellular cell-autonomous immune responses that restrict bacterial actin-based motility. Two classes of cytosolic antimotility...
Wed, 05/05/2021 - 03:00
Increasing antimicrobial resistance and limited alternative treatments have led to fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella strain inclusion on the WHO global priority pathogens list. In this study we characterized multiple Shigella isolates from Malawi with whole genome sequence analysis, identifying the acquirable fluoroquinolone resistance determinant qnrS1.
Sat, 05/01/2021 - 04:02
Developing effective therapeutics or preventive interventions for important health threats is greatly enhanced whenever accessible models can enable the assessment of clinically important outcomes. While no non-human model is ever perfect, inexpensive in vivo small animal models in such as mice are often of great help in assessing the relevant efficacy of potential interventions. In addition to...
Fri, 04/30/2021 - 16:00
Background and AimsWomen with severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are at higher risks of fetal complications and without effective treatments. Changes in gut microbiota in pregnancy were found to be related to the altered intestinal bile acid composition, so we aimed to explore the alterations of microbiota in the gut of ICP patients.MethodsA total of 90 women were recruited,...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 16:00
BackgroundThe pathogenesis of choledocholithiasis is closely related to the role of bacteria. However, little is known about the predictive role of bile bacteria in clinical conditions of patients and the compositional and functional characteristics of biliary microbiota in choledocholithiasis.MethodsTo investigate the predictive value of biliary bacteria, clinical data of 488 patients with...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 16:00
Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are specialized multicomponent nanomachines that mediate the transport of proteins either to extracellular locations or deliver Type III Secretion effectors directly into eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Shigella, the causing agent of bacillary dysentery or shigellosis, bears a set of T3SS proteins termed translocators that form a pore in the host cell...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 12:26
Abstract A cellulase producing novel bacterial strain VR-M41T was isolated from an open-air vegetable and fruit market. Cells are found to be rod-shaped, endospore forming, positive for Gram’s stain and negative for catalase, oxidase and urease. Strain VR-M41T was halotolerant (upto 8.0% NaCl, w/v), motile and facultative anaerobe. It grew at wide range of pH (6.0–10.0) and temperatures (20–40 °...
Wed, 04/28/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Shigellosis is a diarrheal disease caused mainly by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei. Infection is thought to be largely self-limiting, with short- to medium-term and serotype-specific immunity provided following clearance. However, cases of men who have sex with men (MSM)-associated shigellosis have been reported where Shigella of the same serotype were serially sampled from...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 16:00
Intestinal microecology plays an important role in the development and progression of hematological malignancies. However, characteristics of gut microbiota in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have not been reported. The microbiota composition of fecal samples from 25 untreated DLBCL patients and 26 healthy volunteers was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. On α-diversity analysis, there...
Mon, 04/12/2021 - 16:00
Shigella are pathogens originating within the Escherichia lineage but frequently classified as a separate genus. Shigella genomes contain numerous insertion sequences (ISs) that lead to pseudogenisation of affected genes and an increase of non-homologous recombination. Here, we study 414 genomes of E. coli and Shigella strains to assess the contribution of genomic rearrangements to Shigella...
Fri, 04/09/2021 - 12:00
The study aimed to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the antimicrobial capacity of 10 potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains against model enteropathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The probiotic strains (live and heat-killed forms) were also assessed for their ability to inhibit adhesion of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. The largest inhibition zones (the diffusion method) were...
Fri, 03/19/2021 - 06:07
LWT
Author(s): Khashayar Shahin, Lili Zhang, Abbas Soleimani Delfan, Majid Komijani, Abolghasem Hedayatkhah, Hongduo Bao, Mohadeseh Barazandeh, Mojtaba Mansoorianfar, Maoda Pang, Tao He, Majid Bouzari, Ran Wang Shigella, the globally distributed causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is an important microbial contamination in raw and ready-to-eat foods. The recent commercial use of phage cocktails...
Tue, 03/16/2021 - 10:03
VirB is a key regulator of genes located on the large virulence plasmid (pINV) in the bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri. VirB is unusual; it is not related to other transcriptional regulators, instead, it belongs to a family of proteins that primarily function in plasmid and chromosome partitioning; exemplified by ParB. Despite this, VirB does not function to segregate DNA, but rather counters...
Fri, 03/12/2021 - 04:02
Enteric infection with Shigella spp. can lead to symptoms ranging from acute watery diarrhea to sudden, severe dysentery. Approximately 212 000 diarrheal deaths annually are attributed to Shigella with a disproportionate impact in low-resource countries. The impact in under-resourced countries was illustrated by a reanalysis of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study which found that Shigella was...
Sat, 03/06/2021 - 02:02
Characterization of microbial communities is important for understanding the soil biodiversity distribution affected by environmental factors. Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA and ITS to investigate the composition of bacterial and fungal communities in interval seawater covering Linchang Island, China. We compared the microbial communities in the soil of three sample...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 02:02
In this study, the changes of anthocyanin content, total phenols, antioxidant capacity, microbiota composition before and after digestion and intestine fermentation in stomach and intestine were studied. The results indicated that after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, compared with the original sample, the total phenol content and anthocyanin content of intestinal digestion group for 2 h (...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 02:02
This study aimed at to formulate a food-grade nanoemulsion of tarragon essential oil (NEO) and investigate its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Oil in water NEO was formed by blending 10% of tarragon EO (TEO), 85% water, and a mixture of 5% surfactants, then antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. The main components of TEO were estragole, beta-cis-ocimene, beta-trans-...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 00:00
A cross-sectional study was used to identify and assess prevalence and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria isolated from healthy wildlife and livestock cohabiting at a 10,000 acres game ranch near Lusaka, Zambia. Purposive sampling was used to select wildlife and livestock based on similarities in behavior, grazing habits and close...
Thu, 02/25/2021 - 16:00
Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) is a well-known kind of oligosaccharide and extensively applied as a prebiotic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of XOS supplementation substituting chlortetracycline (CTC) on growth, gut morphology, gut microbiota, and hindgut short chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents of weaning piglets. A total of 180 weaned piglets were randomly allocated to...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella infections have been identified globally among men who have sex with men (MSM). The highly drug-resistant phenotype often confounds initial antimicrobial therapy, placing patients at risk for adverse outcomes, the development of more drug-resistant strains, and additional treatment failures. New macrolide-resistant Shigella strains complicate treatment...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 02:03
Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spore can serve as an ideal vehicle for expressing heterologous antigens, and elicit specific immune responses by oral administration. In previous studies, we successfully constructed the recombinant B. subtilis spores expressing cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, B.s-CsCP), and confirmed that oral administration of B.s-CsCP could elicit good...
Fri, 02/19/2021 - 10:03
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen. Although most cases of STEC infection in humans are due to O157 and non-O157 serogroups, there are also reports of infection with STEC strains that cannot be serologically classified into any O serogroup (O-serogroup untypeable [OUT]). Recently, it has become clear that even OUT strains can be subclassified based on...
Wed, 02/17/2021 - 16:00
Bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate within prokaryotic cells are the most abundant life forms in the environment, yet the vast majority of them have not been properly reported or even discovered. Almost all reported bacteriophages infecting the Enterobacteriaceae family, with Escherichia coli being the major subject of studies, have been isolated from wastewater, sewage, and...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 16:00
Subclinical doses of antimicrobials are commonly used in the swine industry to control infectious diseases and growth performance. Accumulating evidence suggests that swine administered with antibiotics are susceptible to disease development due to disruption of the beneficial gut microbial community, which is associated with host immune regulation, nutrient digestion, and colonization resistance...
Thu, 02/04/2021 - 16:00
Microbiota transplantation is a rapid and effective method for changing and reshaping the intestinal microbiota and metabolic profile in humans and animals. This study compared the different influences of the introduction of fecal microbes and colonic microbes from a fat, adult pig in newborn pigs. Both colonic microbiota transplantation (CMT) and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) promoted...
Thu, 02/04/2021 - 16:00
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has revolutionized clinical microbiology diagnostics by delivering accurate, fast, and reliable identification of microorganisms. It is conventionally based on the detection of intracellular molecules, mainly ribosomal proteins, for identification at the species-level and/or genus-level. Nevertheless, for some microorganisms (e.g., for mycobacteria) extensive protocols...
Thu, 02/04/2021 - 16:00
Campylobacter spp. are the leading global cause of bacterial colon infections in humans. Enteropathogens are subjected to several stress conditions in the host colon, food complexes, and the environment. Species of the genus Campylobacter, in collective interactions with certain enteropathogens, can manage and survive such stress conditions. The stress-adaptation mechanisms of Campylobacter spp....
Thu, 01/28/2021 - 08:06
by Amy L. Petry, John F. Patience, Lucas R. Koester, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, Stephan Schmitz-Esser The experimental objective was to characterize the impact of insoluble corn-based fiber, xylanase, and an arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide on ileal digesta and mucosa microbiome of pigs. Three replicates of 20 gilts were blocked by initial body weight, individually-housed, and assigned...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 04:03
Mushrooms are a rich source of dietary fiber. This study aimed to characterize the modulation of colonic microbiota in Zucker rats after supplementing their diet with a biotechnologically produced oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Microbiota composition and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon and bile acids in the plasma of the rats were analyzed to assess the effects of P. sajor-...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 10:02
Shigella flexneri is prevalent worldwide and is the most common Shigella species in many countries. At least 19 S. flexneri serotypes exist, and serotype information is important for epidemiologic and vaccine development purposes. We evaluated the performance of real-time PCR assays for O-antigen modification genes to identify the major serotypes on isolates and direct stool samples. The assays...
Sun, 01/17/2021 - 02:03
Abstract Shigellosis is a significant type of diarrhea that causes 160,000 deaths annually in a global scale. The mortality occurs mainly in children less than 5 years of age. No licensed vaccine is available, and conventional efforts for developing an effective and safe vaccine against shigellosis have not been succeeded yet. The reverse vaccinology is a novel promising method that screens...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
The lesser-known traditionally processed meat products such as beef kargyong, pork kargyong, satchu, and khyopeh are popular food items in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. The present study aimed to assess the microbiological safety of traditional meat products by identifying the potential spoilage or pathogenic bacteria, detecting the enterotoxins, and screening the antibiotic...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 12:01
ABSTRACT Biofilm is a predominant lifestyle of bacteria that comprises of cells as collectives enmeshed in a polymeric matrix. Biofilm formation is vital for bacterial species as it provides access to nutrients and protects the cells from environmental stresses. Here we show that interference in biofilm matrix production is a strategy by the competing bacterial species to reduce the ability of...

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