Shigella

Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:34
Whole-genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of the transmission of Shigella species in England. We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 and 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics and the transmission dynamics of Shigella species. Of the 4,950...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:26
The intestinal gut microbiota is essential for maintaining host health. Concerns have been raised about the possible connection between antibiotic use, causing microbiota disturbances, and the increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases observed during the last decades. To elucidate the putative connection between antibiotic use and immune regulation, we have assessed the effects of the...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
Shigella flexneri is the principal cause of bacillary dysentery, contributing significantly to the global burden of diarrheal disease. The appearance and increase in the multi-drug resistance among Shigella strains, necessitates further genetic studies and development of improved/new drugs against the pathogen. The presence of an abundance of hypothetical proteins in the genome and how little is...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:33
Characterization of the microbiota of chickens is of current interest. The goals of the current study were to apply anaerobic isolation methods to comprehensively isolate and identify bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens and their environment. Bacterial communities within the drinking water were dominated by Escherichia, whereas communities in litter were more representative of...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:46
D. Eikmeier et al. Shigellosis outbreaks caused by Shigella with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA-Shigella) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide. We describe sexual health indicators and antimicrobial drug resistance for shigellosis cases in Minnesota, USA. We analyzed a sample of isolates received during 2012–2015 and cross-referenced cases with the...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 09:59
Luchansky, J. B., B. A. Shoyer, Y. Jung, L. E. Shane, M. Osoria, and A. C. S. Porto-Fett. The viability of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes within plant- and beef-based burgers was monitored during storage and cooking. When inoculated (ca. 3.5 log CFU/g) into 15-g portions of plant- or beef-based burgers, levels of STEC and Salmonella decreased...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 09:58
Porto-Fett, A. C. S., L. E. Shane, B. A. Shoyer, M. Osoria, Y. Jung, and J. B. Luchansky. We evaluated high pressure processing to lower levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into samples of plant or beef burgers. Multi-strain cocktails of STEC and L. monocytogenes were separately inoculated (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) into plant burgers or ground...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:38
Shigella species, the causal agents of bacillary dysentery, use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject two waves of virulence proteins, known as effectors, into the colonic epithelium to subvert host cell machinery. Prior to host cell contact and secretion of the first wave of T3SS effectors, OspD1, an effector and anti-activator protein, prevents premature production of the second wave of...
Sat, 02/29/2020 - 03:28
Antibiotic resistance/tolerance has become a severe threat to human and animal health. To combat antibiotic-resistant/tolerant bacteria, it is of significance to improve the efficacy of traditional antibiotics. Here we show that indole potentiates tobramycin to kill stationary-phase Staphylococcus aureus cells after a short, combined treatment, with its derivative 5-methylindole being the most...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Shigella species cause diarrheal disease globally. Shigellosis is typically characterized by bloody stools and colitis with mucosal damage and is the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal death worldwide. After the pathogen is orally ingested, it invades and replicates within the colonic epithelium through mechanisms that rely on its type III secretion system (T3SS). Currently, oral...
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:42
by Michele Lunelli, Antje Kamprad, Jörg Bürger, Thorsten Mielke, Christian M. T. Spahn, Michael Kolbe The Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) needle complex is a conserved syringe-shaped protein translocation nanomachine with a mass of about 3.5 MDa essential for the survival and virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. This system is composed of a membrane-embedded basal body and an...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 04:19
RNA thermometers are cis-acting riboregulators that mediate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in response to environmental temperature. Such regulation is conferred by temperature-responsive structural changes within the RNA thermometer that directly result in differential ribosomal binding to the regulated transcript. The significance of RNA thermometers in controlling...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Zhongyang Yuan, Wei Yan, Chaoliang Wen, Jiangxia Zheng, Ning Yang, Congjiao SunABSTRACTEnterotypes are used to describe clusters of specific gut microbial community structures, but few reports exist on the identification of enterotypes in poultry. In addition, there is incomplete understanding on the role of the foregut microbiota in the digestion and absorption of nutrients in poultry...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Michał Patrzałek, Maja Kosecka-Strojek, Klaudia Lisowska-Łysiak, Magdalena Trela, Mariusz Kot, Magdalena Gawlak, Dawid Liszka, Mieczysław Sajewicz, Barbara Tombarkiewicz, Krzysztof Pawlak, Jacek Międzobrodzki, Marcin W. LisAbstractThe spatial network structure of Dergall is based on substances nontoxic to humans and the environment which, when applied on solid surfaces, creates a...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 04:04
Author(s): Priyangi A Alwis, Puthayalai Treerat, Lan Gong, Deanna Deveson Lucas, Elizabeth M Allwood, Mark Prescott, Rodney J Devenish, Ben Adler, John D BoyceAbstractTwo-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) are abundant among prokaryotes and regulate important functions, including drug resistance and virulence. The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which causes the...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Ila Anand, Wonyoung Choi, Ralph R IsbergIntravacuolar bacterial pathogens establish intracellular niches by constructing membrane-encompassed compartments. The vacuoles surrounding the bacteria are remarkably stable, facilitating microbial replication and preventing exposure to host cytoplasmically localized innate immune sensing mechanisms. To maintain integrity of the membrane...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Foteini F. Parlapani, Ilario Ferrocino, Sofia Michailidou, Anagnostis Argiriou, Serkos A. Haroutounian, Lambros Kokokiris, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Ioannis S. BoziarisAbstractBacterial communities and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profile of deepwater rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) stored at 0 °C (ice) and 4 °C were investigated using 16S amplicon based sequencing and Solid phase...
Mon, 02/03/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Reza Roohi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher HashemiAbstractThe coupled 3D and transient form of heat and Maxwell's equations were solved to determine the temperature distribution within a carrot slice in the microwave cavity during pasteurization as a clean and energy saving process. To precisely simulate the turning of the sample, the dissipated thermal energy was applied to the carrot as a...
Mon, 02/03/2020 - 03:25
CTX-MSHVplasmid transferconjugationenteric pathogensantibiotic resistance gastroenteritis
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:29
Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum type A, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin, and Yersinia enterocolitica are 11 common foodborne pathogens. Traditional bacterial culture methods for detecting pathogens are time‐consuming and labor‐...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:35
by Jamie L. Burgess, Heather B. Case, R. Alan Burgess, Nicholas E. Dickenson Type three secretion systems (T3SS) are complex nano-machines that evolved to inject bacterial effector proteins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Many high-priority human pathogens rely on one or more T3SSs to cause disease and evade host immune responses, underscoring the need to better understand the...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:35
by Tania Henríquez, Juan Carlos Salazar, Massimiliano Marvasi, Ajit Shah, Gino Corsini, Cecilia S. Toro In recent years, multidrug resistance of Shigella strains associated with genetic elements like pathogenicity islands, have become a public health problem. The Shigella resistance locus pathogenicity island (SRL PAI) of S. flexneri 2a harbors a 16Kbp region that contributes to the multidrug...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 04:06
Author(s): Ada Kazi, Che Muhammad Khairul Hisyam Ismail, Anthony Amy Amilda, Candy Chuah, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chiuan Yee LeowAbstractShigellosis is one of the most common diseases found in the developing countries, especially those countries that are prone flood. The causative agent for this disease is the Shigella species. This organism is one of the third...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:41
by Jilong Qin, Matthew Thomas Doyle, Elizabeth Ngoc Hoa Tran, Renato Morona Shigella species cause bacillary dysentery, especially among young individuals. Shigellae target the human colon for invasion; however, the initial adhesion mechanism is poorly understood. The Shigella surface protein IcsA, in addition to its role in actin-based motility, acts as a host cell adhesin through unknown...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:34
ABSTRACT Two Shigella species, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, cause approximately 90% of bacterial dysentery worldwide. While S. flexneri is the dominant species in low-income countries, S. sonnei causes the majority of infections in middle- and high-income countries. S. flexneri is a prototypic cytosolic bacterium; once intracellular, it rapidly escapes the phagocytic vacuole and causes...
Thu, 12/19/2019 - 03:29
Reduced digestibility of foods containing oxidized proteins and the subsequent excessive accumulation of undigested components in the colon may cause changes in the intestinal flora composition. This study evaluates the characteristics of this change and the potential adverse effects on organisms. Methods and results Pork was cooked using sous‐vide or at high temperature and pressure (HTP), and...
Wed, 12/18/2019 - 04:08
Human α-defensins are 3- to 5-kDa disulfide-bridged peptides with a multitude of antimicrobial activities and immunomodulatory functions. Recent studies show that human enteric α-defensin 5 (HD5), a host defense peptide important for intestinal homeostasis and innate immunity, aids the highly infectious enteropathogen Shigella in breaching the intestinal epithelium in vitro and in...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:42
by Vincenzo Torraca, Myrsini Kaforou, Jayne Watson, Gina M. Duggan, Hazel Guerrero-Gutierrez, Sina Krokowski, Michael Hollinshead, Thomas B. Clarke, Rafal J. Mostowy, Gillian S. Tomlinson, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, Abigail Clements, Serge Mostowy Shigella flexneri is historically regarded as the primary agent of bacillary dysentery, yet the closely-related Shigella sonnei is replacing S. flexneri,...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:30
The purpose of this study was to find out the mechanism of quinolone resistance in Shigella sp. isolated from environmental water samples from various parts of Kolkata, India. Out of 196 Shigella sp. isolated from 2014‐17, we selected 32 Shigella isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Quinolones ranged from 30 μg ml‐1 to 50 μg ml‐1 for...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:28
In recent years, controlled human infection models (CHIMs) have become available for a range of infectious agents and have proved invaluable for understanding the disease process, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of immunity. CHIM studies have also contributed significantly to advancing development of a number of vaccines by providing an indication of vaccine efficacy. The Shigella CHIM has been...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:28
The Shigella controlled human infection model (CHIM) is valuable for assessing candidate Shigella vaccine efficacy and potentially accelerating regulatory approval. The Shigella CHIM is currently being conducted at 3 sites in the United States using Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T and Shigella sonnei strain 53G. Shigellosis can present variably as watery diarrhea alone or with dysentery, and...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:28
Moderate to severe diarrhea caused by Shigella is a global health concern due to its substantial contribution to morbidity and mortality in children aged <5 years in low- and middle-income countries. Although antibiotic treatment can be effective, emerging antimicrobial resistance, limited access, and cost affirm the role of vaccines as the most attractive countermeasure. Controlled human...
Tue, 12/10/2019 - 03:28
Shigella causes morbidity and mortality worldwide, primarily affecting young children living in low-resource settings. It is also of great concern due to increasing antibiotic resistance, and is a priority organism for the World Health Organization. A Shigella vaccine would decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with shigellosis, improve child health, and decrease the need for...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:29
Growth behavior of Salmonella (A–E) and Shigella (F–J) in tomato–cucumber, modified tomato–cucumber, tahini tomato–cucumber, coleslaw, and toum sauce salads, respectively, stored for 5 days at 4, 10, and 24°C. Abstract This study evaluated the behavior of Salmonella and Shigella (5–6 log CFU/g) in tomato–cucumber (TC) salad without additives (control), TC with 1.0% lemon juice and 0.5% salt, TC...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
In Enterobacteriaceae, quinolone resistance is largely attributed to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [e.g., qnr genes, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, or qepA]. The functionality of four qepA genes, designated qepA1 to qepA4, has been described in the literature (1–5); however, other qepA genes...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
M. Tobin-D’Angelo et al. Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002–2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected.
Sat, 11/16/2019 - 03:25
Unabsorbed proteins reach the colon and are fermented by the microbiota, yielding a variety of harmful metabolites. In the present study, a 16S rRNA gene survey identified the bacterial taxa flourishing in 11 batch fermentations with proteins and peptones as the sole fermentable substrates, inoculated with the feces of six healthy adults. Organic acids, ammonia, and indole resulting from protein...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:36
by Brian C. Russo, Jeffrey K. Duncan, Alexandra L. Wiscovitch, Austin C. Hachey, Marcia B. Goldberg Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are conserved bacterial nanomachines that inject virulence proteins (effectors) into eukaryotic cells during infection. Due to their ability to inject heterologous proteins into human cells, these systems are being developed as therapeutic delivery devices. The T3SS...
Thu, 11/14/2019 - 03:36
ABSTRACT The Shigella species are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogens that invade the colonic epithelium and cause significant diarrheal disease. Despite extensive research on the pathogen, a comprehensive understanding of how Shigella initiates contact with epithelial cells remains unknown. Shigella maintains many of the same Escherichia coli adherence gene operons; however, at...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Zhi-Xiang Dong, Huan-Yuan Li, Yi-Fei Chen, Feng Wang, Xian-Yu Deng, Lian-Bing Lin, Qi-Lin Zhang, Ji-Lian Li, Jun GuoAbstractThe role of the gut microbiome in animal health has become increasingly evident. Although the structure of the gut microbiome of A. mellifera is well known, little is known about the dynamic change across different developmental stages. In this study, we explored...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:29
The microbial population of kefir made from Korean kefir grain was profiled via next‐generation sequencing technology at the species level. Interestingly, Acetobacter fabarum was the second most predominent bacteria in kefir. We isolated Acetobacter fabarum DH1801 strain and revealed its potent and broad‐spectrum antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. This could contribute to the...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:26
Shigellosis, caused by Shigella boydii type 1, is understudied and underreported. For 3 years, GEMS study identified 5.4% of all Shigella as S. boydii. We showed the prevalent serotypes of S. boydii in Bangladesh and phage-based diagnosis of S. boydii type 1, a rapid and low-cost approach. Previously typed 793 clinical S. boydii strains were used for serotype distribution. Twenty-eight...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): Esmeray Kuley, Mebrure Nüket Yavuzer, Emre Yavuzer, Mustafa Durmuş, Hatice Yazgan, Yekta Gezginç, Fatih Özogul The impact of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) extracts on growth of fish spoilage bacteria (Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Enterobacter cloacae, Shigella spp., Morganella psychrotolerans, Photobacterium phosphoreum...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:39
ABSTRACT Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung condition in preterm infants that results in abnormal lung development and leads to considerable morbidity and mortality, making BPD one of the most common complications of preterm birth. We employed RNA sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile gene expression in blood and the composition of the fecal microbiota in...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:33
The aim of this study was to explore the phytochemical composition, heavy metals analysis and the antibacterial activity of six medicinal plants i.e., Terminalia chebula Retz (fruits), Aegle marmelos L., (fruits), Curcuma longa L., (rhizomes), Syzygium aromaticum L., (flower buds), Piper nigrum L., (seeds), Cinnamomum cassia L., (barks) and its two remedial recipes (recipe 1 and 2) used against...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:48
Enterobacteriaceae represent a diverse and medically important family of bacteria that are difficult to identify to the species level using the standard molecular method of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Prior work has demonstrated the value of dnaJ gene sequence analysis in resolving different members of the family. However, existing protocols are not optimized for clinical use and exhibit several...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:35
Little is known regarding differences in the gut microbiomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy cohorts in China. This study aimed to identify differences in the fecal microbiomes of 66 Chinese patients with RA and 60 healthy Chinese controls. The V3-V4 variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced with the Illumina system to define the bacterial composition. The...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:47
Author(s): Katesaraporn Nuankeaw, Boonyanoot Chaiyosang, Thanapat Suebrasri, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Saisaamorn Lumyong, Sophon BoonlueAbstractBioactive compounds of endophytic fungus Trichoderma polyalthiae were extracted from culture broth media. The crude extracts showed strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Biologically active compounds were isolated and purified by...

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