Vibrio

Sat, 10/17/2020 - 06:30
Author(s): Xiaohan Yang, Panpan Zhao, Yu Dong, Shiqi Chen, Hui Shen, Ge Jiang, Hai Zhu, Jingquan Dong, Song Gao Vibrio vulnificus is an important foodborne pathogenic bacterium that mainly contaminates seafood. Rapid and accurate technologies that suitable for on-site detection are critical for effective control of its spreading. Conventional detection methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:03
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by PirAB toxin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and has devastated the global shrimp aquaculture industry. One approach for preventing the growth of AHPND-producing Vibrio spp. is through the application of beneficial bacteria capable of inhibiting these pathogens. In this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of Bacillus...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 06:35
Author(s): Shengle Ji, Qiyang Gong, Wenwen Zhang, Jun Zheng, Bo Peng, Menghua Yang Aquatic animals are frequently threated by bacterial pathogens. The most economic and efficient protection against bacterial infection are through vaccine immunization. The various serotypes of the pathogens, such as Vibrios, hurdle the development of the vaccines, especially polyvalent vaccines. Here, we...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 16:00
Microorganisms are key players in the transformation of mercury into neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Nevertheless, this mechanism and the opposite MeHg demethylation remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the impact of inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg concentrations from 0.05 to 50 μM on the production and degradation of MeHg in two sulfate-reducing bacteria, Pseudodesulfovibrio hydrargyri...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Many viruses possess temporally unfolding gene expression patterns aimed at subverting host defenses, commandeering host metabolism, and ultimately producing a large number of progeny virions. High-throughput omics tools, such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), have dramatically enhanced the resolution of expression patterns during infection. Less studied have been viral satellites, mobile...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are important food contaminants that commonly co-occur with modified mycotoxins such as mycotoxin-glucosides in contaminated cereal grains. These masked mycotoxins are less toxic, but their breakdown and release of unconjugated mycotoxins has been shown by mixed gut microbiota of humans and animals. The role of different bacteria in hydrolysing mycotoxin-glucosides is unknown, and this...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 00:00
The pathogen Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems which allow bacteria to exploit a variety of iron sources across the different environments on which it thrives. The expression of such iron uptake systems is highly regulated, mainly by the master iron homeostasis regulator Fur but also by other mechanisms. Recently, we documented that the expression of many of the iron-...
Sun, 10/11/2020 - 04:02
During routine handling, cultured oysters are removed from the water and exposed to elevated temperatures, causing growth of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus within. Farmers can resubmerse oysters in the water, allowing elevated Vibrio spp. levels to return to ambient levels within the oysters. Previous resubmersion research is limited to one aquaculture gear type during studies...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 16:00
Single cell microorganisms including pathogens relentlessly face myriads of physicochemical stresses in their living environment. In order to survive and multiply under such unfavorable conditions, microbes have evolved with complex genetic networks, which allow them to sense and respond against these stresses. Stringent response is one such adaptive mechanism where bacteria can survive under...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:15
Aim To test whether engineered nanopores on the outer membrane (OM) of Escherichia coli can increase expression of heterologous proteins by making additional nutrients available to the host. Methods and Results Outer membrane nanopores were generated by expressing recombinant Vibrio parahaemolyticus CsgG (rVpCsgG), which spontaneously assembles into a pore forming channel on the OM, allowing...
Tue, 10/06/2020 - 16:00
Cholera is an acute secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The key determinants of cholera pathogenicity, cholera toxin (CT), and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP) are part of the genome of two horizontally acquired Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs), CTXΦ, and Vibrio pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1), respectively. Besides, V. cholerae genome harbors several others MGEs that...
Sat, 10/03/2020 - 08:03
by Wei Yan, Lei Ji, Deshun Xu, Liping Chen, Xiaofang Wu Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Isolates of V. parahaemolyticus from clinical samples (n = 54) and environmental samples (n = 38) in Huzhou were analyzed by serological typing, virulence gene detection, antibiotic resistance testing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for molecular...
Wed, 09/30/2020 - 16:00
The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of severe diarrheal disease known as cholera. Of the more than 200 “O” serogroups of this pathogen, O1 and O139 cause cholera outbreaks and epidemics. The rest of the serogroups, collectively known as non-O1/non-O139 cause sporadic moderate or mild diarrhea and also systemic infections. Pathogenic V. cholerae circulates between nutrient-...
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 16:00
The stringent response, an adaptive response to nutrient limitation and exposure to xenobiotics in bacteria, is mediated by two intracellular signaling molecules, pppGpp and ppGpp, together called (p)ppGpp. The cellular level of (p)ppGpp in bacterial cells is controlled by the Rel/Spo family of proteins. In the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, (p)ppGpp metabolism is regulated by the products of...
Sun, 09/27/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Victoria L. Pruente, Jessica L. Jones, Todd D. Steury, William C. Walton Routine handling of oysters is a common industry practice for off-bottom oyster aquaculture, which aims to produce a high-quality oyster. These practices expose oysters to elevated temperatures and interrupt filter feeding, which can increase Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus levels within the oyster. The...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 06:33
Author(s): Jing Tan, Xiucai Hu, Aijun Lü, Xiaoxue Liu, Jingfeng Sun, Yuchen Niu Vibrio vulnificus is a major pathogen of cultured Cynoglossus semilaevis and results in skin ulceration and haemorrhage, but the proteomic mechanism of skin immunity against V. vulnificus remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the histopathology and skin immune response in C. semilaevis with V. vulnificus...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 22:17
Tropical shrimp, like Litopenaeus vannamei, in land‐based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are often kept at low water salinities to reduce costs for artificial sea salt and the amount of salty wastewater. Although these shrimp are tolerant against low salinities, innate immunity suppression and changes in the microbial composition in the water can occur. As especially Vibrio spp. are...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus non-toxigenic strains are responsible for about 10% of acute gastroenteritis associated with this species, suggesting they harbor unique virulence factors. Zonula occludens toxin (Zot), firstly described in Vibrio cholerae, is a secreted toxin that increases intestinal permeability. Recently, we identified Zot-encoding genes in the genomes of highly cytotoxic Chilean V....
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 02:03
In recent years, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been projected as an alternative to traditional antibiotics for their superior antimicrobial properties and significant inhibition of the biofilm formation. Particularly, it is found that the effectiveness of AgNPs varies greatly with the biomaterial used in their synthesis. Mushrooms are natural resources for excellent...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 08:03
Bacterial species are hosts to horizontally acquired mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which encode virulence, toxin, antimicrobial resistance, and other metabolic functions. The bipartite genome of Vibrio cholerae harbors sporadic and conserved MGEs that contribute in the disease development and survival of the pathogens. For a comprehensive understanding of dynamics of...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 10:03
Successful colonization by enteric pathogens is contingent upon effective interactions with the host and the resident microbiota. These pathogens thus respond to and integrate myriad signals to control virulence. Long-chain fatty acids repress the virulence of the important enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Vibrio cholerae by repressing AraC-type transcriptional regulators in...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 02:04
An increase in the production and usage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) triggers the necessity to focus on their impact on ecosystems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of AuNPs and ionic gold (Au (III)) to organisms representing all trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem, namely producers (duckweed Lemna minor), consumers (crustacean Daphnia magna, embryos...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 22:17
An important toxin‐antitoxin (TA) system hok/sok, encoded by R1 plasmid of Escherichia coli, is involved in post segregation killing of cells that have lost the plasmid. The lethal properties of hok protein have been utilized for the environmental containment of microbes and the development of potential vaccine candidates. We aim to demonstrate the potent anti‐microbial property of 19 amino acid...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Gene essentiality is altered during polymicrobial infections. Nevertheless, most studies rely on single-species infections to assess pathogen gene essentiality. Here, we use genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to explore the effect of coinfection of the diarrheagenic pathogen Vibrio cholerae with another enteric pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Model predictions showed...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:02
Pathogenic Vibrios use many different approaches to subvert, attack, and undermine the host response. The toxins they produce are often responsible for the devastating effects associated with their diseases. These toxins target a variety of host proteins, which leads to deleterious effects including dissolution of cell organelle integrity and inhibition of protein secretion. Becoming increasingly...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:18
Vibrio cholerae isolates responsible for cholera pandemics represent only a small portion of the diverse strains belonging to this species. Indeed, most V. cholerae are encountered in aquatic environments. To better understand the emergence of pandemic lineages, it is crucial to discern what differentiates pandemic strains from their environmental relatives. Here, we studied the interaction of...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:04
Abstract Flagellar motility in bacteria is a highly regulated and complex cellular process that requires high energy investment for movement and host colonization. Motility plays an important role in the lifestyle of Vibrio spp. in the aquatic environment and during host colonization. Flagellar motility in vibrios is associated with several cellular processes, such as movement, colonization,...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:03
The marine facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae forms complex multicellular communities on the chitinous shells of crustacean zooplankton in its aquatic reservoir. V. cholerae-chitin interactions are critical for the growth, evolution, and waterborne transmission of cholera. This is due, in part, to chitin-induced changes in gene expression in this pathogen. Here, we sought to identify factors...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 10:03
Motility is required for many bacterial pathogens to reach and colonize target sites. Vibrio cholerae traverses a thick mucus barrier coating the small intestine to reach the underlying epithelium. We screened a transposon library in motility media containing mucin to identify factors that influence mucus transit. Lesions in structural genes of the Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) were among those...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Lekshmi Narendrakumar, Sivakumar Krishnankutty Chandrika, Sabu Thomas Cholera, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains a serious threat in underdeveloped countries. Although rehydration therapy has been the mainstay of disease management, antibiotics are also being used as an adjunct treatment, resulting in an increase in the circulation of antimicrobial-...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Hye-jin Kim, You-Tae Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Ju-Hoon Lee Vibrio vulnificus is a major food-borne pathogen that causes septicemia and cellulitis with a mortality rate of >50%. However, there are no efficient natural food preservatives or biocontrol agents to control V. vulnificus in seafood. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel bacteriophage VVP001. Host...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:19
The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae serves as a model organism for many important processes ranging from pathogenesis to natural transformation, which has been extensively studied in this bacterium. Previous work has deciphered important regulatory circuits involved in natural competence induction as well as mechanistic details related to its DNA acquisition and uptake potential. However, since...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:17
A 115‐day feeding trial and subsequently a 10‐day challenge test with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary antimicrobial peptide APSH‐07 on growth performance, immune response, antioxidative status and vibriosis resistance of abalone Haliotis discus hannai (initial body weight: 2.06 ± 0.01 g; initial shell length: 25.42 ± 0.18 mm). Four artificial diets...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Cholera remains a formidable disease, and reports of multidrug-resistant strains of the causative agent Vibrio cholerae have become common during the last 3 decades. The pervasiveness of resistance determinants has largely been ascribed to mobile genetic elements, including SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements, IncC plasmids, and genomic islands (GIs). Conjugative transfer of IncC...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio cholerae is an autochthonous inhabitant of the aquatic environment. Several molecular methods have been used for typing V. cholerae strains, but there is no proper database for such scheme, including multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. We used 54 V. cholerae O1 and three O139 strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources and regions of India...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 08:03
by Carmen Schwechheimer, Kassidy Hebert, Sarvind Tripathi, Praveen K. Singh, Kyle A. Floyd, Elise R. Brown, Monique E. Porcella, Jacqueline Osorio, Joseph T. M. Kiblen, Fernando A. Pagliai, Knut Drescher, Seth M. Rubin, Fitnat H. Yildiz Production of an extracellular matrix is essential for biofilm formation, as this matrix both secures and protects the cells it encases. Mechanisms underlying...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process in which bacteria use the production, release, and detection of signal molecules called autoinducers to orchestrate collective behaviors. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae requires quorum sensing to infect the small intestine. There, V. cholerae encounters the absence of oxygen and the presence of bile salts. We show that these two...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT A multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin plays an essential role in the virulence of many pathogens, including a fulminating human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. H-NS and HlyU repress and derepress expression of the MARTX toxin gene rtxA in V. vulnificus, respectively. However, little is known about other regulatory proteins and environmental signals involved in rtxA...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 17:38
A fundamental, clinical, and scientific concern is how lytic bacteriophage, as well as antibiotics, impact diagnostic positivity. Cholera was chosen as a model disease to investigate this important question, because cholera outbreaks enable large enrollment, field methods are well established, and the predatory relationship between lytic bacteriophage and the etiologic agent Vibrio cholerae share...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the main pathogen of food-borne diarrheal in coastal areas. Through the study of pathogen characteristics of 1870 V. parahaemolyticus, the isolation rate of O4:KUT had increased significantly since 2013. In this study, we analyzed virulence, antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular, and epidemiological characteristics of a new serotype named O4:KUT2. O4:KUT2 strains had...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
HapR is designated as a high cell density quorum sensing master regulatory protein of Vibrio cholerae. It is a member of the TetR family protein and functions both as an activator and a repressor by directly communicating with cognate promoters, thus controlling the expression of a plethora of genes in a density-dependent manner. Molecular insights reveal the domain architecture and further...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) represent a major mechanism that bacteria use to sense and respond to their environment. Prototypical TCSs are composed of a membrane-embedded histidine kinase, which senses an environmental stimulus and subsequently phosphorylates a cognate partner protein called a response regulator that regulates gene expression in a...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most hazardous pathogens causing seafood‐borne diseases in the southern Fujian coast, China. From June to October 2016, a total of 250 samples were collected from retail markets in the Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou regions. Seventy‐seven V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, molecular typing was performed...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 10:02
Fluctuations in osmolarity are one of the most prevalent stresses to which bacteria must adapt, both hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions. Most bacteria cope with high osmolarity by accumulating compatible solutes (osmolytes) in the cytoplasm to maintain the turgor pressure of the cell. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophile, utilizes at least six compatible solute transporters for the uptake of...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 08:04
by Amanda L. Laverty, Sebastian Primpke, Claudia Lorenz, Gunnar Gerdts, Fred C. Dobbs Since plastics degrade very slowly, they remain in the environment on much longer timescales than most natural organic substrates and provide a novel habitat for colonization by bacterial communities. The spectrum of relationships between plastics and bacteria, however, is little understood. The first objective...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:16
The dissemination and abundances of Vibrio species in aquatic environments are of interest, as some species cause emerging diseases in humans and in aquatic organisms like fish. It is suggested that Vibrio cholerae non‐O1 infections of Plecoglossus altivelis (‘ayu’) were spread to various parts of Japan through the annual transplantation of juvenile fish. To investigate this, we used genome‐aided...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Zhongguo Shan, Yanpeng Yang, Ning Guan, Xiaodong Xia, Weidong Liu The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has resulted in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, consequently, new antibacterial strategies or drugs with clear modes of action are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently widely considered as alternatives to antibiotics in the...
Sun, 08/16/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Shruti Chatterjee, Ishan Raval, Krishna Raval, Rima Tapader, Gopal Bhojani, Amit Pal, Sandhya Mishra This study intended to determine whether edible microalgae can play an active role as an anti-virulence agent for enteropathogens. It showed that Chlorella variabilis (ATCC PTA 12198) are able to inhibit the production of the virulence factors in pathogenic Vibrio cholerae strains, the...
Fri, 08/14/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Jiliang Lin, Junhao Ning, Xia Lu, Min Chen, Weian Cao, Chunde Wang Little information is available on innate immune defense mechanisms of Scapharca subcrenata. C-type lectins (CTLs) are not only pattern recognition proteins that can bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns, but also crucial maternally-derived immune factors in mollusc egg. In this study, the comparative...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT To understand toxin-stimulated host-pathogen interactions, we performed dual-transcriptome sequencing experiments using human epithelial (HT-29) and differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) immune cells infected with the sepsis-causing pathogen Vibrio vulnificus (either the wild-type [WT] pathogen or a multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin [MARTX] toxin-deficient strain). Gene set...

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