Vibrio

Thu, 01/21/2021 - 16:00
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus resulted in great economic losses in global shrimp aquaculture. There is an urgent need for development of novel strategies to combat AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus (VpAHPND), given that one of the greatest challenges currently is the widespread use of antibiotics and subsequent emergence of multidrug-resistant...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 10:04
Vibrio cholerae is a global health threat and a model enteric pathogen that causes the human disease cholera. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the seventh-pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706.
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 06:19
Author(s): Murari Bhandari, Amy V. Jennison, Irani U. Rathnayake, Flavia Huygens
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Our ability to predict evolutionary trajectories of pathogens is one of the promising leverages to fight against the pandemic disease, yet few studies have addressed this question in situ, due to the difficulty in monitoring the milestone evolutionary events for a given pathogen and in understanding the evolutionary strategies. In this study, we monitored the real-time evolution of...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
Intestinal mucus is the first line of defense against intestinal pathogens. It acts as a physical barrier between epithelial tissues and the lumen that enteropathogens must overcome to establish a successful infection. We investigated the motile behavior of two V. cholerae strains (El Tor C6706 and Classical O395) in mucus using single cell tracking in unprocessed porcine intestinal mucus. We...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 16:00
Vibrio vulnificus is a zoonotic bacterium that is capable of causing highly lethal diseases in humans; this pathogen is responsible for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT, E.C. 2.3.1.5) is a major family of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that can biotransform aromatic amine chemicals. In this research, to evaluate the effect of NAT on...
Sun, 01/17/2021 - 10:02
N-Acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases are periplasmic hydrolases that cleave the amide bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and alanine in peptidoglycan (PG). Unlike many Gram-negative bacteria that encode redundant periplasmic amidases, Vibrio fischeri appears to encode a single protein that is homologous to AmiB of Vibrio cholerae. We screened a V. fischeri transposon mutant library for strains...
Sun, 01/17/2021 - 10:02
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of seafood-borne illness reported in the United States. The draft genomes of 132 North American clinical and oyster V. parahaemolyticus isolates were sequenced to investigate their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships. The majority of oyster isolate sequence types (STs) were from a single harvest location; however, four were identified from...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is becoming the leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis, but its population dynamics in aquafarms have received limited attention. To address this research gap, we selected three shellfish farms to examine the impacts of ocean currents and the transport of live aquatic animals on the transmission and microevolution of V. parahaemolyticus by using...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Capsule-forming extracellular polysaccharides are crucial for bacterial host colonization, invasion, immune evasion, and ultimately pathogenicity. Due to warming ocean waters and human encroachment of coastal ecosystems, Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a globally important foodborne enteropathogen implicated in acute gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septic shock. Conventionally, the...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 04:02
Refugee camps provide basic necessities such as food, water, shelter, and medical treatment for displaced persons. Unsanitary conditions in refugee camps due to overcrowding, poor sanitation systems, lack of clean water, minimal ways to cook and store food can lead to an increased risk of foodborne illness. This article reviews the limited literature on the epidemiology of foodborne illness in...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:02
Due to the relatively high tolerance and resistance to sanitizers, biofilms can persist in the environment resulting in cross-contamination. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of nanobubbles (NB) alone and in combination with neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) on different microbial biofilms including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Listeria innocua on...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the major pathogens responsible for vibriosis and zoonotic infections in teleosts, marine invertebrates, and also humans through consumption of contaminated or unprocessed seafood. Emergence of resistance against current accessible antibiotics and spread to the food chain and environment necessitate the development of safe and effective subunit vaccine...
Tue, 01/05/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for epidemic and pandemic cholera and remains a global public health threat. This organism has been well established as a resident flora of the aquatic environment that alters its phenotypic and genotypic attributes for better adaptation to the environment. To reveal the diversity of clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 in the Bay of Bengal, we...
Tue, 01/05/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The mechanism of protection against cholera afforded by previous illness or vaccination is currently unknown. We have recently shown that antibodies targeting O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of Vibrio cholerae correlate highly with protection against cholera. V. cholerae is highly motile and possesses a flagellum sheathed in OSP, and motility of V. cholerae correlates with virulence....
Tue, 01/05/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae is a globally important pathogen responsible for the severe epidemic diarrheal disease called cholera. The current and ongoing seventh pandemic of cholera is caused by El Tor strains, which have completely replaced the sixth-pandemic classical strains of V. cholerae. To successfully establish infection and disseminate to new victims, V. cholerae relies on key virulence...
Wed, 12/30/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Arnon Pudgerd, Thanapong Kruangkum, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Supapong Imsonpang, Charoonroj Chotwiwatthanakun In crustacean, hemocytes are known as crucial components of crustaceans’ innate immunity against pathogens. Drastic hemocytes reduction during infectious disease is apparently related to disease severity and calls for a health status evaluation and...
Sat, 12/26/2020 - 22:10
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various microbial‐derived additives on the growth performance, non‐specific immunity and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were fed diets supplemented with 5 g/kg multi‐species probiotic (MSP), 5 g/kg dried lactic acid bacteria fermentate (LF), 5 g/kg dried yeast fermentate (YF), 7.5 g/kg cell wall‐broken yeast extract (BY), 5 g/kg...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Anupa Anirudhan, Victor Tosin Okomoda, Mat Taib Mimi Iryani, Yosie Andriani, Mohd Effendy Abd Wahid, Min Pau Tan, Muhd Danish-Daniel, Li Lian Wong, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku-Muhammad, Wen Jye Mok, Patrick Sorgeloos, Yeong Yik Sung Plants and herbal extracts are indispensable for controlling the spread of disease-causing bacteria, including those that infect aquatic organisms used in...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Pathogenic microorganisms produce various virulence factors, e.g., enzymes, cytotoxins, effectors, which trigger development of pathologies in infectious diseases. Cholera toxin (CT) produced by O1 and O139 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is a major cytotoxin causing severe diarrhea. Cholix cytotoxin (Cholix) was identified as a novel eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) adenosine-...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
Bacteria alternate between being free-swimming and existing as members of sessile multicellular communities called biofilms. The biofilm lifecycle occurs in three stages: cell attachment, biofilm maturation, and biofilm dispersal. Vibrio cholerae biofilms are hyperinfectious, and biofilm formation and dispersal are considered central to disease transmission. While biofilm formation is well...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic organelle encoded by many gram-negative bacteria that can be used to kill competing bacterial prey species in densely occupied niches. Some predatory species, such as Vibrio cholerae, use their T6SS in an untargeted fashion while in contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa assembles and...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 22:10
This paper presents the first evidence of a heterodimer formation between the periplasmic domains of ToxR and ToxS, two main regulators of the cholera causative Vibrio cholerae. The interaction establishes a protection of ToxR against proteolysis. The atomic resolution structure of ToxRp shows an αβ‐fold followed by a long unstructured C‐terminal stretch which plays a significant role in the...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 22:11
Rapid and user‐friendly diagnostic tests are necessary for early diagnosis and immediate detection of diseases, particularly for on‐site screening of pathogenic microorganisms in aquaculture. In this study, we developed a dual‐sample microfluidic chip integrated with a real‐time fluorogenic loop‐mediated isothermal amplification assay (dual‐sample on‐chip LAMP) to simultaneously detect 10...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 08:02
S. Breurec et al. Four cholera outbreaks were reported in the Central African Republic during 1997–2016. We show that the outbreak isolates were Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba from 3 seventh pandemic El Tor sublineages originating from West Africa (sublineages T7 and T9) or the African Great Lakes Region (T10).
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 22:13
A regulatory circuit indicates the interplay between the major outer membrane porin OmpU, periplasmic stress stimuli and the σE response pathway in Vibrio cholerae. This study reveals a negative feedback regulation resulting in fine‐tuning of the ompU expression level, balancing stress response and survival. Putative factor(s) operating on the negative feedback regulation on ompU expression is...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The type II secretion system (T2SS) is a conserved transport pathway responsible for the secretion of a range of virulence factors by many pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae. Disruption of the T2SS genes in V. cholerae results in loss of secretion, changes in cell envelope function, and growth defects. While T2SS mutants are viable, high-throughput genomic analyses have listed these...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio are widely distributed in aquatic environments and strongly associated with eutrophic environments and human health through the consumption of contaminated seafood. However, the response of the Vibrio community to seasonal variation in eutrophic environments is poorly understood. In this study, we used a Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA sequencing approach to reveal the seasonal distribution...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 00:00
The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens leads to a gradual decline in the efficacy of many antibacterial agents, which poses a serious problem for proper therapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms allow resistant bacteria to have limited uptake of drugs, modification of their target molecules, drug inactivation, or release of the drug into the extracellular space by efflux pumps (EPs). In...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae require careful regulation of horizontally acquired virulence factors that are largely located on horizontally acquired genomic islands (HAIs). While TsrA, a Vibrionaceae-specific protein, is known to regulate the critical HAI virulence genes toxT and ctxA, its broader function throughout the genome is unknown. Here, we find that deletion of tsrA...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading seafood-borne pathogen that can cause acute gastroenteritis and even death in humans. In aquatic ecosystems, phages constantly transform bacterial communities by horizontal gene transfer. Nevertheless, biological functions of prophage-related genes in V. parahaemolyticus remain to be fully unveiled. Herein, for the first time, we studied one such gene...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 22:17
The environmental reservoirs of different serogroups of V.cholerae causing cholera in the flowing freshwater bodies of the tribal areas of Odisha are not known. So the present study was conducted from June‐2017 to March‐2020 to find out the environmental reservoirs of V.cholerae serogroups in the water and plankton samples collected from the river, nala, stream and chua from Rayagada district....
Wed, 12/02/2020 - 04:02
Bacteria utilize versatile strategies to propagate infections within human cells, e.g., by the injection of effector proteins, which alter crucial signaling pathways. One class of such virulence-associated proteins is involved in the AMPylation of eukaryotic Rho GTPases with devastating effects on viability. In order to get an inventory of AMPylated proteins, several technologies have been...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance (AR) remains a major threat to public and animal health globally. However, AR ramifications in developing countries are worsened by limited molecular diagnostics, expensive therapeutics, inadequate numbers of skilled clinicians and scientists, and unsanitary environments. The epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria, their AR genes, and geographical distribution in...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 22:16
A strip test for the detection of all serotypes of Vibrio cholerae was developed. Detection limit of the bacterium in seafood samples was 107 CFU/ml. The sensitivity could be improved to 1 CFU/ml after pre‐incubation in APW for 24 h. Due to its simplicity and rapidity, the sample could be directly tested at point of care. Abstract A nanogold‐based immunochromatographic strip test (VCG strip test...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 16:00
Glucose oxidase (GOx) with high enzyme activity at low temperature (4°C) is potentially useful for food preservation, especially for aquatic products preservation. A cold-active GOx with approximately 83% similarity to known protein sequences, was isolated from Penicillium sp. MX3343 and expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. Through high cell density fermentation, the yield of recombinant enzyme (...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 16:00
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play pivotal roles in protecting against microbial infection in fish. However, AMPs from topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis) are rarely known. In our study, we isolated an AMP from the head kidney of topmouth culter, which belonged to liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) family. Topmouth culter LEAP-2 showed inhibitory effects on aquatic...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The prokaryotic adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas serves as a defense against bacteriophage and invasive nucleic acids. A type I-E CRISPR/Cas system has been detected in classical biotype isolates of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera. Experimental characterization of this system revealed a functional immune system that operates using a 5'-TT-3' protospacer-...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 08:02
The cell morphology of rod-shaped bacteria is determined by the rigid net of peptidoglycan forming the cell wall. Alterations to the rod shape, such as the curved rod, occur through manipulating the process of cell wall synthesis. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae typically exists as a curved rod, but straight...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 10:02
Vibrio parahaemolyticus rapidly colonizes surfaces using swarming motility. Surface contact induces the surface sensing regulon including lateral flagellar genes, spurring dramatic shifts in physiology and behavior. The bacterium can also adopt a sessile, surface-associated lifestyle and form robust biofilms. These alternate colonization strategies are influenced reciprocally by the second...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 22:15
Aims Infection of seafood with pathogenic species of the genus Vibrio causes human food‐borne illnesses. This study was executed to examine the antimicrobial‐resistance phenotypes, biofilm‐forming capability, and virulence‐associated genes of Vibrio from fish and shellfishes. Methods and results Three hundred fresh water and marine fish and shellfish samples were collected from wet markets and...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 06:36
Author(s): Salah M. Aly, Alaa E. Eissa, Noha I. ElBanna, Aqel Albutti This experimental studies investigated the protective efficiencies and the potential immune mechanisms of vibrio monovalent and polyvalent autogenous formalin-inactivated whole-cell bacterins (FKC) in Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured in Egypt. Two months post-vaccination, the relative percentage survival (RPS) was...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Natural transformation is a broadly conserved mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacteria that can shape their evolution through the acquisition of genes that promote virulence, antibiotic resistance, and other traits. Recent work has established that neighbor predation via type VI secretion systems, bacteriocins, and virulent phages plays an important role in promoting HGT....
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 10:03
Vibrio cholerae is an inhabitant of aquatic environments worldwide. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of eight V. cholera non-O1, non-O139 isolates that were recovered from the corpses of two seabird chicks (common terns) following a mass mortality event in a German breeding colony in 2019.
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 22:16
Amphiphilic siderophores including amphibactins are the most abundant siderophores in oceans. Genes putatively encoding the amphibactin system were proposed in some bacteria and homologues of these genes are particulary abundant in multiple bacterial lineages inhabitant of low‐iron seawater. However, since no defective mutant strains in any of these genes were studied to date, their role in...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
Oyster and seawater samples were collected from five sites in the Chesapeake Bay, MD, and three sites in the Delaware Bay, DE, from May to October 2016 and 2017. Abundances and detection frequencies for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were compared using the standard most-probable-number–PCR (MPN-PCR) assay and a direct-plating (DP) method on CHROMagar...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 02:03
Vibrio cholerae is an important food-borne pathogenic bacterium that causes human disease, resulting in economic losses worldwide. Rapid diagnosis of cholera infection is important to avoid potential spread of disease. In this study, recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) primers labeled with biotin and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) at 5′ end were prepared for the ctxA pathogenic gene of V....
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 22:15
Aims Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a severe bacterial disease of cultured shrimp. To identify the key virulence factors, two AHPND‐causing V. parahaemolyticus (VpAHPND) strains (123 and 137) and two non‐VpAHPND strains (HZ56 and ATCC17082) were selected. Methods and Results Challenge tests showed that the four strains exhibited...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 16:00
As an important foodborne pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus gives a significant threat to food safety and public health. Rapid and accurate detection methods for V. vulnificus are required to control its spread. The conventional detection methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, while the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based methods are limited because of their...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 16:00
Chironomids (Diptera; Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant insects in freshwater habitats. Our aim was to understand whether the metamorphosis developmental stages affect the endogenous microbiota composition of Chironomus transvaalensis. Toward our objective, we analyzed the endogenous microbiota composition of C. transvaalensis’ four life stages: egg...

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