Vibrio

Thu, 09/24/2020 - 02:03
In recent years, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been projected as an alternative to traditional antibiotics for their superior antimicrobial properties and significant inhibition of the biofilm formation. Particularly, it is found that the effectiveness of AgNPs varies greatly with the biomaterial used in their synthesis. Mushrooms are natural resources for excellent...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 08:03
Bacterial species are hosts to horizontally acquired mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which encode virulence, toxin, antimicrobial resistance, and other metabolic functions. The bipartite genome of Vibrio cholerae harbors sporadic and conserved MGEs that contribute in the disease development and survival of the pathogens. For a comprehensive understanding of dynamics of...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 10:03
Successful colonization by enteric pathogens is contingent upon effective interactions with the host and the resident microbiota. These pathogens thus respond to and integrate myriad signals to control virulence. Long-chain fatty acids repress the virulence of the important enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Vibrio cholerae by repressing AraC-type transcriptional regulators in...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 02:04
An increase in the production and usage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) triggers the necessity to focus on their impact on ecosystems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of AuNPs and ionic gold (Au (III)) to organisms representing all trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem, namely producers (duckweed Lemna minor), consumers (crustacean Daphnia magna, embryos...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 22:17
An important toxin‐antitoxin (TA) system hok/sok, encoded by R1 plasmid of Escherichia coli, is involved in post segregation killing of cells that have lost the plasmid. The lethal properties of hok protein have been utilized for the environmental containment of microbes and the development of potential vaccine candidates. We aim to demonstrate the potent anti‐microbial property of 19 amino acid...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Gene essentiality is altered during polymicrobial infections. Nevertheless, most studies rely on single-species infections to assess pathogen gene essentiality. Here, we use genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to explore the effect of coinfection of the diarrheagenic pathogen Vibrio cholerae with another enteric pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Model predictions showed...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:02
Pathogenic Vibrios use many different approaches to subvert, attack, and undermine the host response. The toxins they produce are often responsible for the devastating effects associated with their diseases. These toxins target a variety of host proteins, which leads to deleterious effects including dissolution of cell organelle integrity and inhibition of protein secretion. Becoming increasingly...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:18
Vibrio cholerae isolates responsible for cholera pandemics represent only a small portion of the diverse strains belonging to this species. Indeed, most V. cholerae are encountered in aquatic environments. To better understand the emergence of pandemic lineages, it is crucial to discern what differentiates pandemic strains from their environmental relatives. Here, we studied the interaction of...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:04
Abstract Flagellar motility in bacteria is a highly regulated and complex cellular process that requires high energy investment for movement and host colonization. Motility plays an important role in the lifestyle of Vibrio spp. in the aquatic environment and during host colonization. Flagellar motility in vibrios is associated with several cellular processes, such as movement, colonization,...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:03
The marine facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae forms complex multicellular communities on the chitinous shells of crustacean zooplankton in its aquatic reservoir. V. cholerae-chitin interactions are critical for the growth, evolution, and waterborne transmission of cholera. This is due, in part, to chitin-induced changes in gene expression in this pathogen. Here, we sought to identify factors...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 10:03
Motility is required for many bacterial pathogens to reach and colonize target sites. Vibrio cholerae traverses a thick mucus barrier coating the small intestine to reach the underlying epithelium. We screened a transposon library in motility media containing mucin to identify factors that influence mucus transit. Lesions in structural genes of the Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) were among those...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Lekshmi Narendrakumar, Sivakumar Krishnankutty Chandrika, Sabu Thomas Cholera, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains a serious threat in underdeveloped countries. Although rehydration therapy has been the mainstay of disease management, antibiotics are also being used as an adjunct treatment, resulting in an increase in the circulation of antimicrobial-...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Hye-jin Kim, You-Tae Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Ju-Hoon Lee Vibrio vulnificus is a major food-borne pathogen that causes septicemia and cellulitis with a mortality rate of >50%. However, there are no efficient natural food preservatives or biocontrol agents to control V. vulnificus in seafood. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel bacteriophage VVP001. Host...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:19
The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae serves as a model organism for many important processes ranging from pathogenesis to natural transformation, which has been extensively studied in this bacterium. Previous work has deciphered important regulatory circuits involved in natural competence induction as well as mechanistic details related to its DNA acquisition and uptake potential. However, since...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:17
A 115‐day feeding trial and subsequently a 10‐day challenge test with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary antimicrobial peptide APSH‐07 on growth performance, immune response, antioxidative status and vibriosis resistance of abalone Haliotis discus hannai (initial body weight: 2.06 ± 0.01 g; initial shell length: 25.42 ± 0.18 mm). Four artificial diets...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Cholera remains a formidable disease, and reports of multidrug-resistant strains of the causative agent Vibrio cholerae have become common during the last 3 decades. The pervasiveness of resistance determinants has largely been ascribed to mobile genetic elements, including SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements, IncC plasmids, and genomic islands (GIs). Conjugative transfer of IncC...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio cholerae is an autochthonous inhabitant of the aquatic environment. Several molecular methods have been used for typing V. cholerae strains, but there is no proper database for such scheme, including multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. We used 54 V. cholerae O1 and three O139 strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources and regions of India...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 08:03
by Carmen Schwechheimer, Kassidy Hebert, Sarvind Tripathi, Praveen K. Singh, Kyle A. Floyd, Elise R. Brown, Monique E. Porcella, Jacqueline Osorio, Joseph T. M. Kiblen, Fernando A. Pagliai, Knut Drescher, Seth M. Rubin, Fitnat H. Yildiz Production of an extracellular matrix is essential for biofilm formation, as this matrix both secures and protects the cells it encases. Mechanisms underlying...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process in which bacteria use the production, release, and detection of signal molecules called autoinducers to orchestrate collective behaviors. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae requires quorum sensing to infect the small intestine. There, V. cholerae encounters the absence of oxygen and the presence of bile salts. We show that these two...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT A multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin plays an essential role in the virulence of many pathogens, including a fulminating human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. H-NS and HlyU repress and derepress expression of the MARTX toxin gene rtxA in V. vulnificus, respectively. However, little is known about other regulatory proteins and environmental signals involved in rtxA...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 17:38
A fundamental, clinical, and scientific concern is how lytic bacteriophage, as well as antibiotics, impact diagnostic positivity. Cholera was chosen as a model disease to investigate this important question, because cholera outbreaks enable large enrollment, field methods are well established, and the predatory relationship between lytic bacteriophage and the etiologic agent Vibrio cholerae share...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the main pathogen of food-borne diarrheal in coastal areas. Through the study of pathogen characteristics of 1870 V. parahaemolyticus, the isolation rate of O4:KUT had increased significantly since 2013. In this study, we analyzed virulence, antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular, and epidemiological characteristics of a new serotype named O4:KUT2. O4:KUT2 strains had...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
HapR is designated as a high cell density quorum sensing master regulatory protein of Vibrio cholerae. It is a member of the TetR family protein and functions both as an activator and a repressor by directly communicating with cognate promoters, thus controlling the expression of a plethora of genes in a density-dependent manner. Molecular insights reveal the domain architecture and further...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) represent a major mechanism that bacteria use to sense and respond to their environment. Prototypical TCSs are composed of a membrane-embedded histidine kinase, which senses an environmental stimulus and subsequently phosphorylates a cognate partner protein called a response regulator that regulates gene expression in a...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most hazardous pathogens causing seafood‐borne diseases in the southern Fujian coast, China. From June to October 2016, a total of 250 samples were collected from retail markets in the Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou regions. Seventy‐seven V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, molecular typing was performed...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 10:02
Fluctuations in osmolarity are one of the most prevalent stresses to which bacteria must adapt, both hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions. Most bacteria cope with high osmolarity by accumulating compatible solutes (osmolytes) in the cytoplasm to maintain the turgor pressure of the cell. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophile, utilizes at least six compatible solute transporters for the uptake of...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 08:04
by Amanda L. Laverty, Sebastian Primpke, Claudia Lorenz, Gunnar Gerdts, Fred C. Dobbs Since plastics degrade very slowly, they remain in the environment on much longer timescales than most natural organic substrates and provide a novel habitat for colonization by bacterial communities. The spectrum of relationships between plastics and bacteria, however, is little understood. The first objective...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:16
The dissemination and abundances of Vibrio species in aquatic environments are of interest, as some species cause emerging diseases in humans and in aquatic organisms like fish. It is suggested that Vibrio cholerae non‐O1 infections of Plecoglossus altivelis (‘ayu’) were spread to various parts of Japan through the annual transplantation of juvenile fish. To investigate this, we used genome‐aided...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Zhongguo Shan, Yanpeng Yang, Ning Guan, Xiaodong Xia, Weidong Liu The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has resulted in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, consequently, new antibacterial strategies or drugs with clear modes of action are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently widely considered as alternatives to antibiotics in the...
Sun, 08/16/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Shruti Chatterjee, Ishan Raval, Krishna Raval, Rima Tapader, Gopal Bhojani, Amit Pal, Sandhya Mishra This study intended to determine whether edible microalgae can play an active role as an anti-virulence agent for enteropathogens. It showed that Chlorella variabilis (ATCC PTA 12198) are able to inhibit the production of the virulence factors in pathogenic Vibrio cholerae strains, the...
Fri, 08/14/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Jiliang Lin, Junhao Ning, Xia Lu, Min Chen, Weian Cao, Chunde Wang Little information is available on innate immune defense mechanisms of Scapharca subcrenata. C-type lectins (CTLs) are not only pattern recognition proteins that can bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns, but also crucial maternally-derived immune factors in mollusc egg. In this study, the comparative...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT To understand toxin-stimulated host-pathogen interactions, we performed dual-transcriptome sequencing experiments using human epithelial (HT-29) and differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) immune cells infected with the sepsis-causing pathogen Vibrio vulnificus (either the wild-type [WT] pathogen or a multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin [MARTX] toxin-deficient strain). Gene set...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 22:16
As filter‐feeders, bivalve molluscs accumulate Vibrio into edible tissues. Consequently, an accurate assessment of depuration procedures and the characterization of the persistent Vibrio community in depurated shellfish represent a key issue to guarantee food safety in shellfish products. The present study investigated changes in the natural Vibrio community composition of the Ruditapes...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant seafood-borne pathogen, leading to serious acute gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. In this study, a reliable 4-plex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was successfully established and evaluated for the simultaneous detection of V. parahaemolyticus based on tlh, tdh, ureR, and orf8 in food samples using single intact cells. The targets tlh and ureR were labeled...
Sun, 08/09/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Chang-Hong Cheng, Hong-Ling Ma, Yi-Qin Deng, Juan Feng, Yu-Ken Jie, Zhi-Xun Guo Mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is an important economic species in China. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have caused a great economic loss in mud crab farming. The mechanism involved in the immune responses of mud crab to V. parahaemolyticus is unclear. In this study, the physiological and immune...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Juanjuan Cao, Huan Liu, Yi Wang, Xiaoxian He, Heyang Jiang, Jiaojiao Yao, Fei Xia, Yanni Zhao, Xuefeng Chen The emergence of extensive and pandrug resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is recognized as the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis globally, necessitates the urgent development of novel therapeutic strategies and antibacterial drugs. This study aims to...
Thu, 08/06/2020 - 10:03
Vibrio cholerae is a halophilic Gram-negative bacterial species and the etiological agent of cholera. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an environmental V. cholerae strain, 2012Env-25, obtained using Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) to provide insights into the ecology, evolution, and pathogenic potential of this bacterium.
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 16:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent naturally occurring compounds and is responsible for many human intoxications worldwide. Paphies australis are endemic clams to New Zealand which contain varying concentrations of TTX. Research suggests that P. australis accumulate the toxin exogenously, but the source remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacterial TTX-...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 08:02
Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that still results in 20,000 to 140,000 deaths per year worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Once the bacterium reaches the small intestine after ingestion, it hangs on to the intestinal mucus and starts producing a proteinaceous...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 16:00
Previous studies proved that heavy metals could increase the risk of disease by acting on the gut microbiota. Meanwhile, gut microbiota played important roles in detoxifying heavy metals. However, the response of gut microbiota to heavy metals and which microbes dominated this detoxification processes are still unclear. This study investigated the difference of high-fat-diet (HFD) and normal-diet...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Donatella Ottaviani, Silvia Pieralisi, Serena Chierichetti, Elena Rocchegiani, Jasmine Hattab, Francesco Mosca, Pietro Giorgio Tiscar, Francesca Leoni, Gabriele Angelico This study evaluated the application of a Halobacteriovorax isolated from water of the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in controlling V. parahaemolyticus in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Two 72 h laboratory-scale V....
Wed, 07/22/2020 - 02:03
Examination of genes encoding for the virulence factors, hemolysin/cytolysin (vvhA) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS allele 1), during biofilm formation revealed that their expression was influenced by the maturity of the biofilm as well as by temperature. At 24 °C, expression of vvhA during biofilm formation was low between 4 and 12 h but increased 10-fold by 24 h to (5.1 × 104 ± 6.3 × 103mRNA...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 22:16
V. cholerae form biofilm, which is essential for their survival under harsh environmental conditions. The eDNA produced during biofilm formation and interaction with other components like vibrio polysaccharide is less studied in Vibrio cholerae despite its importance in biofilm structure and stability. In this study, we selected two strains of V. cholerae, which produced sufficient extracellular...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 12:00
ABSTRACT Following an episode of cholera, a rapidly dehydrating, watery diarrhea caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae O1, humans mount a robust anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody response that is associated with immunity to subsequent re-infection. In neonatal mouse and rabbit models of cholera, passively administered anti-LPS polyclonal and monoclonal (MAb) antibodies...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 00:00
Mortalities of bivalve larvae and spat linked with Vibrio spp. infection have been described in hatcheries since 1959, causing potential development of resistant bacteria. A reliable and sustainable solution to this problem is yet to be developed. Potential treatment of bacterial infection with bacteriophages is gaining interest in aquaculture as a more sustainable option for managing Vibrio spp...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that leads to damage of aquatic industry by foodborne outbreaks and possesses an enormous threat to food safety as well as human health worldwide. In the current study, we investigated 905 food samples (ready-to-eat foods, fish, and shrimp) from 15 provinces in China, and aimed to determine prevalence, biological characteristics and...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 12:00
ABSTRACT A total of 594 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from cultivated oysters (n = 361) and estuarine water (n = 233) were examined for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotype and genotype and virulence genes. Four hundred forty isolates (74.1%) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent and 13.5% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant strains. Most of the V. parahaemolyticus...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a seafoodborne pathogen that can cause severe gastroenteritis and septicemia diseases in humans and even death. The emergence of multidrug-resistant V. parahaemolyticus leads to difficulties and rising costs of medical treatment. The bacterium of environmental origins containing no major virulence genes (tdh and trh) has been reported to be associated with infectious...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 10:02
Vibrio cholerae biofilm biogenesis, which is important for survival, dissemination, and persistence, requires multiple genes in the Vibrio polysaccharides (vps) operons I and II as well as the cluster of ribomatrix (rbm) genes. Transcriptional control of these genes is a complex process that requires several activators/repressors and the ubiquitous signaling molecule, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)....
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 02:03
Shallow hydrothermal systems are extreme environments. The sediments and fluids emitted from the vents present unusual physical and chemical conditions compared to other marine areas, which promotes unique biodiversity that has been of great interest for biotechnology for some years. In this work, a bioprospective study was carried out to evaluate the capacity of bacteria associated with shallow...

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