Vibrio

Wed, 01/20/2016 - 10:03
Summary AimsIn New Zealand, there have been no known cases of foodborne linked to Vibrio vulnificus and shellfish consumption, but two cases of wound infection have been reported. We evaluated the distribution, the effect of environmental parameters, the pheno-genotypic profile, and the growth characteristics of strains isolated from shellfish. Methods and ResultsV. vulnificus was present in 13.6...
Tue, 01/19/2016 - 09:12
Publication date: 2 March 2016 , Volume 220 Author(s): Greta Caburlotto, Elisabetta Suffredini, Marica Toson, Luca Fasolato, Paolo Antonetti, Michela Zambon, Amedeo Manfrin Infections due to the pathogenic human vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, are mainly associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked bivalve molluscs. At present,...
Fri, 01/15/2016 - 00:00
The multifactorial etiology of massive Crassostrea gigas summer mortalities results from complex interactions between oysters, opportunistic pathogens and environmental factors. In a field survey conducted in 2014 in the Mediterranean Thau Lagoon (France), we evidenced that the development of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), was...
Mon, 01/11/2016 - 11:08
The presence of the Lon protease in all three domains of life hints at its biological importance. The prokaryotic Lon is responsible for not only degrading abnormal proteins but also for carrying out proteolytic regulation of specific protein targets. Post-translational regulation by Lon is known to affect a variety of physiological traits in many bacteria, including biofilm formation, motility,...
Tue, 01/05/2016 - 09:35
Publication date: May 2016 , Volume 63 Author(s): Nuo Duan, Yiling Yan, Shijia Wu, Zhouping Wang Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a flexible tool for biological analysis due to its excellent properties for detecting wide varieties of target biomolecules including pathogenic bacteria. In the present work, a highly selective and sensitive SERS-based aptasensor for the...
Thu, 12/17/2015 - 05:44
Abstract This study aimed at enumerating the viable number of various Vibrio spp., which cultured in tryptic soy broth with 3% NaCl (TSBN3) or inoculated in mackerels, on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sugar (TCBS) agar and tryptic soy agar with 3% NaCl (TSAN3), before and after storage at 4C for 3 or 7 days, depending on the use of seven diluents, including alkaline peptone water, phosphate...
Mon, 12/14/2015 - 11:34
Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are mobile integrated genetic elements (MIGEs) that contain a diverse range of virulence factors and are essential in the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. PAIs are widespread among bacteria and integrate into the host genome, commonly at a tRNA locus, via integrase mediated site-specific recombination. The excision of PAIs is the first step in the horizontal transfer...
Fri, 12/11/2015 - 17:00
Yue-jiao Ma, Xiao-hong Sun, Xiao-yan Xu, Yong Zhao, Ying-jie Pan, Cheng-An Hwang, Vivian C. H. Wu Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize its...
Fri, 12/11/2015 - 11:40
RtxA1 toxin, which results in cytoskeletal rearrangement, contact cytotoxicity, hemolysis, tissue invasion, and lethality in mice, is the most potent cytotoxic virulence factor of Vibrio vulnificus. Bioinformatics analysis of rtxA1 predicted 4 functional domains that presumably performed discrete functions during host cell killing. V. vulnificus RtxA1 has a unique domain designated as RtxA1-D2,...
Mon, 12/07/2015 - 11:37
Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone in the bacterial respiratory chain, coupled with Na+ translocation across the membrane. Na+-NQR maturation involves covalent attachment of FMN residues, catalyzed by flavin transferase encoded by the nqr-associated apbE gene. Analysis of complete bacterial genomes has revealed another...
Wed, 11/25/2015 - 17:00
Anthony M. Smith, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Martin A. Mengel, Bradford D. Gessner, Delphine Sauvageot, Bawimodom Bidjada, Berthe N. Miwanda, Diallo M. Saliou, Adèle Kacou N’Douba, José P. Langa, Husna Ismail, Nomsa Tau, Arvinda Sooka, Karen. H. Keddy We used standardized methodologies to characterize Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Togo,...
Mon, 11/23/2015 - 11:17
Classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae serogroup O1, the etiological agent of cholera, are responsible for the sixth and current seventh pandemics, respectively. A genomic island (GI), GI-24, previously identified in a classical biotype strain of V. cholerae, is predicted to encode CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated proteins; however experimental...
Wed, 11/18/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Toxigenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 from aquatic reservoirs are a key source for recurrent epidemics of cholera in human populations. However, we do not have an optimal understanding of the microbiology of the strains within these reservoirs, particularly outside of the time periods when there are active cholera cases in the surrounding community. The...
Mon, 11/16/2015 - 12:36
TcpP and ToxR coordinately regulate transcription of toxT, the master regulator of numerous virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae. TcpP and ToxR are membrane-localized transcription factors each with a periplasmic domain containing two cysteines. In ToxR these cysteines form an intramolecular disulfide bond and a cysteine to serine substitution affects activity. We determined that the two...
Tue, 11/10/2015 - 15:42
Abstract Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely distributed in the marine environments and considered the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in Asian countries. A total of 150 marketed fish and 50 water and sediment samples from the Gulf of Aqaba were examined for the prevalence of pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. A total of 132 typical isolates obtained from the primary selective medium...
Mon, 11/09/2015 - 11:50
β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase (FabG) catalyzes the key reductive reaction in the elongation cycle of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is a vital metabolic pathway in bacteria and a promising target for new antibiotic development. The activation of the enzyme is usually linked to the formation of a catalytic triad and cofactor binding, and crystal structures of FabG from...
Thu, 11/05/2015 - 17:00
Tanaya Chatterjee, Irshad Ali Sheikh, Devlina Chakravarty, Pinak Chakrabarti, Paramita Sarkar, Tultul Saha, Manoj K. Chakrabarti, Kazi Mirajul Hoque Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/...
Thu, 11/05/2015 - 02:50
Summary The causative agent of Legionnaires′ disease, Legionella pneumophila, employs the autoinducer compound LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, comprising the autoinducer synthase LqsA, the sensor kinases LqsS and LqsT, as well as the response regulator LqsR. Lqs-regulated processes...
Tue, 10/27/2015 - 17:00
Christopher J. Jones, Andrew Utada, Kimberly R. Davis, Wiriya Thongsomboon, David Zamorano Sanchez, Vinita Banakar, Lynette Cegelski, Gerard C. L. Wong, Fitnat H. Yildiz In many bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) controls the motile to biofilm life style switch. Yet, little is known about how this occurs. In this study, we report that changes...
Tue, 10/27/2015 - 17:00
Kevin G. Roelofs, Christopher J. Jones, Sarah R. Helman, Xiaoran Shang, Mona W. Orr, Jonathan R. Goodson, Michael Y. Galperin, Fitnat H. Yildiz, Vincent T. Lee Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors...
Mon, 10/26/2015 - 11:34
The genesis of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae involves acquisition of CTX, a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) filamentous phage that encodes cholera toxin. The phage exploits host encoded tyrosine recombinases (XerC-XerD) for chromosomal integration and lysogenic conversion. The replicative genome of CTX produces ssDNA by rolling circle replication, which may either be used for virion production or for...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 22:55
Abstract AimLittle information is available on a direct comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of LEDs of different peak wavelengths. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LEDs of three different wavelengths on bacterial inactivation. Methods and ResultsLactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were illuminated with 405, 460 and 520 nm...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 22:36
Abstract AimsProbiotics have been proved to be the most preferred and effective alternative to antibiotics as growth promoter and pathogens inhibitor in poultry industry. In this study Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 1.1086 as a probiotic bacterium was administered in diet and its effects on both the growth performance and the cecal microbiota of broilers were evaluated. Methods and ResultsA total of 240...
Wed, 10/14/2015 - 00:00
Most pathogenic, non-O1/non-O139 serogroup Vibrio cholerae strains cause diarrheal disease in the absence of cholera toxin. Instead, many use Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) mediated mechanisms to disrupt host cell homeostasis. We identified a T3SS effector protein, VopX, which is translocated into mammalian cells during in vitro co-culture. In a S. cerevisiae model system, we found that...
Tue, 10/13/2015 - 17:00
Klaudyna A. Borewicz, Hyeun Bum Kim, Randall S. Singer, Connie J. Gebhart, Srinand Sreevatsan, Timothy Johnson, Richard E. Isaacson Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of food borne illness. Recent studies have shown that S. enterica is a pathogen capable of causing alterations to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. A recent prospective study of French pork production farms found a...
Fri, 10/09/2015 - 02:32
Publication date: December 2015 , Volume 119 Author(s): Kentaro Kawatsu, Junko Sakata, Taro Yonekita, Yuko Kumeda We evaluated the utility of an immunochromatographic assay (NH IC TDH) in identifying thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus colonies on selective agar plates. The sensitivity of the NH IC TDH assay was 100% (189 samples) and its specificity...
Mon, 10/05/2015 - 11:29
Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are the main contributors to acquired multidrug resistance in the seventh pandemic lineage of Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera. Conjugative transfer of SXT/R391 ICEs is triggered by antibiotics and agents promoting DNA damage through RecA-dependent autoproteolysis of SetR, an ICE-encoded CI...
Fri, 10/02/2015 - 11:12
Recent studies of natural environments have revealed vast genetic reservoirs of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Soil bacteria and human pathogens share AR genes, and AR genes have been discovered in a variety of habitats. However, there is little knowledge about the presence and diversity of AR genes in marine environments and which organisms host AR genes. To address this, we identified the...
Fri, 10/02/2015 - 11:12
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of...
Wed, 09/30/2015 - 03:20
MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “The opportunistic marine pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus becomes virulent by acquiring a plasmid that expresses a deadly toxin,” by Chung-Te Lee, I-Tung Chen, Yi-Ting Yang, Tzu-Ping Ko, Yun-Tzu Huang, Jiun-Yan Huang, Ming-Fen Huang, Shin-Jen Lin, Chien-Yu Chen, Shih-Shuen Lin, Donald V. Lightner, Han-Ching Wang, Andrew H.-J. Wang, Hao-Ching...
Tue, 09/29/2015 - 01:23
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important seafood-borne pathogen. V. parahaemolyticus carrying either tdh or trh or both genes is considered a pathogenic strain. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp processed in a factory using most probable number (MPN) combined with either polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or loop-mediated...
Tue, 09/29/2015 - 01:23
Flagellation in polar flagellates is one of the rare biosynthetic processes known to be numerically regulated in bacteria. Polar flagellates must spatially and numerically regulate flagellar biogenesis to create flagellation patterns for each species that are ideal for motility. FlhG ATPases numerically regulate polar flagellar biogenesis, yet FlhG orthologs are diverse in motif composition. We...
Tue, 09/29/2015 - 01:23
In Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica, the stress associated mammalian hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) trigger a signaling cascade by interacting with the QseC sensor protein. Here we show that V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, exhibits a specific response towards E and NE. These catecholates (0.1 mM) enhanced growth and swimming motility on soft agar of V....
Sat, 09/26/2015 - 01:20
Jin Hwan Park, Youmi Jo, Song Yee Jang, Haenaem Kwon, Yasuhiko Irie, Matthew R. Parsek, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding...
Wed, 09/23/2015 - 01:23
The cholera toxin genes of Vibrio cholerae are encoded by CTX, a lysogenic bacteriophage. Infection with this phage plays a determinant role in toxigenicity conversion and the emergence of new clones of pathogenic V. cholerae. Multiple phage alleles, defined by sequence types of the repressor gene rstR, have been found, showing the divergence of phage genomes. Pre-CTX, which is characterized by...
Fri, 09/04/2015 - 01:23
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2015 Author(s): Geik Yong Ang, Choo Yee Yu, Kok Gan Chan, Kirnpal Kaur Banga Singh, Chan Yean Yean In this study, we report for the first time the development of a dry-reagent-based nucleic acid-sensing platform by combining a thermostabilised linear-after-the-exponential (LATE)-PCR assay with a one-step hybridisation-based nucleic...
Fri, 09/04/2015 - 01:23
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2015 Author(s): Chen Zhang, Peihua Niu, Yanying Hong, Ji Wang, Jingyun Zhang, Xuejun Ma Objectives We aim to develop a multiplex real-time PCR assay to detect the most common pathogens causing community outbreaks of diarrhea. Methods Four reaction systems of fluorescence dye-based real-time PCR assay were performed to amplify genes...
Sat, 08/29/2015 - 01:22
Two of the primary virulence regulators of Vibrio cholerae, ToxR and TcpP, function together with cognate effector proteins. ToxR undergoes regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) during late stationary phase in response to nutrient limitation at alkaline pH, however, the specific function of its cognate ToxS remains unresolved. In this work we found that ToxR rapidly becomes undetectable in a...
Wed, 08/26/2015 - 06:20
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe, newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has already led to tremendous losses in the cultured shrimp industry. Until now, its disease-causing mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that an AHPND-causing strain of V. parahaemolyticus contains a 70-kbp...
Tue, 08/25/2015 - 01:23
Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic organism and facultative human pathogen that colonizes the small intestine. In the small intestine V. cholerae is exposed to a variety of antimicrobial compounds including bile. V. cholerae resistance to bile is multifactorial and includes alterations in the membrane permeability barrier that are mediated by ToxR; a membrane-associated transcription factor. ToxR has...
Tue, 08/25/2015 - 01:23
Publication date: 1 March 2016 , Volume 194 Author(s): Tai-Yuan Chen, Shu-Hao Kuo, Shui-Tein Chen, Deng-Fwu Hwang Slightly acidic electrolysed water (SlAEW) and acidic electrolysed water (AEW) have been demonstrated to effectively inactivate food-borne pathogens. However, the underlying mechanism of inactivation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, a differential proteomic...
Sun, 08/23/2015 - 03:20
Rod-shaped bacterial cells are polarized, with many organelles confined to a polar cellular site. In polar flagellates, FlhF and FlhG, a multiple-domain (B-N-G) GTPase and a MinD-like ATPase respectively, function as a cognate pair to regulate flagellar localization and number as revealed in Vibrio and Pseudomonas species. In this study, we show that FlhFG of Shewanella oneidensis (SoFlhFG), a...
Sat, 08/22/2015 - 01:27
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a distinct class of membrane-damaging cytolytic proteins that contribute significantly towards the virulence processes employed by various pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a prominent member of the beta-barrel PFT (beta-PFT) family. It is secreted by most of the pathogenic strains of the intestinal pathogen V. cholerae. Owing to its potent...
Thu, 08/20/2015 - 01:27
The human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of seafood-related deaths in the United States. Strains are genotyped on the basis of alleles that correlate with isolation source, with clinical (C)-genotype strains being more often implicated in disease and environmental (E)-genotype strains being more frequently isolated from oysters and estuarine waters. Previously, we have shown that...
Wed, 08/19/2015 - 01:21
Natural transformation is one mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Recently, it was found that V. cholerae isolates from the Haiti outbreak were poorly transformed by this mechanism. Here, we show that an integrating conjugative element (ICE)-encoded DNase, which we name...
Wed, 08/19/2015 - 01:21
The estuarine gram-negative rod and human diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae synthesizes a VPS exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm matrix that allows it to form a 3D structure on surfaces. Proteins associated with the matrix include, RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1. RbmA, a protein whose crystallographic structure suggests two binding surfaces, associates with cells...

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