Vibrio

Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Yufeng Li, Ling Tan, Linxia Guo, Ping Zhang, Pradeep K. Malakar, Faraz Ahmed, Haiquan Liu, Jing Jing Wang, Yong Zhao Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is considered as important determinant in bacterial biofilm formation. This study investigated the effects of DNase I and acidic electrolytic water (AEW) in beaking down mature Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilms. Changes of key chemical components...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:46
ABSTRACT Bacterial flagella are rotating nanomachines required for motility. Flagellar gene expression and protein secretion are coordinated for efficient flagellar biogenesis. Polar flagellates, unlike peritrichous bacteria, commonly order flagellar rod and hook gene transcription as a separate step after production of the MS ring, C ring, and flagellar type III secretion system (fT3SS) core...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:35
Bacteria can colonize virtually any environment on Earth due to their remarkable capacity to detect and respond quickly and adequately to environmental stressors. Vibrio cholerae is a cosmopolitan bacterium that inhabits a vast range of environments. The V. cholerae life cycle comprises diverse environmental and infective stages. The bacterium is found in aquatic ecosystems both under free-living...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:38
The bacterium Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems across the planet. V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are responsible for cholera outbreaks in developing countries accounting for 3–5 million infections worldwide and 28.800–130.000 deaths per year according to World Health Organization. In contrast, V. cholerae serogroups other than O1 and O139, also designated as V....
Sat, 04/25/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Jeong-Min Lee, Rini Nur Azizah, Keun-Sung Kim Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been one of the major bacterial species responsible for summer food poisoning. However, the limitations of current medium-based strategies for its detection necessitates a more effective selective or discriminatory agar media-based method. In this study, we first developed ChromoVP agar for more specific...
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:36
Vibrio cholerae can enter a viable but non‐culturable (VBNC) state when it encounters unfavorable environments; VBNC cells serve as important reservoirs and still pose threats to public health. The genetic regulation of V. cholerae entering its VBNC state is not well understood. Here, we show a confrontation strategy adapted by V. cholerae O1 in which it utilizes a quorum sensing (QS) system to...
Tue, 04/21/2020 - 03:45
Antimicrobial peptides play an important role in host defense against Vibrio cholerae. Generally, the V. cholerae O1 classical biotype is polymyxin B (PB) sensitive and El Tor is relatively resistant. Detection of classical biotype traits like the production of classical cholera toxin and PB sensitivity in El Tor strains has been reported in recent years, including in the devastating Yemen...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:35
Cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP, TcpA is the major subunit) are two major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae, both of which play critical roles in developing severe diarrhea in human. Expression of CT and TCP is under the tight control of the regulatory cascade known as the ToxR virulence regulon, which is composed of three regulators ToxR, TcpP, and ToxT. Besides, their...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:35
Cattle are the asymptomatic reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) that preferentially colonizes the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ). Understanding the influence of O157 on the diversity of the RAJ microbiota could give insights into its persistence at the RAJ in cattle. Hence, we compared changes in bovine RAJ and fecal microbiota following O157 challenge under experimental conditions....
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:26
Interactions between the eukaryotic host, microbiome members, and invading pathogens help to shape disease outcomes. Using the Drosophila model, Fast et al. identified that Vibrio cholerae acts to inhibit epithelial renewal through complex interactions between the type VI secretion system of V. cholerae and the microbial community of the fly.
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:28
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram‐negative bacterium that is naturally present in the marine environment. Oysters, which are water filter feeders, may accumulate this pathogen in their soft tissues, thus increasing the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection among people who consume oysters. In this review, factors affecting V. parahaemolyticus accumulation in oysters, the route of the pathogen...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:25
The highly populated coasts of the Bay of Bengal are particularly vulnerable to water-borne diseases, pollution and climatic extremes. The environmental factors behind bacterial community composition and Vibrio distribution were investigated in an estuarine system of a cholera-endemic region in the coastline of Bangladesh. Higher temperatures and sewage pollution were important drivers of the...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:29
Vibrio vulnificus, Edwardsiella anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila are three common bacterial pathogens in cultivated eels. To protect farming eels from infection by these pathogens, a trivalent outer membrane protein (OMP) containing partial sequences of OmpU from V. vulnificus, OmpA from E. anguillarum and OmpII from A. hydrophila was expressed and purified; then, the OMP was used as a...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:27
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative autochthonous bacterium found in temperate and tropical marine and coastal waters globally. V. parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent food-poisoning bacterium associated with seafood consumption, typically causing self-limiting gastroenteritis. V. parahaemolyticus grows preferentially in warm (>15°C), low-salinity marine water (<25 ppt NaCl)....
Mon, 04/13/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Taro Yonekita, Naoki Morishita, Eiji Arakawa, Takashi Matsumoto Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide. Contamination of V. parahaemolyticus in foods must be detected as quickly as possible because raw seafood, a major source of V. parahaemolyticus infection, is shipped immediately after production due to its short expiration date. In this study, we generated...
Sun, 04/12/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Md Ashrafudoulla, Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Angela Jie-won Ha, Si Hong Park, Sang-Do Ha The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of eugenol against V. parahaemolyticus planktonic and biofilm cells and the involved mechanisms as well. Atime-kill assay, a biofilm formation assay on the surface of crab shells, an assay to determine the...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:37
Author(s): Samia Zeb, Sardar Muhammad Gulfam, Habib Bokhari Cholera is an endemic disease in many regions of Asia including, Pakistan. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is considered as one of the best adapted bacteria due to its ability to withstand severe environmental stresses. The V. cholerae genome is very plastic with many gene additions and deletions. In this study, we...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:30
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) has a widely accepted role in bacterial intra- and interspecies communication. Little is known about the relationships between AI-2 and NEC. This study found that AI-2 levels in patients and in a NEC mouse model were detected using the Vibrio harveyi BB170 assay system. Bacterial communities of the newborns' stool microbiota (NEC acute group, NEC recovery group, control group...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:44
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a widespread bacterium in the marine environment and is one of the leading causes of food-derived bacterial poisoning in humans worldwide. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factors and antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profiles of V. parahaemolyticus in Pacific mackerel from different markets in Zhejiang, People’s Republic...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:36
The membrane‐bound transcription regulator ToxR controls housekeeping and virulence gene expression in V. cholerae. The activity and stability of ToxR strongly depends on its operon partner ToxS, the redox state of its periplasmic cysteine residues and environmental stimuli. Here, ToxR‐ToxR PPIs are key for its activity, which is influenced by ToxS, DNA binding capabilities, bile and the...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:33
Hfq (host factor for phage Q beta) is key for posttranscriptional gene regulation in many bacteria. Hfq’s function is to stabilize sRNAs and to facilitate base-pairing with trans-encoded target mRNAs. Loss of Hfq typically results in pleiotropic phenotypes, and, in the major human pathogen Vibrio cholerae, Hfq inactivation has been...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:33
The spread of cholera in the midst of an epidemic is largely driven by direct transmission from person to person, although it is well-recognized that Vibrio cholerae is also capable of growth and long-term survival in aquatic ecosystems. While prior studies have shown that aquatic reservoirs are important in the...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:33
During development, organisms acquire three-dimensional (3D) shapes with important physiological consequences. While basic mechanisms underlying morphogenesis are known in eukaryotes, it is often difficult to manipulate them in vivo. To circumvent this issue, here we present a study of developing Vibrio cholerae biofilms grown on agar substrates in which the...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 04:00
Author(s): Waode Munaeni, Widanarni, Munti Yuhana, Mia Setiawati, Aris Tri Wahyudi This study investigated the influence of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. on the immune responses, bacterial population in the intestines, and resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, against infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp were fed with three dosages of powder, at 6.25 g kg–1 (P6.25), 12.5 ...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:45
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophilic bacterium often found in the marine or estuarine environment is a well-known enteropathogen responsible for foodborne outbreaks associated with seafood. The pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus are marked by the presence of thermostable direct hemoylsin (tdh) and/or TDH related hemolysin (trh) genes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:29
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Chinese wild blueberry extract and its fractions against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Chinese wild blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) crude extract (BBE) was obtained using methanol extraction, and sugars plus organic acids (F1), phenolics fraction (F2), and...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:28
Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells were able to recover at 25°C, but their recovery extent was affected by the types of prestressed treatment and strain. Cold‐stressed, and tetracycline‐resistant Vibrio cells were more rapidly converted to VBNC state than nonstressed cells. V. cholerae has a higher risk than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in frozen seafood. Abstract We compared the fate...
Sun, 04/05/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Craig Baker-Austin, Claire Jenkins, Jerome Dadzie, Orson Mestanza, Erick Delgado, Andy Powell, Tim Bean, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza Globally, V. parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent food-poisoning bacterium associated with seafood consumption. To date, the epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections in the UK has remained unexplored. Here we analysed archived V. parahaemolyticus...
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:27
The genome of Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, is an exception to the single chromosome rule found in the vast majority of bacteria and has its genome partitioned between two unequally sized chromosomes. This unusual two‐chromosome arrangement in V. cholerae has sparked considerable research interest since its discovery. It was demonstrated that the two chromosomes could be...
Wed, 04/01/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Yuwei Wu, SamK.C. Chang Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are halophilic bacteria and can cause illness associated with the consumption of oysters. In this study, we tested the hypothesis to see if the adjustment of the acceleration voltage can change the efficacy of X-ray doses on V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in pure culture and inoculated V. parahaemolyticus...
Wed, 04/01/2020 - 03:25
Vibrio vulnificus hemolysin (VVH) is a pore-forming toxin secreted by Vibrio vulnificus. Cellular cholesterol was believed to be the receptor for VVH, because cholesterol could bind to VVH and preincubation with ...
Mon, 03/30/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Jorge Silva-Jara, Carlos Angulo, María Esther Macias, Carlos Velazquez, Crystal Guluarte, Martha Reyes-Becerril In México, the infusion of Jatropha vernicosa stem bark has been used in folk medicine for many clinical situations, but no reports were available about this particular species of Jatropha in fish of mammals. In this first screening report, the phytochemical, antioxidant...
Mon, 03/30/2020 - 03:26
ABSTRACTS Non‐O1/non‐O139 nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera‐like diarrhea has been reported in Kolkata, India. However, the property involved in the pathogenicity of these strains has remained unclear. We examined the character of 25 non‐O1/non‐O139 nontoxigenic V. cholerae isolated during 8 years from 2007 to 2014 in Kolkata. Determination of serogroup showed that the...
Sat, 03/28/2020 - 03:27
Bacteria constantly experience changes to their external milieu and need to adapt accordingly to ensure their survival. Certain bacteria adapt by means of cellular differentiation, resulting in the development of a specific cell type that is specialized for life in a distinct environment. Furthermore, to understand how bacteria adapt, it is essential to appreciate the significant changes that...
Sat, 03/28/2020 - 03:24
Vibrio vulnificus is a zoonotic pathogen that lives in temperate, tropical and subtropical aquatic ecosystems whose geographical distribution is expanding due to global warming. The species is genetically variable and only the strains that belong to the zoonotic clonal-complex can cause vibriosis in both humans and fish (being its main host the eel). Interestingly, the severity of the vibriosis...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:51
The combination of nisin, EDTA, and sulfite at a low dose of 0.625% exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than did a high dose of sulfite (1.25%) for shrimp preservation. Based on aerobic bacteria counts, psychrotrophic bacteria, and TVB‐N, shrimp treatment with combination of nisin, EDTA, and low‐dose sulfite were still acceptable within 10 days of storage. Abstract This study aims to...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:34
Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) uses the autoinducer CAI-1 (cholera autoinducer 1) and several linked quorum sensing systems in order to efficiently sense its ever-changing environment and optimally coordinate population-wide gene expression. Indole has been reported as an important signal that is sensed by V. cholerae, and here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a focused library of...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:42
V. parahaemolyticus is autochthonous to the marine environment and causes seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. Generally, V. parahaemolyticus recovered from the environment and/or seafood is thought to be non...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:34
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic pathogen that frequently causes acute gastroenteritis and occasional wound infection. V. parahaemolyticus contains several virulence factors, including type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). In particular, T3SS1 is a potent cytotoxic inducer, and T3SS2 is essential for causing acute gastroenteritis...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:34
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen and has recently gained particular notoriety because it causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp, which has caused significant economic loss in the shrimp industry. Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 233 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from humans, diseased shrimp, and environmental samples...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:34
by Michael G. Jobling, Steven T. Poole, Fatima Rasulova-Lewis, Aisling O’Dowd, Annette L. McVeigh, Amit Balakrishnan, Stephanie A. Sincock, Michael G. Prouty, Randall K. Holmes, Stephen J. Savarino Surface-expressed colonization factors and their subunits are promising candidates for inclusion into a multivalent vaccine targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:25
The “Photorhabdus virulence cassettes” (PVCs) secreted by Photorhabdus are defined as “extracellular contractile injection systems” (eCISs) and can deliver effectors to eukaryotic hosts for cytotoxicity. Previously, we demonstrated the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure and assembly process of an intact PVC particle from Photorhabdus asymbiotica. In this work, we characterized the...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:26
Sea turtles can be considered a sentinel species for monitoring the health of marine ecosystems, acting, at the same time, as a carrier of microorganisms. Indeed, sea turtles can acquire the microbiota from their reproductive sites and feeding, contributing to the diffusion of antibiotic-resistant strains to uncontaminated environments. This study aims to unveil the presence of antibiotic-...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:26
The epidemic diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae virulence factors include the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin, which are major factors responsible for host colonization and production of diarrhea. Expression of cholera toxin and TCP genes is controlled by the ToxR regulon. The ToxR regulon includes the transcriptional...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 04:07
Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic organism and facultative human pathogen that typically resides in coastal areas and brackish water. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae strain RFB16, which was isolated from a freshwater lake in southwestern Pennsylvania.
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:30
The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) is a proteinaceous weapon used by many Gram‐negative bacteria to deliver toxins into adjacent target cells. Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium responsible for the fatal water‐borne cholera disease, uses the T6SS to evade phagocytic eukaryotes, cause intestinal inflammation, and compete against other bacteria with toxins that disrupt lipid membranes, cell walls and...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 04:07
Helical cell shape appears throughout the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Recent exciting work characterizing cell shape mutants in a number of curved and helical Proteobacteria is beginning to suggest possible mechanisms and provide tools to assess functional significance. We focus here on Caulobacter crescentus, Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, organisms from three...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:19
The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods from school cafeterias in Chongqing, China, was evaluated in comparison to a guideline published by a provincial health commission. Based on their preparation processes and potential risks, the RTE foods were divided into 5 types: food type 1, general cooked and hot-held foods; food type 2, cooked meats; food type 3, heated aquatic products...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:27
Sea level rise and the anthropogenic warming of the world's oceans is not only an environmental tragedy, but these changes also result in a significant threat to public health. Along with coastal flooding and the encroachment of saltwater farther inland comes an increased risk of human interaction with pathogenic Vibrio species, such as Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus. This...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:25
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen that causes pathogenic symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Currently no studies have shown that either pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus possess growth heterogeneity in a human environment, such as in gastric and intestinal fluids. The tlh gene is present in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains,...

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