Bacterial pathogens

Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:37
by Kathleen O’Connor, Madeleine Morrissette, Philip Strandwitz, Meghan Ghiglieri, Mariaelena Caboni, Haiyan Liu, Christina Khoo, Anthony D’Onofrio, Kim Lewis The opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli, a common member of the human gut microbiota belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causative agent of the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The gut microbiota serves as a...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Erwin M. Berendsen, Evgeni Levin, René Braakman, Andrei Prodan, Hans C. van Leeuwen, Armand PaauwAbstractTo improve the preparedness against exposure to highly pathogenic bacteria and to anticipate the wide variety of bacteria that can cause bloodstream infections (BSIs), a safe, unbiased and highly accurate identification method was developed. Our liquid chromatography-tandem mass...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Zhouyi Zhang, Weijia Zhang, Changkao Mu, Ronghua Li, Weiwei Song, Yangfang Ye, Ce Shi, Lei Liu, Huan Wang, Chunlin WangAbstractGalectins are a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins that play key roles in the invertebrate innate immunity system, but no galectin genes have been identified in the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) so far. The present study is the first to clone a galectin...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Alberto Alía, María J. Andrade, Juan J. Córdoba, Irene Martín, Alicia RodríguezAbstractListeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen, causative agent of listeriosis. The epidemiology and persistence of this bacterium in meat processing plants may be related to its serotype, so it is of utmost importance to carry out a correct differentiation of L. monocytogenes serotypes....
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Virginie Barrere, Elizabeth Tompkins, Marcia Armstrong, Patrick Bird, Benjamin Bastin, Lawrence GoodridgeAbstractSalmonella is the causative agent of many outbreaks related to spice consumption. However, because of the antimicrobial properties of various spices which hinders recovery and detection, Salmonella detection in spices remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:29
The etiology and pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is complex and involves the interplay of infectious agents, management and environmental factors. Previous studies of BRD focused on ante mortem samples from the upper respiratory tract and identified several unconventional viruses. The lung, however, is the primary location where significant BRD lesions are usually found, and is a...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:26
Aims To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in pork on sale in Wuhan, Central China. Methods and Results A total of 4744 pork samples were collected from retail or wholesale markets in each season from 2016 to 2018. The samples showed an overall Salmonella prevalence of 19·54% (927/4744), among which the samples collected in 2017 (21·67%, 428/1975) possessed a...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
Historically, the regulatory requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for developing new antibiotics have not addressed pathogen-focused indications for drug approval. The design of the necessary randomized controlled trials traditionally involves the enrollment of patients with site-specific infections caused by susceptible as well as...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
Carbapenem resistance in gram-negative bacteria has caused a global epidemic that continues to grow. Although carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have received the most attention because resistance was first reported in these pathogens in the early 1990s, there is increased awareness of the impact of carbapenem-resistant nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
MraW is a 16S rRNA methyltransferase and plays a role in the fine-tuning of the ribosomal decoding center. It was recently found to contribute to the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we examined the function of MraW in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and found that the deletion of mraW led to decreased motility, flagellar production and DNA methylation. Whole-genome bisulfite...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
The envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is critical for survival across a wide range of environmental conditions. The inner membrane, the periplasm and the outer membrane form a complex compartment, home to many essential processes. Hence, constant monitoring by envelope stress response systems ensure correct biogenesis of the envelope and maintain its homeostasis. Inside the periplasm, the cell...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections pose a major threat to global public health. Similar to other AMR pathogens, both historical and ongoing drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemics are characterized by transmission of a limited number of predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains. Understanding how these predominant strains achieve sustained transmission, particularly during the...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal yet energetically costly weapon in gram-negative bacteria. Through contraction of a long sheath, the T6SS ejects a few copies of effectors accompanied by hundreds of structural carrier proteins per delivery. The few ejected effectors, however, dictate T6SS functions. It remains elusive...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
Vanillic acid (VA) is a flavoring agent found in edible plants and fruits. Few recent studies exhibited robust antibacterial activity of VA against several pathogen microorganisms. However, little was reported about the effect of VA on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (CREC). The purpose of the current study was to assess in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of VA against...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:37
The Na+ - ion translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) from Vibrio cholerae is a membrane bound respiratory enzyme which harbors flavins and Fe-S clusters as redox centers. The NQR is the main producer of sodium motive force (SMF) and drives energy-dissipating processes such as flagellar rotation, substrate uptake, ATP synthesis and cation-proton antiport. The NQR requires for its...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:29
Low‐temperature cooking, such as sous vide, has become a favored method for processing seafood. For this method to be applicable for retail products, combinations with other processing steps are needed to keep the products safe and durable while maintaining high quality. The present experiments were designed to investigate the influence of low‐temperature treatment (40, 50, or 60 °C) in...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:26
The present paper describes the generation of derivatives from the hybrid peptide called Ent35-MccV, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This peptide has a triple glycine hinge region between enterocin CRL35 and microcin V. In order to obtain variants of Ent35-MccV with greater biotechnological potential, a saturation mutagenesis was carried out in the hinge region. As a...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:25
Salmonella is one of the most common causes of food-borne diseases worldwide. While Salmonella molecular subtyping by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used for outbreak and source tracking investigations, serotyping remains as a first-line characterization of Salmonella isolates. The traditional phenotypic method for serotyping is logistically challenging, as it requires the use of...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:25
Horizontal gene transfer of integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) in bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex has emerged as a significant cause of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and therapeutic failure and mortalities in cattle. The aim of this study was to assess an AMR ICE occurring in Pasteurella multocida from a case of BRD, designated ICEMh1PM22 for its...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:25
Millions every day purchase their raw meat in wet markets around the globe, especially in Hong Kong city, where modern and a traditional way of living is made possible. While food hygiene standards in Hong Kong have more recently focused on the safety of meat sold in these wet markets, the hygienic surface level of wooden cutting boards used for processing meats is seldom observed. This original...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:25
Pickled ready-to-eat meat (PRTEM) is a meat product that is treated with various seasonings and then cooked. PRTEM is a popular food consumed mostly in China and some Asian countries. Since this food is considered ‘ready to eat’, once it is contaminated by foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, the prospect for significant morbidity, mortality, and immeasurable economic losses can occur. Here we...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:25
The anti-microbial properties of acetone extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces, fractions isolated by silica gel chromatography and hibiscus acid purified from some of these fractions and additionally identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mid-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were studied against both multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains and pathogenic...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): N.G.C. Vasileiou, P.J. Cripps, K.S. Ioannidi, A.I. Katsafadou, D.C. Chatzopoulos, M.S. Barbagianni, V. Tsioli, E. Dermisiadou, E. Karavanis, N. Papadopoulos, D. Lianou, V.S. Mavrogianni, E. Petinaki, G.C. FthenakisAbstractAlthough coagulase-negative staphylococci are the primary aetiological agents of subclinical mastitis in ewes, there is little information regarding vaccination...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:30
Background Q fever is a febrile illness caused by infection with the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is most often transmitted by inhalation of the bacteria after it is shed by infected livestock. Recent studies have found very high C. burnetii infection rates among marine mammals, but it is not known if shedding by marine mammals creates a risk of Q fever among humans. To better understand...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:29
The Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei is cultivated worldwide and is an important economic resource in Mexico. Despite continuous development of shrimp aquaculture in Mexico, this activity has exhibited variable production rates because of health‐related problems. Most of the health problems have been caused by viruses, such as IHHNV [syn = penstyldensovirus (PstDV1)], TSV, and WSSV, and...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:28
The survival of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, and S. Montevideo in experimentally inoculated (106 CFU/g) minced pork meat containing different concentrations (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, or 0.9%) of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) packaged under vacuum or MAP (30%O2/50%CO2/20%N2) were evaluated within 15 days of refrigeration (3 ± 1°C) storage. Carvacrol was the...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:28
Attiéké is the major fermented plant food in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to identify hazards and critical control points (CCP) in order to implement a HACCP system for the production of attiéké. Physico‐chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out. pH of the cossettes used as raw material for attieke process was slightly acidic (6·5 ± 0·23). But attiéké produced had an acid...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:28
Mycobacteriosis in cultured fish is a challenge for the aquaculture industry worldwide. Treatment by chemical administration is difficult and no effective vaccine has been developed. Therefore, detection and isolation by early diagnosis are important for prevention of the spread of the disease. In mammals, interferon gamma release assays have been established for detection of tuberculosis; these...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:27
Aims Current culture‐based methods for detection and determination of Campylobacter levels on processed chickens takes at least two days. Here, we sought to develop a new complete, low‐cost and rapid (approximately 2·5 hours) detection system requiring minimal operator input. Methods and Results We observed a strong correlation between culture‐based cell counts and our ability to detect either...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:27
Alginate‐based edible coating acts as a carrier enabling the sustained release of thyme oil to the surface of the fresh‐cut apples, inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto fresh‐cut apples. Summary In this study, the inhibition of an alginate‐based edible coating (EC) containing thyme oil (0.05%, 0...
Mon, 11/11/2019 - 03:26
A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method were established to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes from a chicken farm and samples from commercial live chickens. Suspected isolates were pretreated and crystallized by matrix solutions consisting of ethanol, acetonitrile, and water with different proportions. The effect of...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Xi Yang, Xiangning Bai, Ji Zhang, Hui Sun, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Xiaohua He, Flemming Scheutz, Andreas Matussek, Yanwen XiongAbstractShiga toxin (Stx) is the key virulence factor in Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which can cause diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications. Stx comprises two toxin types, Stx1 and Stx2. Several Stx1/Stx2...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Limin Wu, Yongjing Li, Yufeng Xu, Lei Wang, Xiao Ma, Chuanju Dong, Xianliang Zhao, Xue Tian, Xuejun Li, Xianghui KongAbstractMyostatin, through type I receptor (kinase 4, 5, ALK4/5), functions to participate in the immune system and negatively regulate muscle growth in mammals. However, the role of myostatin (mstn) in the immune system of teleosts is largely unknown. In a previous...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Bin Wu, Tan Yang, Dengchao Zou, Ling Jin, Xuehua Liang, Ting Li, Ganhui Huang, Jinsheng ZhangAbstractAn accurate biosensor for rapid detection of Salmonella via low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology was developed. First, poly-l-lysine (PLL) containing several amino groups was modified with diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA) and gadolinium (Gd). The antibody was...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Sun Hee Moon, Joy Waite-Cusic, En HuangAbstractSalmonella contamination in broiler carcasses poses significant health concerns. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 10 essential oil compounds and to determine the combined effects with a commercial bacteriophage (SALMONELEX) against Salmonella. Thymol and carvacrol were the most active compounds...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Ji-Sook Park, Jae-Won HaAbstractThe objectives of this study were to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the X-ray and curcumin combination against Listeria monocytogenes on sliced cheese and to determine the effect of this treatment combination on the quality attributes of sliced cheese. Treatment with the combination of X-ray (0.4 kGy) and curcumin (0.5 mg/L) resulted in the...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Zhi-Xiang Dong, Huan-Yuan Li, Yi-Fei Chen, Feng Wang, Xian-Yu Deng, Lian-Bing Lin, Qi-Lin Zhang, Ji-Lian Li, Jun GuoAbstractThe role of the gut microbiome in animal health has become increasingly evident. Although the structure of the gut microbiome of A. mellifera is well known, little is known about the dynamic change across different developmental stages. In this study, we explored...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Ayhan Duran, Halil Ibrahim KahveAbstractBeef is an animal food sensitive to deterioration due to its rich nutrient content. Therefore, some preservation techniques are applied. These include vacuum packaging, a modified atmosphere, a controlled atmosphere and an edible film coating. In this study, it was aimed to extend the shelf life of beef using vacuum packaging (VP) and chitosan...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Tareq M. Osaili, Anas A. Al-Nabulsi, Dinesh Kumar Dhanasekaran, Fayeza Hasan, Sowmya Rao, Hera Fatima, Mutamed Ayyash, Richard Holley, Reyad S. ObaidAbstractThis study aimed to evaluate growth behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and background microbiota in ground lean camel meat during refrigerated storage for up to 7 d, and determine thermal inactivation...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Minto Michael, Jennifer Acuff, Keyla Lopez, Daniel Vega, Randall Phebus, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Lakshmikantha H. ChannaiahAbstractThis study was conducted to validate a simulated commercial baking process for plain muffins against E. coli O121 (isolated from the recent illness outbreak associated with flour), and compare the thermal inactivation parameters (D- and z-values) of...
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Pedro Rodríguez-López, Juan José Rodríguez-Herrera, Marta López CaboAbstractThe variation in microbial composition over time was assessed in biofilms formed in situ on selected non-food and food contact surfaces of meat and fish industries, previously identified as Listeria monocytogenes-positive foci. First, all samples were analysed for the detection and quantification of L....
Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:31
Author(s): Kuppuswamy N. KasturiAbstractSalmonella is one of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses in the USA. When a Salmonella outbreak occurs, rapid identification of the causative serovar is important for tracing the source of contamination and for preventing the further spread of the illness. Each serovar is characterized by the presence of a group-specific somatic O-antigen(s) and an...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:38
ABSTRACT In the present study, we provide the results of a detailed genomic analysis and the growth characteristics of a colistin-resistant KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 512 (ST512) isolate (the colR-KPC3-KP isolate) with a mutated pmrB and isogenic isolates of colR-KPC3-KP with mcr-1.2 isolated from an immunocompromised patient. From 2014 to 2017, four colR-KPC3-KP isolates...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Lun Zhang, Shuiqing Gui, Jian Wang, Qingru Chen, Jiali Zeng, Along Liu, Zhaoxia Chen, Xuemei LuAbstractFood and feed contamination caused by Salmonella typhimurium has led to serious economic losses and healthy problems worldwide, including particularly gastroenteritis and diarrheal diseases related to ileal injury and intestinal flora disorder. Tea polyphenols (TP), a class of natural...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Ding-qian Liu, Jun-li Zhang, Zhi-fen Pan, Jun-tao Mai, Heng-jun Mei, Yue Dai, Lu Zhang, Qing-zhong WangAbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), can persist in the host for decades without causing TB symptoms and can cause a latent infection, which is an intricate challenge of current TB control. The DosR regulon, which contains approximately...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Hui Yang, Haoran Xiong, Kaihang Mi, Yingying Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Guohong ChenAbstractDue to the aquatic animal pathogens are numerous and specific, the pathogen invasion mechanisms are more complicated. The cell surface receptors play vital roles to understand these mechanisms. Syndecan is a cell surface protein and could function as a receptor involved bacteria and virus infections...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Sophie Tongyu Wu, Susan R. Hammons, Rachel Silver, Jack A. Neal, Haley F. OliverAbstractFood safety climate and culture is an integral part of a healthy food safety system. While much research has been done on elements of food safety climate and culture, no data are available on their relationship with Listeria monocytogenes contamination at retail. We implemented a forty-four-question...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): James A. Karlowsky, Sibylle H. Lob, Krystyna M. Kazmierczak, Katherine Young, Mary R. Motyl, Daniel F. SahmAbstractβ-lactam- and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli frequently cause lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in patients housed in intensive care units (ICUs). Relebactam, a novel diazabicyclooctane inhibitor of Ambler class A and C β-lactamases, in...

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