Bacterial pathogens

Thu, 09/24/2020 - 10:04
In 2018, Brucella ceti was isolated from a bottlenose dolphin from the western Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of the isolate BD1442 of sequence type 27, which is the only sequence type known to have been isolated from human clinical cases.
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 08:05
by Vanessa Knittel, Pooja Sadana, Stephanie Seekircher, Anne-Sophie Stolle, Britta Körner, Marcel Volk, Cy M. Jeffries, Dmitri I. Svergun, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Andrea Scrima, Petra Dersch Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are complex macromolecular injection machines which are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. They are involved in host-cell interactions and pathogenesis, required to eliminate...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 08:05
by Sabira Tahseen, Faisal Masood Khanzada, Alamdar Hussain Rizvi, Mahmood Qadir, Aisha Ghazal, Aurangzaib Quadir Baloch, Tehmina Mustafa Background Pakistan is among top five high burden countries for tuberculosis and drug resistant TB. Among rifampicin sensitive new pulmonary TB (PTB), prevalence of isoniazid resistance is 8.3% (95%CI: 7.0–10.7) and resistance to fluoroquinolone is higher (11·1...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 08:05
The use of antibiotics anywhere could select antibiotic-resistant bacteria everywhere. Reducing the use of antibiotics in farm animals is consequently fundamental to preserve the current and future benefits of antibiotics for people. WHO ranks polymyxins among those antibiotics of the highest priority for reduction in animal use, given that they are of crucial importance to human medicine.1...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 06:20
LWT
Author(s): Gökhan Kürşad İncili, Müzeyyen Akgöl, Mehmet Emin Aydemir, Selçuk Alan, Muhsin Mutlu, Osman İrfan İlhak, Gülsüm Öksüztepe In recent years, the increase in consumer demands for the products that are processed with natural additives has highlighted the use of natural substances in food processing and safety. For this purpose, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of homemade...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 02:03
In recent years, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been projected as an alternative to traditional antibiotics for their superior antimicrobial properties and significant inhibition of the biofilm formation. Particularly, it is found that the effectiveness of AgNPs varies greatly with the biomaterial used in their synthesis. Mushrooms are natural resources for excellent...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:22
This study reports outbreak of a new disease caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) in Raccoon dogs. The disease occurred in a breeding farm of raccoon dogs in Guan County of Shandong Province in China in August of 2019. 47% (425/896) of the raccoon dogs showed some abnormal symptoms; 17.6% (75/425) of which had sever skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), dyspnea and...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:22
Rapid and sensitive detection of live/infectious foodborne pathogens is urgently needed in order to prevent outbreaks and food recalls. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the incorporation of propidium monoazide (PMA) into PCR or LAMP assays to selectively detect viable Salmonella Enteritidis following sublethal heat or UV treatment, and autoclave sterilization; and (2) compare the detection of PMA...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:19
In order to clarify the action of a seasoning mixture of salt and Chinese liquor in maintaining the hygienic and quality characteristics of refrigerated grass carp, the changes in physicochemical properties, biogenic amines, and microbial growth in grass carp fillets during storage at 4°C for 30 days were investigated. Results showed that fillets lightly salted with Chinese liquor had lower...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:17
Campylobacter spp. is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and poultry are the primary reservoir. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival and/or growth of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 in broiler digestate prepared from commercial starter, grower and finisher feed formulations. Bolton broth and digestates were prepared, inoculated with C. jejuni NCTC 11168 (approximately...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:15
Aims Current study was designed to analyze the prevalence of class 1 and class 2 integron integrase genes among antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria isolated from paper currency circulating in Pakistan. Methods and Results 500 individual currency notes were collected from different food vending sites at Lahore, Pakistan. Bacterial population were identified by biochemical and PCR techniques....
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:15
Brucellosis is a major zoonotic disease, and Brucella melitensis is the species most often associated with human infection. Vaccination is the most efficient tool for controlling animal brucellosis, with a consequent decrease of incidence of human infections. Commercially available live attenuated vaccines provide some degree of protection but retain residual pathogenicity to human and animals....
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 14:10
Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant zoonotic pathogen causing gastroenteritis and other diseases in humans. An important bacterial virulence factor is the secreted serine protease HtrA (HtrA Cj ), which targets tight and adherens junctional proteins in the gut epithelium. Here we have investigated the function and structure of HtrA Cj using biochemical assays and cryo-electron microscopy. Mass...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
The bacteriological diagnosis of intestinal bacterial infections has historically been based on culture on agar plates. However, culture may lack sensitivity, and some enteropathogens, such as pathovars of Escherichia coli, may escape routine diagnosis. Our goal was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Novodiag Bacterial GE+ kit for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria in acute...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
To evaluate the associations of inflammatory factors and serological test results with complicated brucellosis, we recruited 285 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis between May 2016 and September 2019. The patients were subsequently classified into two groups according to the presence of complications. We collected demographic and clinical information and routine laboratory test results in...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of enteric bacterial illness in the United States. Traditional molecular subtyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 7-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST), provided limited resolution to adequately identify C. jejuni outbreaks and separate out sporadic isolates during outbreak investigations. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
This study aimed to determine whether agar dilution, research-use-only disk diffusion (Mast Group Ltd., Bootle Merseyside, UK), Etest (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, NC), and MIC test strip (MTS) (Liofilchem, Inc., Waltham, MA) methods yield equivalent results to those of broth microdilution (BMD) for imipenem-relebactam susceptibility testing using a collection of 297 Gram-negative bacilli,...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:03
Targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) has emerged as a comprehensive alternative to existing methods for drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patient sputum samples for clinical diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). However, the complexity of sequencing platforms has limited their uptake in low-resource settings. The goal of this study was to...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 08:03
Intracellular pathogens are responsible for an enormous amount of worldwide morbidity and mortality, and each has evolved specialized strategies to establish and maintain their replicative niche. Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that secretes a pore-forming cytolysin called listeriolysin O (LLO), which disrupts the phagosomal membrane and, thereby, allows...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 08:03
Bacterial species are hosts to horizontally acquired mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which encode virulence, toxin, antimicrobial resistance, and other metabolic functions. The bipartite genome of Vibrio cholerae harbors sporadic and conserved MGEs that contribute in the disease development and survival of the pathogens. For a comprehensive understanding of dynamics of...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 18:03
Objective:This single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study evaluates the appropriateness of the BioFire® FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) multiplex PCR panel testing at a community-teaching hospital.Methods:All adult, hospitalized patients at Prisma Health Richland Hospital with a documented GI multiplex PCR panel from 1 April 2015 through 28 February 2018 were included in the...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 16:00
Determining the viable and non-viable load of foodborne pathogens in animal production can be useful in reducing the number of human outbreaks. In this study, we optimized a PMAxxTM-based qPCR for quantifying viable and non-viable load of Salmonella from soil collected from free range poultry environment. The optimized nucleic acid extraction method resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0.05...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 16:00
Sugarcane is the leading economic crop in China, requires huge quantities of nitrogen in the preliminary plant growth stages. However, the use of an enormous amount of nitrogen fertilizer increases the production price, and have detrimental results on the environment, causes severe soil and water pollution. In this study, a total of 175 endophytic strains were obtained from the sugarcane roots,...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 16:00
Soil salinization limits crop growth and yield in agro-ecosystems worldwide by reducing soil health and altering the structure of microbial communities. Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) alleviate plant salinity stress. Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) is unique in agricultural ecosystems owing to its ability to grow in saline-alkali soils and fix atmospheric...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
Staphylococcus argenteus infection was initially described in Aboriginal patients in the Northern Territories of Australia as a predominant cause of skin infections and is rare outside Southeast Asia. A first well-characterized case of S. argenteus infection has now been described in the United States, involving a recurrent hemodialysis catheter infection, in which unstable daptomycin resistance...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
The emergence of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes has raised a global concern (1–3), as colistin is considered a last-resort antimicrobial for treating fatal infections caused by multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
The Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS) has recently noted an increase of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Shigella sonnei isolates nationwide (3.8% in 2016 versus 37.5% in 2019). To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed 25 representative isolates (of which 14 were ESC-R) collected in Switzerland during 2016 to 2019. Whole-genome sequencing was achieved using both...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
The acquisition of antibiotic resistance commonly imposes fitness costs, a reduction in the fitness of bacteria in the absence of drugs. These costs have been quantified primarily using in vitro experiments and a small number of in vivo studies in mice, and it is commonly assumed that these diverse methods are consistent. Here, we used an insect model of infection to compare the fitness costs of...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 08:04
Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that is a serious threat to public health security, and new strategies to control this bacterium in food are needed. HolGH15, derived from Staphylococcus aureus phage GH15, has shown antibacterial activity against several bacterial species. In this work, the antilisterial behavior and effectiveness of HolGH15 are further studied. To...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 00:00
Many cattle are persistently colonized with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and represent a major source of human infections with human-pathogenic STEC strains (syn. enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)). Intervention strategies most effectively protecting humans best aim at the limitation of bovine STEC shedding. Mechanisms enabling STEC to persist in cattle are only partialy...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 00:00
DMPC-10A (ALWKKLLKK-Cha-NH2) is a 10-mer peptide derivative from the N-terminal domain of Dermaseptin-PC which has shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity as well as a considerable hemolytic effect. In order to reduce hemolytic activity and improve stability to endogenous enzymes, a D-amino acid enantiomer (DMPC-10B) was designed by substituting all L-Lys and L-Leu with their respective D-...
Mon, 09/21/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Ali Gücükoğlu, Erdem Saka, Tolga Uyanik, Sibel Kanat, Özgür Çadirci, Rahşan Akpinar Beekeeping industry is developing day by day in the world and accordingly, there is an increase in the variety of beekeeping products. One of these products is pollen which is the main source of proteins necessary for bees to complete their growth and development and also an excellent functional food...
Sun, 09/20/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Karine Patrin Pontin, Karen Apellanis Borges, Thales Quedi Furian, Daiane Carvalho, Daiane Elisa Wilsmann, Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio Cardoso, Annelise Kopp Alves, Gabriela Zottis Chitolina, Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle, Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento As a consequence of developing antimicrobial resistance to disinfectants, copper, which exhibits antimicrobial...
Sun, 09/20/2020 - 00:00
Antibiotic treatments initiated on Emergency Departments (ED) are empirical. Therefore, knowledge of local susceptibility patterns is important. Despite this, data on expected pathogens and their resistance profile are scarce from EDs internationally. The study aim was to assess the epidemiology and resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from a tertiary-care ED over 5 years, focusing on ESKAPE...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 10:03
Typhoid toxin is a virulence factor of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, and is thought to be responsible for the symptoms of severe disease. This toxin has a unique A2B5 architecture with two active subunits, the ADP ribosyl transferase PltA and the DNase CdtB, linked to a pentameric B subunit, which is alternatively made of PltB or PltC. Here, we describe...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 10:03
Stealthy intracellular bacterial pathogens are known to establish persistent and sometimes lifelong infections. Some of these pathogens also have a tropism for the reproductive system, thereby increasing the risk of reproductive disease and infertility. To date, the pathogenic mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Brucella abortus, a notorious reproductive...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 10:03
Successful colonization by enteric pathogens is contingent upon effective interactions with the host and the resident microbiota. These pathogens thus respond to and integrate myriad signals to control virulence. Long-chain fatty acids repress the virulence of the important enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Vibrio cholerae by repressing AraC-type transcriptional regulators in...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 10:03
Reproductive failure is the hallmark of brucellosis in animals. An uncommon but important complication in pregnant women who become acutely infected with Brucella melitensis is spontaneous pregnancy loss or vertical transmission to the fetus. Unfortunately, the mechanism behind reproductive failure is still obscure, partially due to the lack of a proper study model. Recently, it was demonstrated...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 06:23
Author(s): Saeed Alamian, Maryam Dadar Canine brucellosis is a contagious disease associated with health implications for humans as well as for a wide range of wild and domesticated animals. In this study, 173 dog blood specimens were sampled from herding dogs in three different provinces including Tehran (n = 127), Qom (n = 40) and Alborz (n = 6) provinces. The presence of Brucella antibodies...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 00:00
The reassessment of known but neglected natural compounds is a vital strategy for providing novel lead structures urgently needed to overcome antimicrobial resistance. Scaffolds with resistance-breaking properties represent the most promising candidates for a successful translation into future therapeutics. Our study focuses on chelocardin, a member of the atypical tetracyclines, and its...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 16:00
A screen of a eukaryotic kinase inhibitor library in an established intracellular infection model identified a set of drug candidates enabling intracellular killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Screen validity was confirmed internally by a Z′ = 0.5 and externally by detecting previously reported host-targeting anti-M.tb compounds. Inhibitors of the CHK kinase family, specifically...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 16:00
The study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), lactoferricin (17–30) [Lfcin (17–30)], against biofilm-forming multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), and subsequently, the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in a Galleria mellonella larval model. Initially, minimum inhibitory concentration...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 16:00
Coxiella burnetii is the agent that causes acute and chronic Q fever infections in humans. Although the isolates studied so far have shown that the two forms of the disease differ in virulence potential thus, implying a variance in their proteomic profile, the methods used do not deliver enough discriminatory capability and often, human infections may be mis-diagnosed. The current study adds...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
Salmonella enterica serovar Hvittingfoss is an important foodborne serotype of Salmonella, being detected in many countries where surveillance is conducted. Outbreaks can occur, and there was a recent multistate foodborne outbreak in Australia. S. Hvittingfoss can be found in animal populations, though a definitive animal host has not been established. Six species of birds were sampled at Roebuck...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) occurring after artificial joint replacement is a major clinical issue requiring multiple surgeries and antibiotic interventions. Staphylococcus aureus is the bacterium most commonly responsible for PJI. Recent in vitro research has shown that staphylococcal strains rapidly form aggregates in the presence of synovial fluid (SF). We hypothesize that these...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 08:02
by Elisa Peh, Sophie Kittler, Felix Reich, Corinna Kehrenberg Contaminated poultry meat is considered to be the main source of human infection with Campylobacter spp., a pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes broiler chickens during fattening and contaminates carcasses during slaughter. To prevent or reduce the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp., applying different organic...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Heather Craven, Catherine McAuley, Murray Hannah, Lesley Duffy, Narelle Fegan, Stephen Forsythe The emergence of Cronobacter as an important potential pathogen for new born children and its occurrence in powdered infant formulae has generated a need to develop new management practices for this food group. This includes reduction of the prevalence of Cronobacter in manufacturing...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Chenghui Zhang, Changzhu Li, Mohamed A. Abdel-Samie, Haiying Cui, Lin Lin Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) can adhere to biological or non-biological surfaces, including food processing equipment and storage containers. Subsequently, they can contaminate food by forming a biofilm, thereby causing serious food safety problems. In this project, the natural antibacterial agent...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 02:04
An increase in the production and usage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) triggers the necessity to focus on their impact on ecosystems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of AuNPs and ionic gold (Au (III)) to organisms representing all trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem, namely producers (duckweed Lemna minor), consumers (crustacean Daphnia magna, embryos...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 00:01
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be used therapeutically to treat a wide range of neuromuscular and neurological conditions. A collection of natural BoNT variants exists which can be classified into serologically distinct serotypes (BoNT/B), and further divided into subtypes (BoNT/B1, B2, &hellip;). BoNT subtypes share a high degree of sequence identity within the same serotype yet can...

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