Bacterial pathogens

Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Shaban Rahimi, Sophia Kathariou, Oscar Fletcher, Jesse L. GrimesAbstractSalmonella and Campylobacter are considered major public health burdens worldwide, and poultry are known to be one of the main reservoirs for these zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a commercial probiotic or direct-fed microbial (DFM) Calsporin (CSP), and prebiotic or mannan...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Zhongyang Yuan, Wei Yan, Chaoliang Wen, Jiangxia Zheng, Ning Yang, Congjiao SunABSTRACTEnterotypes are used to describe clusters of specific gut microbial community structures, but few reports exist on the identification of enterotypes in poultry. In addition, there is incomplete understanding on the role of the foregut microbiota in the digestion and absorption of nutrients in poultry...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Shoki Koyama, Toshiyuki Murase, Hiroichi OzakiAbstractPlasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes located on conjugative plasmids can be transferred to other bacteria in the absence of antimicrobial selective pressure. To elucidate the prevalence of resistance, including PMQR in an egg-producing commercial layer farm in western Japan where no antimicrobials were used, minimum...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Graham A.J. Redweik, Zachary R. Stromberg, Angelica Van Goor, Melha MellataAbstractCommercial poultry farms are increasingly threatened by bacterial infections from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and broad-host Salmonella serovars. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) elicit cross-reactive immune responses against APEC in chickens; however, assessment of broad...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Lapo Mughini-Gras, Guido Di Martino, Livia Moscati, Filippo Buniolo, Veronica Cibin, Lebana BonfantiAbstractSuboptimal animal welfare may affect natural immunity, rendering animals more susceptible to environmentally conditioned diseases, including those requiring antimicrobial treatment, which may promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial populations. Herewith, we tested the...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Naveed, Jakob Leskovec, Asgahr Ali kamboh, Ihsanullah Kakar, Kifayat Ullah, Fawwad Ahmad, Muhammad Sharif, Asif Javaid, Mubasher Rauf, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mervat A. Abdel-Latif, Sun ChaoAbstractGuduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is a well-recognized and widely distributed traditional plant that is used successfully in Indian Ayurveda medicine. T. cordifolia has...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Nguyen Thi Bich Van, Nguyen Thi Phuong Yen, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Van Cuong, Bach Tuan Kiet, Nguyen Van Hoang, Vo Be Hien, Niwat Chansiripornchai, Marc Choisy, Alexis Ribas, James Campbell, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-MasAbstractIn the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, small-scale chicken farming is common. However, high levels of disease or mortality in such flocks impair economic...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Yeong Bin Kim, Mi Young Yoon, Jong Su Ha, Kwang Won Seo, Eun Bi Noh, Se Hyun Son, Young Ju LeeAbstractAvian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes extensive mortality in poultry flocks, leading to extensive economic losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of recent APEC isolates. Of the 79 APEC...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Yanying Song, Lanping Yu, Yu Zhang, Yu Dai, Peng Wang, Chenglian Feng, Mengda Liu, Shuhong Sun, Zhijing Xie, Fangkun WangAbstractColibacillosis, caused by Escherichia coli, is one of the most common bacterial diseases of chickens. The high incidence and considerable economic losses associated with colibacillosis make it a significant concern worldwide. In recent years, the efficacy of...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): M. Chmiel, M. Roszko, E. Hać-Szymańczuk, L. Adamczak, T. Florowski, D. Pietrzak, A. Cegiełka, M. BryłaAbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate dependence of microbiological quality of chicken fillets and profile of volatile compounds in their packages on the applied packaging technique and storage conditions. Samples packaged in either normal atmosphere (AP, air packaging, PVC...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Michał Patrzałek, Maja Kosecka-Strojek, Klaudia Lisowska-Łysiak, Magdalena Trela, Mariusz Kot, Magdalena Gawlak, Dawid Liszka, Mieczysław Sajewicz, Barbara Tombarkiewicz, Krzysztof Pawlak, Jacek Międzobrodzki, Marcin W. LisAbstractThe spatial network structure of Dergall is based on substances nontoxic to humans and the environment which, when applied on solid surfaces, creates a...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:35
ABSTRACT Flagellin, the agent of prokaryotic flagellar motion, is very widely distributed and is the H antigen of serology. Flagellin molecules have a variable region that confers serotype specificity, encoded by the middle of the gene, and also conserved regions encoded by the two ends of the gene. We collected all available prokaryotic flagellin protein sequences and found the variable region...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:27
Study objective was to determine efficacy of a bacteriophage suspension against Listeria spp. when applied to three common types of materials used in food manufacturing facilities. Materials included two food contact materials (stainless steel and polyurethane thermoplastic belting) and one noncontact material (epoxy flooring). Coupons of each material were inoculated with a cocktail containing L...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:25
Probiotics are important bacteria due to their benefit on human health. In this study, four strains of lactic acid bacteria from chicken bile were isolated and the strain with the best antimicrobial activity was selected for further identification and evaluation on its probiotic traits and safety. The strain was identified as Enterococcus faecium by biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA gene...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:25
The subject of analysis in this report was the antibiotic susceptibility of V. cholerae under glucose supplementation since the metabolites can significantly alter the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria. Glucose could change the antibiotic susceptibility in a growth phase-dependent manner, however, the antibiotic susceptibility of exponentially growing cells was not affected in the presence of...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:24
Introduction: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent biological toxin and powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical orofacial applications. BoNT relaxes striated muscle by inhibiting acetylcholine’s release from presynaptic nerve terminals, blocking the neuromuscular junction. It also has an antinociceptive effect on sensory nerve endings, where BoNT and acetylcholine...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:24
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) has been assigned as an important food-borne pathogen for human health but many pathogenicity factors of C. jejuni and human host cell responses related to the infection have not ...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:39
by Chidozie Declan Iwu, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a foodborne pathogen and the etiologic agent of listeriosis, which can be disseminated within the agricultural environment particularly soil and irrigation water, contaminate farm produce and cause high mortality and morbidity among vulnerable individuals. This study assessed the incidence and antibiogram of...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:38
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonizes and invades host intestinal epithelial cells using the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) encoded on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1). The level of SPI1 T3SS gene expression is controlled by the transcriptional activator HilA, encoded on SPI1. Expression of hilA is positively regulated by three homologous transcriptional regulators, HilD,...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Shahnawaz Ahmad Bhat, Fahmina Zafar, Aftab Hossain Mondal, Azar Ullah Mirza, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haq, Nahid NishatAbstractRemoval of harmful dyes and inhabitation of bacterial growth is one of the outstanding priorities in both environmental and industrial applications. The recognition of the alarming industrial discharge and insufficiency of fresh water has prompted us to develop eco-...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:26
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a versatile pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Invading host cells is a known strategy for GAS to avoid antibiotic killing and immune recognition. However, the underlying mechanisms of GAS resistance to intracellular killing need to be explored. Endothelial HMEC-1 cells were infected with GAS, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as chronic pain and inflammation in the pelvic organs for more than six months. There are wide ranges of clinical presentations, including pelvic pain, painful intercourse, irritable bowel syndrome, and pain during urinating. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a subdivision of CPP, and the pain syndrome may be focused within a single organ or more than one...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella and investigate the dominant serovars distribution in raw beef and to screen the isolated serovars for the prescense of beta-lactamases and virulence genes. A total of 150 samples of raw beef sold at butcher shops (n = 75) and supermarkets (n = 75) in Karachi city were collected (50 samples each from muscles, lymph nodes,...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 04:11
Author(s): Xu Li, Lin Zhao, He Gao, Long Chen, Fenxia Fan, Zhe Li, Yufeng Fan, Jie Li, Weili Liang, Bo Pang, Biao KanAbstractIn Vibrio cholerae, the lysogenic bacteriophage CTXΦ carries the cholera toxin genes ctxAB, which can be transferred from toxigenic strains to nontoxigenic strains through infection and lysogenic conversion of CTXΦ. This phage also has the precursor genome which does not...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 04:09
Author(s): Rafaela C. Baptista, Heber Rodrigues, Anderson S. Sant'AnaAbstractThe present work aimed to evaluate the frequency of seafood consumption by the Brazilian population, the safety practices during seafood handling and preservation as well as to evaluate the consumers’ perception on the risks associated with these foods. A total of 962 respondents responded to a survey divided into three...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 04:04
Author(s): Priyangi A Alwis, Puthayalai Treerat, Lan Gong, Deanna Deveson Lucas, Elizabeth M Allwood, Mark Prescott, Rodney J Devenish, Ben Adler, John D BoyceAbstractTwo-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) are abundant among prokaryotes and regulate important functions, including drug resistance and virulence. The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which causes the...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Ila Anand, Wonyoung Choi, Ralph R IsbergIntravacuolar bacterial pathogens establish intracellular niches by constructing membrane-encompassed compartments. The vacuoles surrounding the bacteria are remarkably stable, facilitating microbial replication and preventing exposure to host cytoplasmically localized innate immune sensing mechanisms. To maintain integrity of the membrane...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Anatol Kivi, Songjin Ri, Jörg WisselAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) is well established in clinical practice for more than 30 years. During this time the area of applications was broaden beyond the ophtalmologic and neurologic indications. Despite of decades of BoNT application with a huge increase of expertise and supporting methods for utilization as well, both patients and physicians...
Sun, 02/09/2020 - 03:29
We report a Brucella outbreak with seven cases in the Northern Region of Portugal in 2018–2019, associated with the consumption of fresh cheese. This outbreak has implications for risk assessment in Portuguese migrants related to this area, and it is an example of cooperation between public institutions, in a One Health based approach.
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:37
by Eszter Kovács, Judit Sahin-Tóth, Adrienn Tóthpál, Mark van der Linden, Tamás Tirczka, Orsolya Dobay Background The nasopharynx can from time to time accommodate otherwise pathogenic bacteria. This phenomenon is called asymptomatic carriage. However, in case of decreased immunity, viral infection or any other enhancing factors, severe disease can develop. Our aim in this study was to survey the...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Corrella S DetweilerBacterial pathogens must resist host innate immunity to cause disease. While Gram-negative bacteria have a protective outer membrane, this membrane is subject to host-induced damage that makes these pathogens vulnerable. We developed a high content screening platform that identifies compounds that cause the killing of the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica in...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Anying Zhang, Xiaoyu Jian, Dan Wang, Jingqi Ren, Xinyan Wang, Hong ZhouAbstractIn mammals, interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a broad pleiotropic cytokine that plays critical roles in the development of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In fish, functional information of Il-21 is limited, and its role in immune response is largely unknown. In the present study, we cloned a coding...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): O.G.G. Almeida, U.M. Pinto, C.B. Matos, D.A. Frazilio, V.F. Braga, M.R. von Zeska-Kress, E.C.P. De MartinisAbstractCocoa fermentation is a spontaneous process shaped by a variable microbial ecosystem which is assembled due to cross-feeding relationship among yeasts and bacteria, resulting in a synchronized microbial succession started by yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Rafaela de Melo Tavares, Danilo Augusto Lopes da Silva, Anderson Carlos Camargo, Ricardo Seiti Yamatogi, Luís Augusto NeroAbstractListeria monocytogenes harbor different virulence factors, with a highly heterogeneous distribution between distinct lineages and serotypes. The Listeria Pathogenicity Island 3 (LIPI-3), mainly described in lineage I, encodes for Listeriolysin S (LLS), a...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Silvia Guillén, María Marcén, Pilar Mañas, Guillermo CebriánAbstractIn this work the resistance of 15 strains belonging to 11 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica to several different environmental stresses (acid, hydrogen peroxide, NaCl and heat) and non-thermal food preservation technologies (HHP, PEF, UV) was determined and compared. Results obtained showed that...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Mei Ji, Hai Du, Yan XuAbstractp-Cresol (PC) is a potential off-flavor and carcinogenic compound that affects food flavor and safety. However, controlling the production of PC when making fermented food is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the microbial diversity and the growth requirements of the microbiota that produce PC. To address this, the present study used three media with...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Siyuan Zhou, Tony Jin, Shiowshuh Sheen, Guohua Zhao, LinShu Liu, Vijay Juneja, Kit YamAbstractChlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an effective disinfectant used in the sanitization of fresh produce. Glucono delta-lactone (GDL), widely used as an acidifier during food processing, can be partially hydrolyzed to become a weak acid—gluconic acid under chemical equilibrium upon dissolution...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Foteini F. Parlapani, Ilario Ferrocino, Sofia Michailidou, Anagnostis Argiriou, Serkos A. Haroutounian, Lambros Kokokiris, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Ioannis S. BoziarisAbstractBacterial communities and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profile of deepwater rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) stored at 0 °C (ice) and 4 °C were investigated using 16S amplicon based sequencing and Solid phase...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Arakkaveettil Kabeer Farha, Qiong-Qiong Yang, Gowoon Kim, Dan Zhang, Vuyo Mavumengwana, Olivier Habimana, Hua-Bin Li, Harold Corke, Ren-You GanAbstractStaphylococcus aureus, a foodborne pathogen, poses serious problems to the food industries owing to biofilm formation, and over 25% of the foodborne illnesses in China have been attributed to S. aureus only. Phytochemicals are widely...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:25
Cronobacter spp. can cause systemic infections, such as meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, in immunocompromised patients, especially neonates. Although some virulence factors have been reported previously, the pathogenesis of Cronobacter remains unclear. In this study, we compared genome sequences from different Cronobacter species, sequence types, and sources, with the virulence...
Sat, 02/08/2020 - 03:24
The in vitro resistance of selected red/orange complex periodontal pathogens to tinidazole was compared with four other antibiotics. Subgingival biofilm samples from 88 adults with severe periodontitis were anaerobically incubated on enriched Brucella blood agar with and without supplementation with tinidazole (16 mg/L), metronidazole (16 mg/L), amoxicillin (8 mg/L), doxycycline (4 mg/L), or...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 04:19
Here, we present the annotated genome of Shemara, a siphophage of Salmonella enterica. The Shemara genome is 44 kb with 83 predicted protein-coding genes. At the nucleotide and amino acid levels, Shemara is most similar to phages in the Guernseyvirinae subfamily.
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 04:16
Author(s): Adrian R. Allen, Georgina Milne, Kevin Drees, Eleanor Presho, Jordon Graham, Paul McAdam, Kerri Jones, Lorraine Wright, Robin Skuce, Adrian M. Whatmore, Judith Graham, Jeffrey T. FosterAbstractBackgroundIn the recent past (1997–2012), Northern Ireland (NI) in the United Kingdom (UK), suffered an outbreak of Brucella abortus, which at its height affected over 200 cattle herds. Initially...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 04:16
Author(s): Zhuoxing Zhang, Chao Zhang, Xiaoling Dai, Ruidong Zhang, Xueying Cao, Kaiqiang Wang, Xin Huang, Qian RenAbstractNuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays a key role in the innate immunity of invertebrates. Relish belongs to the NF-κB family. In insects, alternative splicing induces the sequence diversity of the Relish gene. However, information on the roles of various relish isoforms in...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 04:16
Author(s): Le Fei Jiao, Tian Meng Dai, Sun Qian Zhong, Min Jin, Peng Sun, Qi Cun ZhouAbstractThe intestine is the primary target of pathogenic microbes during invasion. However, the interaction of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) with intestinal epithelial cells and its effects on the intestinal function of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) are poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 04:10
Author(s): Feng Xu, Chongtao Ge, Hao Luo, Shaoting Li, Martin Wiedmann, Xiangyu Deng, Guangtao Zhang, Abigail Stevenson, Robert C.s Baker, Silin TangAbstractThe use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data generated by short-read sequencing technologies such as the Illumina sequencing platforms has been shown to provide reliable results for Salmonella serotype prediction. Emerging long-read...

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