Bacterial pathogens

Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Daptomycin is an important antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The emergence of daptomycin resistance in S. aureus is associated with treatment failure and persistent infections with poor clinical outcomes. Here, we investigated host innate immune responses against clinically derived, daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) and -susceptible S. aureus paired isolates...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health concern, and resistance genes in Salmonella, especially those located on mobile genetic elements, are part of the problem. This study used phenotypic and genomic methods to identify antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes, as well as the plasmids that bear them, in Salmonella isolates obtained from poultry in Nigeria. Seventy-four isolates...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 22:13
Dates are a low moisture ready‐to‐eat fruit which are popular both globally and in the United States. The harvesting and post‐harvest handling of dates could result in the contamination of common produce‐associated foodborne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. In this study, the efficacy of antimicrobial washes for the reduction of foodborne pathogen...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 22:13
The medicinal plants, like Alhagi maurorum, has received great attentions, especially by food scientists and manufacturers as natural food preservatives due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of extracting solvents, namely, hexane, water and acetone, individually or in combination to each other according to especial cubic mixture design, as extracting...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 22:13
The objective of this work was to optimize a suitable high‐pressure (HP) condition to inactivate artificially inoculated Listeria monocytogenes in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) fish medium by employing a wide range of pressure levels (225‐550 MPa) and holding times (5‐30 min). The optimized HP conditions (375 MPa/20 min) were subsequently employed in pomfret fish. Glycine and glutamic acid...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 16:00
The diversity of both bacterial and fungal communities associated with mango surface was explored using a metabarcoding approach targeting fungal ITS2 and bacterial 16S (V3-V4) genomic regions. Fruits were collected in Reunion Island from two different orchards according to a sampling method which allowed the effect of several pre-harvest factors such as geographical location (terroir), cultivars...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 16:00
Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 72 (ST72) is a major community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that has rapidly entered the hospital setting in Korea, causing mild superficial skin wounds to severe bloodstream infections. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of one methicillin-resistant human isolate and one methicillin-sensitive human...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 16:00
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens with Shiga toxins as the main virulence factor. Shiga toxins are encoded on Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages (Stx phages). Stx phages may exist as free bacteriophages in the environment or in foods or as prophages integrated into the host genome. From a food safety perspective, it is important to have knowledge on...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 16:00
Salmonella enterica remains a leading cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Serotype information is important in food safety and public health activities to reduce the burden of salmonellosis. In the current st...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Our ability to predict evolutionary trajectories of pathogens is one of the promising leverages to fight against the pandemic disease, yet few studies have addressed this question in situ, due to the difficulty in monitoring the milestone evolutionary events for a given pathogen and in understanding the evolutionary strategies. In this study, we monitored the real-time evolution of...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
Clostridium perfringens Type G strains cause necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry, an economically important disease that is a major target of in-feed antibiotics. NE is a multifactorial disease, involving not only the critically-important NetB toxin, but also additional virulence and virulence-associated factors. We previously identified a C. perfringens chromosomal locus (VR-10B) associated with...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
Intestinal mucus is the first line of defense against intestinal pathogens. It acts as a physical barrier between epithelial tissues and the lumen that enteropathogens must overcome to establish a successful infection. We investigated the motile behavior of two V. cholerae strains (El Tor C6706 and Classical O395) in mucus using single cell tracking in unprocessed porcine intestinal mucus. We...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
During passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is exposed to membrane-damaging bile in the small intestine. We previously reported that EHEC treatment with a physiological bile salt mixture upregulates basRS, encoding a two-component system, and arnBCADTEF, encoding the aminoarabinose lipid A modification pathway (J. V. Kus, A. Gebremedhin, V....
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent pathogen and the causative agent of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Primary pneumonic plague caused by inhalation of respiratory droplets contaminated with Y. pestis is nearly 100% lethal within 4 to 7 days without antibiotic intervention. Pneumonic plague progresses in two phases, beginning with extensive bacterial replication in the lung with...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
The stringent response is an essential mechanism of metabolic reprogramming during environmental stress that is mediated by the nucleotide alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. In addition to physiological adaptations, (p)ppGpp also regulates virulence programs in pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. S. Typhimurium is a common cause...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative Gram-positive intracellular bacterium that is capable of causing serious invasive infections in pregnant women, resulting in abortion, still-birth, and disseminated fetal infection. Previously, a clinical L. monocytogenes isolate, 07PF0776, was identified as having an enhanced ability to target cardiac tissue. This tissue tropism appeared to correlate with...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Dandan Luo, Chengsi Li, Qingping Wu, Yu Ding, Meiyan Yang, Yongdan Hu, Haiyan Zeng, Jumei Zhang Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria that cause severe diseases in neonates and infants. Bacteriophages are novel antibacterial agents with a potential to control this pathogen. In the current study, a novel lytic Cronobacter phage, vB_CtuP_A24, was isolated from a river in...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Andréia Miho Morishita Harada, Maristela S. Nascimento This study assessed the efficacy of five dry sanitizing treatments on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown on two different surface types; stainless steel (SS) and polypropylene (PP). Treatments with 70% ethanol and a commercial product (quaternary ammonium compound + isopropyl alcohol) exhibited similar weak performance on both...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Shijue Gao, Chongzhen Sun, Hanlu Hong, Ravi Gooneratne, Anthony Mutukumira, Xiyang Wu Cronobacter sakazakii is a common foodborne pathogen that may cause serious neonatal disease. The quantification of the viable bacteria is a major concern during food processing. The traditional culture-based method is time-consuming and laborious. In this work, the improved propidium monoazide (PMAxx...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Yuting Shang, Qinghua Ye, Qingping Wu, Rui Pang, Baoqing Zhou, Chufang Wang, Xinran Xiang, Fan Li, Juan Wang, Yinzhi Zhang, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun, Jumei Zhang Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens associated with severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Species differentiation is essential as the sensitivity of different species to chemical reagents,...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 04:02
Wine and alcoholic apple cider are commonly back-sweetened with unpasteurized juice to produce fresh, natural, and palatable sweetened alcoholic beverages. Foodborne pathogens may be introduced from unpasteurized juice into alcoholic beverages through this back-sweetening process. Although pathogens generally do not survive under low pH conditions or high alcohol environment, the die-off of these...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 04:02
Flies are a vector for spreading foodborne pathogens pertinent to fresh produce, such as Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella; however, most studies focus on concentrated animal feeding operations, which do not reflect low-density animal farming practices that often adjoin fruit and vegetable acreage.  In this study, we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in flies collected...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 04:02
Food manufacturers often use squeegees as a tool to remove condensation from overhead surfaces. This practice is done to reduce the likelihood of environmental pathogen contamination by eliminating condensed water droplets that could fall from overhead surfaces during production. However, this practice may actually spread environmental pathogens across these surfaces, defeating its purpose and...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 02:02
Among the various pharmaceutical pollutants, diclofenac sodium (DFS), a widely prescribed non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug is detected in the aquatic environment at concentrations which can be harmful to living organisms. Present study illustrates the isolation and characterization of strain Klebsiella pneumoniae WAH1 from activated sludge and its ability to degrade DFS as sole source of carbon...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 00:00
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen with the ability to cause bloody diarrhea (BD) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Little is known about enterohemolysin-encoded by ehxA. Here we investigated the prevalence and diversity of ehxA in 239 STEC isolates from human clinical samples. In total, 199 out of 239 isolates (83.26%) were ehxA positive,...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 00:00
The article describes activities of an antibiotic center at a university hospital in the Czech Republic and presents the results of antibiotic stewardship program implementation over a period of 10 years. It provides data on the development of resistance of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to selected antibiotic agents as well as...
Tue, 01/19/2021 - 06:12
Author(s): Muhammad Akmal Raheem, Hu Jiangang, Dongdong Yin, Mei Xue, Kashif ur Rehman, Muhammad Ajwad Rahim, Yi Gu, Dandan Fu, Xiangjun Song, Jian Tu, Ibrar Muhammad Khan, M.Y. Tipu, Kezong Qi The antibiotic residues and pathogenic resistance against the drug are very common in poultry due to antibiotics used in their feed. It is necessary to use natural feed additives as effective alternatives...
Tue, 01/19/2021 - 04:02
Nowadays, films with antibacterial activity and applied for freshness monitoring by colorimetric response have been drawing growing attention in food packaging. However, the development of versatile antibacterial and colorimetric agents is still highly desirable. Herein, WO3 nanorods are incorporated in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to develop a novel composite film with photothermal...
Tue, 01/19/2021 - 02:02
The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effect of chitosan dip (1% w/v) and vacuum packaging on the shelf life of fresh chicken burgers packaged in LDPE/PA/LDPE bags and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for up to 12 days. Furthermore, the possible correlation among microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory indices was investigated. Burger treatments included: aerobic packaging (AP,...
Tue, 01/19/2021 - 00:00
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing due to the abuse and misuse of antibiotics, and nosocomial infections by MDR bacteria are also increasing. The aim of this study was to identify new substances that can target MDR bacteria among 12 plant extracts that are known to have antibacterial effects. The experiments were performed by the disk diffusion test and microdilution minimum...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 22:13
Schematic representation of test system for transfer of L. monocytogenes associated with soil particles to spinach leaves in the presence of antimicrobial agents. Abstract Sporadic contamination of produce with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a recurrent problem. Ways for contamination to occur include transfer of the pathogen to produce from processing surfaces or soil particles to which it has...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 22:13
A total of ciprofloxacin‐resistant Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from 41.7% of bulk tank milk samples in Turkey. Furthermore, all isolates were characterized by PFGE, phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and virulence gene content. Majority of isolates displayed different banding pattern and resistance to non‐quinolone antibiotics was commonly observed. Abstract The...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 16:00
Tuberculosis is a highly prevalent infectious disease with more than 1.5 million fatalities each year. Antibiotic treatment is available, but intolerable side effects and an increasing rate of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may hamper successful outcomes. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) offer an alternative strategy for treatment of infectious diseases in which...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 16:00
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes foodborne outbreaks that can lead to complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their main reservoir is cattle, and ground beef has been frequently associated with disease and outbreaks. In this study, we attempted to understand the genetic relationship among STEC isolated in Chile from different sources, their relationship to STEC from...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 16:00
Vibrio vulnificus is a zoonotic bacterium that is capable of causing highly lethal diseases in humans; this pathogen is responsible for 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT, E.C. 2.3.1.5) is a major family of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that can biotransform aromatic amine chemicals. In this research, to evaluate the effect of NAT on...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6, essential for cellular function in all domains of life. In many organisms, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli, this cofactor can be synthesized de novo or salvaged from B6 vitamers in the environment. Unexpectedly, S. enterica strains blocked in PLP biosynthesis were able to use exogenous...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
Salmonella spp. are resilient bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods. There has been a general lack of understanding of critical factors contributing to the enhanced thermal tolerance of Salmonella spp. in dry environments. In this study, we hypothesized that the moisture content (XW) of bacterial cells is a critical intrinsic factor influencing the resistance of Salmonella spp. to thermal...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
N-Acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases are periplasmic hydrolases that cleave the amide bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and alanine in peptidoglycan (PG). Unlike many Gram-negative bacteria that encode redundant periplasmic amidases, Vibrio fischeri appears to encode a single protein that is homologous to AmiB of Vibrio cholerae. We screened a V. fischeri transposon mutant library for strains...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
Significant knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of Campylobacter jejuni contamination of the poultry production continuum. Microbiological surveillance and genotypic characterization were undertaken on C. jejuni isolates longitudinally recovered from three poultry farms (weekly samples), the abattoir at which birds were processed, and at retail over a 542-day period in southwestern Alberta...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
Despite recent advances in Salmonella-sprout research, little is known about the relationship between Salmonella and the sprout microbiome during sprouting. Sprout spent irrigation water (SSIW) provides an informative representation of the total microbiome of this primarily aquaponic crop. This study was designed to characterize the function and taxonomy of the most actively transcribed genes in...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of seafood-borne illness reported in the United States. The draft genomes of 132 North American clinical and oyster V. parahaemolyticus isolates were sequenced to investigate their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships. The majority of oyster isolate sequence types (STs) were from a single harvest location; however, four were identified from...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Doaa Ibrahim, Ahmed N. Attyia Nem, Seham.M. Ibrahim, Hemmat M. Eissa, M.M. Fawzey, Doaa I.A. Mostafa, Shaimaa.A.Abd El-Kader, S.I. Khater, Safaa I. Khater Nowadays there is a great attention for nanotechnology in aquaculture production. It has an efficient role in nutrients and drugs delivery, ponds sterilization, water treatment and aquatic diseases reduction. Till now, there is no...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Jiratchaya Puangseree, Saharuetai Jeamsripong, Rangsiya Prathan, Chanika Pungpian, Rungtip Chuanchuen A total of Escherichia coli isolated from pigs (n=643), pork (n=111) and pig carcasses (n=110) in Thailand during 2008-2018 were included. Susceptibilities to antibiotics, disinfectants (i.e. triclosan (TCS), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), glutaraldehyde...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:07
Author(s): Maria A. Gkerekou, Konstantina G. Athanaseli, Anastasia E. Kapetanakou, Eleftherios H. Drosinos, Panagiotis N. Skandamis The coexistence and interactions among Listeria monocytogenes strains in combination with the structural characteristics of foods, may influence their growth capacity and thus, the final levels at the time of consumption. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:06
Author(s): Dorthe Sandvang, Line Skjoet-Rasmussen, Mette Dines Cantor, Greg F. Mathis, Brett S. Lumpkins, Alfred Blanch The application of probiotics in broiler feed, to alleviate performance deficiencies due to mild infections by coccidia and Clostridium perfringens, is of increasing interest for the poultry industry. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the capacity of three Bacillus...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:06
Author(s): H. Zeng, K. De Reu, S. Gabriël, W. Mattheus, L. De Zutter, G. Rasschaert Salmonella contamination sources and transmission routes were studied in five Belgian poultry slaughterhouses. Samples from the slaughter and cutting line after cleaning and disinfection were collected, as well as neck skin samples and thighs during slaughter of the first flock.
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 02:03
Abstract Shigellosis is a significant type of diarrhea that causes 160,000 deaths annually in a global scale. The mortality occurs mainly in children less than 5 years of age. No licensed vaccine is available, and conventional efforts for developing an effective and safe vaccine against shigellosis have not been succeeded yet. The reverse vaccinology is a novel promising method that screens...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 02:02
Spheroids of intestinal cells (Caco-2) were used to evaluate the adhesion/invasion ability of Listeria monocytogenes (pathogen) and Lactobacillus sakei 1 (potential probiotic). Besides, transcriptomic analyses of Caco-2 cells in three dimensional cultures were done, with the aim of revealing possible host-foodborne bacteria interactions. Result of adhesion assay for L. monocytogenes in Caco-2...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 02:02
Abstract The capacity of different naphthoquinones to inhibit and eradicate Yersinia enterocolitica biofilm was investigated and possible mechanisms of action were evaluated. Inhibition of biofilm formation and cell viability, quorum sensing (QS) inhibition and oxidative stress generation of 23 naphthoquinones were assayed against Yersinia enterocolitica. The best anti-biofilm agents at 100 µmol...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 16:00
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of four natural antimicrobial compounds (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, resveratrol and thymoquinone) plus a control chemical disinfectant (sodium hypochlorite) in inhibiting biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54004 (Lm 54004) at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sub-MICs. Crystal violet staining assay and microscopic examination...

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