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Bacterial pathogens

Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 16 July 2015 , Volume 205 Author(s): Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio , Pilar García , Ana Rodríguez , Craig Billington , J. Andrew Hudson , Beatriz Martínez Bacteriophages and bacteriocins are promising biocontrol tools in food. In this work, two Listeria bacteriophages, FWLLm1 and FWLLm3, were assessed in combination with the bacteriocin coagulin C23 to inhibit Listeria...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 16 July 2015 , Volume 205 Author(s): Adrián Luis-Villaroya , Laura Espina , Diego García-Gonzalo , Susana Bayarri , Consuelo Pérez , Rafael Pagán This study characterizes the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a propolis-based dietary supplement (PDS) and investigates its incorporation into apple juice to decrease the intensity of the heat treatment required...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 3 August 2015 , Volume 206 Author(s): Evelyn , Filipa V.M. Silva Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen of concern in pasteurised foods. The main objective of this study was to use power ultrasound to enhance the thermal inactivation of C. perfringens spores in beef slurry. The effect of simultaneous ultrasound and heat (TS, thermosonication) on the spore inactivation in...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: September 2015 , Volume 50 Author(s): Bin Zhou , Yaguang Luo , Xiangwu Nou , Shuxia Lyu , Qin Wang Maintaining effective sanitizer concentration is of critical importance for preventing pathogen survival and transference during fresh-cut produce wash operation and for ensuring the safety of finished products. However, maintaining an adequate level of sanitizer in wash...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: September 2015 , Volume 50 Author(s): Saeed Banawas , George Korza , Daniel Paredes-Sabja , Yunfeng Li , Bing Hao , Peter Setlow , Mahfuzur R. Sarker The protease CspB and the cortex-lytic enzyme SleC are essential for peptoglycan cortex hydrolysis during germination of spores of the Clostridium perfringens food poisoning isolate SM101. In this study, Western blot...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: September 2015 , Volume 50 Author(s): Igor Gruntar , Majda Biasizzo , Darja Kušar , Mateja Pate , Matjaž Ocepek Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni ( C. jejuni ) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2015 Author(s): Mathilde H. Josefsen , Sandra C. Andersen , Julia Christensen , Jeffrey Hoorfar The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1 × 103 and 1 × 106...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: May 2015 , Volume 98, Issue 5 Author(s): Sophia Johler , Delphine Weder , Claude Bridy , Marie-Claude Huguenin , Luce Robert , Jörg Hummerjohann , Roger Stephan On October 1, 2014, children and staff members at a Swiss boarding school consumed Tomme, a soft cheese produced from raw cow milk. Within the following 7 h, all 14 persons who ingested the cheese fell ill,...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Aims In the present study, we conducted a quantitative microbial risk assessment forecasting the exposure to Campylobacter jejuni contaminated surfaces during preparation of chicken fillets and how using a disinfectant wipe intervention to clean a contaminated work area decreases the risk of infection following the preparation of raw chicken fillet in a domestic kitchen. Methods and Results...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 3 August 2015 , Volume 206 Author(s): Joana Campos , Joana Gil , Joana Mourão , Luísa Peixe , Patrícia Antunes The ready-to-eat street vending commerce, as street mobile food vendors, has grown exponentially worldwide, representing in some countries a significant proportion of food consumed by the urban population. However, the microbiological food safety hazards of...
Sat, 05/02/2015 - 01:16
David Berendes, Karen Levy, Jackie Knee, Thomas Handzel, Vincent R. Hill The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 – 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli...
Thu, 04/30/2015 - 01:16
D. González-Barrio et al.
Thu, 04/30/2015 - 01:16
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is one of the leading causes of food-poisoning around the world. Some STEC strains produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or variants of either toxin, which are critical for the development of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Currently, there are no therapeutic treatments for HC or HUS. E. coli...
Thu, 04/30/2015 - 01:16
Publication date: September 2015 , Volume 107 Author(s): Yong Ju Lee , Byeong Su Jung , Kee-Tae Kim , Hyun-Dong Paik A predictive model was performed to describe the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in raw pork by using Integrated Pathogen Modeling Program 2013 and a polynomial model as a secondary predictive model. S. aureus requires approximately 180 h to reach 5–6 log CFU/g at 10 °C. At...
Thu, 04/30/2015 - 01:16
Victoria C. Ewan, Andrew D. Sails, Angus W. G. Walls, Steven Rushton, Julia L. Newton Methods We obtained a time series of tongue/throat swabs from 90 patients with lower limb fracture, aged 65-101 in a general hospital in the North East of England between April 2009-July 2010. We used novel real-time multiplex PCR assays to detect S. aureus, MRSA, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, H....
Thu, 04/30/2015 - 01:16
Publication date: 15 November 2015 , Volume 187 Author(s): Lei Zhao , Heyan Zhang , Tianyang Hao , Siran Li The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of sugar fatty acid esters, with different fatty acid and saccharide moieties, against five food-related bacteria including Bacillus cereus , Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli and...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 06:20
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. EHEC colonizes the intestinal tract through a range of virulence factors encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), as well as Shiga toxin. Although the factors involved in colonization and disease are well characterized,...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 06:20
Cyclic dinucleotides are an expanding class of signaling molecules that control many aspects of bacterial physiology. A synthase for cyclic AMP-GMP (cAG, also referenced as 3′-5′, 3′-5′ cGAMP) called DncV is associated with hyperinfectivity of Vibrio cholerae but has not been found in many bacteria, raising questions about the prevalence...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 06:20
Major changes in bacterial physiology including biofilm and spore formation involve signaling by the cyclic dinucleotides c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. Recently, another second messenger dinucleotide, c-AMP-GMP, was found to control chemotaxis and colonization by Vibrio cholerae. We have identified a superregulon of genes controlled by c-AMP-GMP in numerous Deltaproteobacteria, including Geobacter...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2015 Author(s): Charlotta Löfström , Ann-Sofie Hintzmann , Gitte Sørensen , Dorte Lau Baggesen Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent serovars in Europe - where both poultry and poultry related products are common sources of human salmonellosis. Due to efficient control...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2015 Author(s): James C. Carlson , Doreene R. Hyatt , Jeremy W. Ellis , David R. Pipkin , Anna M. Mangan , Michael Russell , Denise S. Bolte , Richard M. Engeman , Thomas J. DeLiberto , George M. Linz Bird-livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO)....
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 01:22
Neelja Singhal, Abhishikha Srivastava, Manish Kumar, Jugsharan Singh Virdi Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 01:22
Listeria monocytogenesLM) is a major safety concern for smoked salmon producers, as it can survive both the brining and smoking process in cold smoked salmon production. Salmine is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the milt of salmon that has been shown to inhibit the growth of LM in vitro. Commercialization of this peptide would add value to a waste product produced when raising...
Tue, 04/28/2015 - 03:20
Lisa Barco, Federica Barrucci, Enzo Cortini, Elena Ramon, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Ida Luzzi, Antonia Anna Lettini and Antonia Ricci
Sat, 04/25/2015 - 01:20
Teruhisa Takagishi, Masataka Oda, Michiko Kabura, Mie Kurosawa, Kaori Tominaga, Shiori Urano, Yoshibumi Ueda, Keiko Kobayashi, Toshihide Kobayashi, Jun Sakurai, Yutaka Terao, Masahiro Nagahama Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin elicits various immune responses such as the release of cytokines, chemokines, and superoxide via the GM1a/TrkA complex. Alpha-toxin possesses phospholipase C (PLC)...
Sat, 04/25/2015 - 01:20
Aims To develop and evaluate cross-priming amplification (CPA) combined with immuno-blotting for detection of coagulase-positive Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. Methods and Results Twenty-four sets of cross and detection primers were designed according to four sequences of coagulase gene in S. aureus. The most specific primer pair was screened out for the next amplification and...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
Mesophilic and psychrotrophic organism viable counts, as well as high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing, were performed with the aim of elucidating the origin of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a ready-to-eat (RTE) meal manufacturing plant. The microbial counts of the products at the end of the shelf life were greatly underestimated when mesophilic incubation was...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
In this study, a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the specific detection of four foodborne diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in food, including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). Species-specific DPO primers were designed based on rfbE, LT,...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
The effect of global antibiotic use practices in livestock on the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is poorly understood. There is a paucity of data among African nations, which suffer from high rates of antibiotic resistant infections among the human population. Escherichia (29.5%), Staphylococcus (15.8%), and Proteus (15.79%) were the dominant bacterial genera isolated from chicken...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
IncA/C plasmids are broad-host-range plasmids enabling multidrug resistance that have emerged worldwide among bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Although antibiotic usage is suspected to be a driving force in the emergence of such strains, few studies have examined the impact of different types of antibiotic administration on the selection of plasmid-containing multidrug resistant...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
Analysis of the genome of Bacillus halodurans strain C125 indicated that two pathways leading from a cytosine deoxyribonucleotide to dUMP, used for dTMP synthesis, were encoded by the genome of the bacterium. The genes that were responsible, the comEB gene and the dcdB gene, encoding dCMP deaminase and the bifunctional dCTP deaminase:dUTPase (DCD:DUT), respectively, were both shown to be...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
The use of a yeast cell wall extract derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Actigen®) has been proposed as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of yeast cell extract as an alternative to zinc bacitracin or salinomycin using a necrotic enteritis challenge model. A feeding study was conducted using 480-day-old male Ross 308 chicks...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
Understanding of the colonization process of epithelial bacteria attached to the rumen tissue during rumen development is very limited. Ruminal epithelial bacterial colonization is of great significance for the relationship between the microbiota and the host and can influence the early development and health of the host. MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
Wed, 04/22/2015 - 06:20
Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas...
Wed, 04/22/2015 - 06:20
The physical, optical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of jellyfish protein (JFP) films with added transglutaminase (TGase) and wasabi extract (WE) were studied. Among the plasticisers, 30% sorbitol was the most desirable. The optimal physical properties of the JFP films were obtained when 15 U transglutaminase g−1 JFP was added. The incorporation of WE affected the physical properties...
Wed, 04/22/2015 - 01:21
Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humansand are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial...
Wed, 04/22/2015 - 01:21
The occurrence of outbreaks of Cronobacter sakazakii causing necrotizing meningitis in China highlights the need for strain characterization of this pathogenic species. In this study, SMM system was utilized to mine for new molecular markers of C. sakazakii. One C. sakazakii-specific CDS (>ref|NC_009778.1|:c1077329-1076055) with a length of 1,275 bp was used to design a primer set. A PCR assay...
Tue, 04/21/2015 - 01:21
The role of chromosomal toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, ubiquitous within the genomes of free-living bacteria, is still debated. We have scanned the Vibrio cholerae N16961 genome for class 2 TA genes and identified 18 gene-pair candidates. Interestingly, all but one are located in the chromosome 2 superintegron (SI). The single TA found outside of the SI is located on chromosome 1 and is related to...
Tue, 04/21/2015 - 01:21
Adrianna Raczkowska, Joanna Trzos, Olga Lewandowska, Marta Nieckarz, Katarzyna Brzostek OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with...
Sat, 04/18/2015 - 03:20
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015 Author(s): Gerjo J. de Knegt , Irma A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg , Dick van Soolingen , Rob Aarnoutse , Martin J. Boeree , Jurriaan E.M. de Steenwinkel Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), there is an urgent need for new TB drugs or for compounds that improve the efficacy of currently...
Sat, 04/18/2015 - 01:21
Aim To examine the occurrence and quantity of potential pathogens and an indicator of microbial contamination in the sediments of municipal drinking water storage tanks (MDWSTs), given the absence of such data across the United States. Methods and Results Sediment samples (87 MDWST) from eighteen locations across ten states of the U.S. were collected and assayed by qPCR for a range of potential...
Sat, 04/18/2015 - 01:21
Tobias Dörr, Brigid M. Davis, Matthew K. Waldor In many bacteria, inhibition of cell wall synthesis leads to cell death and lysis. The pathways and enzymes that mediate cell lysis after exposure to cell wall-acting antibiotics (e.g. beta lactams) are incompletely understood, but the activities of enzymes that degrade the cell wall (‘autolysins’) are thought to be critical. Here, we report that...
Fri, 04/17/2015 - 03:20
Serotyping forms the basis of national and international surveillance networks for Salmonella, one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens worldwide ( 1 – 3 ). Public health microbiology is currently being transformed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which opens the door to serotype determination using WGS data. SeqSero (www.denglab.info/SeqSero) is a novel Web-based tool for determining...
Fri, 04/17/2015 - 03:20
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteropathogen of public health concern because of its ability to cause serious illness and outbreaks. In this prospective study, a diagnostic screening algorithm to categorize STEC infections into risk groups was evaluated. The algorithm consists of prescreening stool specimens with real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of stx genes. The qPCR-...
Fri, 04/17/2015 - 03:20
Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial...

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