Bacterial pathogens

Sat, 05/09/2015 - 03:20
Gram-negative bacteria survive harmful environmental stressors by modifying their outer membrane. Much of this protection is afforded upon remodeling of the lipid A region of the major surface molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For example, the addition of cationic substituents, such as 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (L-Ara4N) and phosphoehthanolamine (pEtN) at the lipid A phosphate groups, is often...
Sat, 05/09/2015 - 01:25
April Online CoverDumplings with various fillings, from “Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland” by Barbara Szymczak and Waldemar Da¸browski; photo credit: Mariusz Szymczak; p. M1061.
Fri, 05/08/2015 - 01:17
Publication date: 12 June 2015 , Volume 177, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Tao He , Yang Wang , Minyi Qian , Congming Wu This study investigated the in vitro efficacy of mequindox against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and characterized the oqxAB genes as the main mequindox resistance determinant in E. coli strains of animal origin. A total of 1123 E. coli isolates were collected from...
Fri, 05/08/2015 - 01:17
Publication date: 12 June 2015 , Volume 177, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Sarah Wendlandt , Kristina Kadlec , Andrea T. Feßler , Stefan Schwarz The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of combined pleuromutilin–lincosamide–streptogramin A resistance in 26 unrelated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from dairy cows...
Fri, 05/08/2015 - 01:17
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2015 Author(s): R. Pyz-Łukasik , W. Paszkiewicz , M.R. Tatara , P. Brodzki , Z. Bełkot The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of raw cow milk from direct sale points. Raw cow milk samples were collected from 5 randomly selected direct sale points for microbiological evaluation. The samples were analyzed to determine...
Thu, 05/07/2015 - 01:26
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gelatin–alginate film containing 1.5% oregano essential oil (OEO) on the shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) slices during refrigerated storage over a period of 15 days. The blend film was prepared at 75% fish gelatin to 25% sodium alginate ratio and OEO was added to the film formulation. All the treatments (the control and wrapped slices)...
Thu, 05/07/2015 - 01:26
Elías Barquero-Calvo, Ricardo Mora-Cartín, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Juana L. de Diego, Carlos Chacón-Díaz, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Caterina Guzmán-Verri, Andre G. Buret, Jean-Pierre Gorvel, Edgardo Moreno Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
The objective of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure combined with moderate heat to inactivate pressure-resistant bacteria in water-boiled salted duck meatWBSDM), and to establish suitable procedures to improve the quality of WBSDM. The conditions (300 MPa/60 °C, 400 MPa/60 °C, and 500 MPa/50 °C) effectively inactivated the pressure-resistant bacteria (Bacillus cereus...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Salmonella remains a leading cause of bacterial food-borne disease, sickening millions each year. Although outbreaks of salmonellosis have traditionally been associated with contaminated meat products, recent years have seen numerous disease cases caused by the consumption of produce. Tomatoes have been specifically implicated, due to the ability of Salmonella spp. to enter the tomato fruit and...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen that may be responsible for severe human infections. Only a limited number of serotypes, including O26:H11, are involved in the majority of serious cases and outbreaks. The main virulence factors, Shiga toxins (Stx), are encoded by bacteriophages. Seventy-four STEC O26:H11 strains of various origins (including human, dairy,...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Escherichia coli O26 has been identified as the most common non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serogroup to cause human illnesses in the United States and has been implicated in outbreaks around the world. E. coli has high genomic plasticity, which facilitates the loss or acquisition of virulence genes. Attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) O26 strains have frequently been isolated...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
We developed a novel process for efficient synthesis of l -threo-3-hydroxyaspartic acid ( l -THA) using microbial hydroxylase and hydrolase. A well-characterized mutant of asparagine hydroxylase (AsnO-D241N) and its homologous enzyme (SCO2693-D246N) were adaptable to the direct hydroxylation of l -aspartic acid; however, the yields were strictly low. Therefore, the highly stable and efficient...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Zinc supplements are an effective clinical treatment for infantile diarrheal disease caused by enteric pathogens. Previous studies demonstrated that zinc acts on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) bacteria directly to suppress several virulence-related genes at a concentration that can be achieved by oral delivery of dietary zinc supplements. Our in vitro studies showed that a micromolar...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Publication date: 3 August 2015 , Volume 206 Author(s): Il-Hoon Cho , Arun Bhunia , Joseph Irudayaraj To date most LF-ICA format for pathogen detection is based on generating color signals from gold nanoparticle (AuNP) tracers that are perceivable by naked eye but often these methods exhibit sensitivity lower than those associated with the conventional enzyme-based immunological methods or...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
The presence and species diversity of staphylococci in 250 ground beef and lamb meat samples obtained from DiyarbakirTurkey were investigated. The presence of the 16S rRNA gene, mecA, nuc, pvl, and femA was analyzed by multiplex PCR. Pheno- and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of 208 staphylococci isolates were established. Of the ground beef and ground lamb samples, 86.4% and 62.4% were...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatmentsthermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2015 Author(s): Petra Griekspoor , Eva Olsson Engvall , Britt Åkerlind , Björn Olsen , Jonas Waldenström Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, with a global distribution. It can colonize numerous host species, including both domestic and wild animals, but is particularly associated with birds (poultry and wild birds). For...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse species of bacteria commonly associated with infectious intestinal disease of humans and zoonotic carriage in poultry, cattle, pigs, and other animals. The species contains a large number of distinct clonal complexes that vary from host generalist lineages commonly found in poultry, livestock, and human disease cases to host-adapted specialized lineages...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
Quorum sensing (QS) is widely used by bacteria to coordinate behavior in response to external stimuli. In Vibrio cholerae, this process is important for environmental survival and pathogenesis, though, intriguingly, a large percentage of natural isolates are QS deficient. Here, we show that QS-deficient mutants can spread as social cheaters by ceasing production of extracellular proteases under...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 01:16
In the Mediterranean areasalted and dried roe from the gray Mugil cephalus “bottarga” represent a speciality food with great commercial value. Bottarga is currently produced by a traditional handmade process and, the risk of human bacterial contamination during its manufacturing is still unknown; in this perspective the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus could potentially contaminate this...
Tue, 05/05/2015 - 01:17
Joanna J. Fisher, Ann E. Hajek Maternal exposure to an immune challenge can convey enhanced immunity to invertebrate offspring in the next generation. We investigated whether maternal exposure of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, to two species of the fungus Metarhizium or the bacterium Serratia marcescens elicited transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). We tested...
Tue, 05/05/2015 - 01:17
Aims To develop a gentle ablation technique to recover Listeria monocytogenes biofilms from stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces by using compressed air and water injection. Methods and Results Biofilms were grown for 4, 24 and 48 h or 7 d and a compressed air and water flow at 2, 3 and 4 bars was applied for the purpose of cell removal. Collected cells were...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: September 2015 , Volume 50 Author(s): Koen Illeghems , Stefan Weckx , Luc De Vuyst A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data,...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: September 2015 , Volume 50 Author(s): Loris Pinto , Antonio Ippolito , Federico Baruzzi In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) against 14 strains of spoilage Pseudomonas of fresh cut vegetables under cold storage. The NEW, produced from solutions of potassium and sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate developed...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 16 July 2015 , Volume 205 Author(s): Roniele P. Cordeiro , Juan H. Doria , George G. Zhanel , Richard Sparling , Richard A. Holley This work examined Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 02-0304 for putative genes responsible for sinigrin hydrolysis. Sinigrin is a glucosinolate present in Oriental mustard ( Brassica juncea ), and its hydrolysis is mediated in plants by the...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 114 Author(s): Dolapo Lawal , Catherine Burgess , Evonne McCabe , Paul Whyte , Geraldine Duffy Escherichia coli O157 and O26 shedding patterns in cattle are known to vary widely. To address gaps in the understanding of the underlying factors which impact on shedding dynamics, sensitive and rapid quantitative methods which can be applied in...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 3 August 2015 , Volume 206 Author(s): Denis O'Leary , Evonne M. McCabe , Matthew P. McCusker , Marta Martins , Séamus Fanning , Geraldine Duffy The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR)...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 16 July 2015 , Volume 205 Author(s): Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio , Pilar García , Ana Rodríguez , Craig Billington , J. Andrew Hudson , Beatriz Martínez Bacteriophages and bacteriocins are promising biocontrol tools in food. In this work, two Listeria bacteriophages, FWLLm1 and FWLLm3, were assessed in combination with the bacteriocin coagulin C23 to inhibit Listeria...

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