Bacterial pathogens

Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:13
Escherichia coli is a leading contributor to infectious diarrhea and child mortality worldwide, but it remains unknown how alterations in the gut microbiome vary for distinct E. coli pathotype infections and whether these signatures can be used for diagnostic purposes. Further, the majority of enteric diarrheal infections are not diagnosed with respect to their etiological agent(s) due to...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:13
Escherichia coli segregates into phylogenetic groups, with group B2 containing both extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Ten main B2 subgroups (subgroups I to X)/sequence type complexes (STcs), as well as EPEC lineages, have been identified. In the current study, we characterized ExPEC and EPEC strains of E. coli B2 phylogenetic subgroups/STcs...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:13
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, has been frequently isolated from recreational rivers and streams in New Zealand, yet the public health significance of this is unknown. This study uses molecular tools to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and sources of Campylobacter in recreational waterways, with a view to preventing human infection....
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:09
Author(s): Ronghua Wu, Junyu Shen, Xinlian Lai, Tao He, Yun LiAbstractThe disease outbreak caused by viral infection and bacterial pathogens has hampered the sustainable development of the gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) industry, lack of monoclonal antibodies against serum immunoglobulin (Ig) of gibel carp has impeded the development of nonfatal immunoassays in detection of pathogen...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:03
Author(s): Cailin Liu, Chunguang Chen, Yafei Ye, Xiaogai Li, Jingjing Sun, Lijuan Xu, Liang MingAbstractTwo linezolid-resistant and teicoplanin-intermediate Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were isolated from blood cultures in China. The two S.epidermidis strains were methicillin-resistant and showed multidrug-resistance patterns, in addition, population analysis profiling/area under the curve...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:03
Author(s): Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz, Daiane Voss-Rech, Luana Alves, Arlei Coldebella, Liana Brentano, Iara Maria TrevisolAbstractSalmonella Enteritidis remains a leading cause of human foodborne disease, mostly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. To more strategically implement a phage therapy scheme for S. Enteritidis control in broilers, a cocktail containing...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:03
Author(s): Antonise M. Jaguezeski, Aleksandro S. da Silva, Teane M.A. Gomes, Nathieli B. Bottari, Thalisson F. Lopes, Renan A. Cechin, Vera M. Morsch, Maria R.C. Schetinger, Janice L. Giongo, Rodrigo de A. VaucherAbstractThe cholinergic, purinergic and oxidative stress systems were related to nervous system damage in some pathologies, as well as being involved in pro-inflammatory and anti-...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:49
Staphylococcus aureus is able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl but the exact genetic factors contributing to this are unknown. Using a high‐throughput TN‐seq approach, we identified gene 957 as an important factor for the salt stress resistance in S. aureus. A 957‐mutant was not only salt sensitive but also showed increased peptidoglycan crosslinking, altogether highlighting...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:48
LuxR‐type transcriptional factors are essential in many bacterial physiological processes. However, there have been no reports on their roles in Aeromonas hydrophila. In this study, six stable silent strains were constructed using shRNA. Significant decreases in the expression levels of luxR05, luxR08, luxR19, luxR11, luxR164 and luxR165 were shown in their respective strains by qRT‐PCR. The...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:45
UV-C treatment technology is proposed as a potential alternative to thermal treatments for decontamination of beverages because heat may adversely affect the nutritive value and quality. Effects of UV-C irradiation processing on microbial inactivation, ascorbic acid, and volatile aromatics of watermelon beverage were evaluated using a flow-through UV system. Selected microbial agents Escherichia...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:43
Strategies to reduce economic losses associated with post-weaning diarrhea in pig farming include high-level dietary zinc oxide supplementation. However, excessive usage of zinc oxide in the pig production sector was found to be associated with accumulation of multidrug resistant bacteria in these animals, presenting an environmental burden through contaminated manure. Here we report on zinc...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:43
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, the GBD 2017 Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Invasive Disease Collaborators1 estimate the global burden of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease using Bayesian meta-regression tools. The results show a high but decreasing number of cases since 2005 with a continuously high case fatality rate, consistent with previous estimates. These findings show that serotypes of...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 03:43
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading bacterial causes of intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. However, the ETEC is frequently resistant to common antibiotics. In this study, we explored ...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:39
ABSTRACT Interactions between the gut microbiome and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the gut during infancy are important for future health. IgM and IgG are also present in the gut; however, their interactions with the microbiome in the developing infant remain to be characterized. Using stool samples sampled 15 times in infancy from 32 healthy subjects at 4 locations in 3 countries, we characterized...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:39
ABSTRACT The 7th cholera pandemic began in 1961 in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and then spread around the world in at least three waves. However, the lack of genome sequences for Vibrio cholerae strains under long-term surveillance in East Asia, especially in China, has restricted our understanding of the dynamics of the intracountry and intercountry evolution and transmission of the 7th-pandemic clones...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Lorenzo Mazza, Xiaopeng Xiao, Kashif ur Rehman, Minmin Cai, Dingnan Zhang, Salvatore Fasulo, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Longyu Zheng, Abdul Aziz Soomro, Ziniu Yu, Jibin ZhangAbstractBlack soldier fly (BSF) is used for the management of organic waste, but research has hardly explored the effect of companion bacteria when chicken manure (CHM) is converted to insect biomass. In this study, we...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Mathieu Gand, Wesley Mattheus, Nancy H.C. Roosens, Katelijne Dierick, Kathleen Marchal, Sigrid C.J. De Keersmaecker, Sophie BertrandAbstractSalmonella is a major pathogen having a public health and economic impact in both humans and animals. Six serotypes of the Salmonella genus are mentioned in the Belgian and European regulation as to be rapidly excluded from the food chain (EU...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Elisa Gayán, Elise Geens, Daniel Berdejo, Diego García-Gonzalo, Rafael Pagán, Abram Aertsen, Chris W. MichielsAbstractThe growing demand for minimally processed foods with clean labels has stimulated research into mild processing methods and natural antimicrobials to replace intensive heating and conventional preservatives, respectively. However, we have previously demonstrated that...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Xiaodan Li, Cyrill Brunner, Yufan Wu, Oneda Leka, Gisbert Schneider, Richard A. KammererABSTRACTA dual-receptor interaction with a polysialoganglioside and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) is required for botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) toxicity. Here, we review what is currently known about the BoNT/A-SV2 interaction based on structural studies. Currently, five crystal structures...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:31
Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a versatile pathogen bearing multiple virulence determinants, is increasingly being detected in various food‐producing animals, including fish. In addition, it is a potential food poisoning agent. MRSA is not an inherent microbiota of fish; its presence is attributed to pre‐ or postharvest contamination through fish handlers, water, ice, and...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:30
This article review the emerging trends in the spread, distribution, and epidemiology of Listeria species in foods, water, human, animals, and different environments in the Southern African sub‐region based on the appraisal of scholarly articles available online. Reports obtained from literatures revealed that traditional microbiological method and the principle of aesculin hydrolysis on...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:30
Spot map showing areas of sample collection from Delhi‐NCR. Abstract Fresh fruits and vegetables contaminated with microbial pathogens can cause outbreaks of food poisoning and other enteric diseases if consumed raw. The objective of the present study was to determine the bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance in fresh produce sold in Delhi, India. One hundred fifty samples of fruits...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:30
Dendrogram analysis of ERIC& REP fingerprints of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Abstract Klebsiella species have been at the center of attention over the recent years due to its role in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and is not only associated with nosocomial but also with food related infections worldwide. In this study, out of 336 samples of animal intestinal and...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:27
BACKGROUND Heavy metal resistant bacterium Enterobacter sp. C1D was evaluated for cadmium (Cd) mediated exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation and legume root colonization ability under Cd stress to alleviate metal induced stress. RESULTS The plant was sensitive to Cd (IC50 3‐ 4μg/ml), while the bacterium showed high Cd tolerance (MIC99 120 μg/ml). Confocal laser scanning microscopy of...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:26
Salmonella biofilms act as a continuous source for cross-contamination in the food processing environments. In this study, a stable rugose morphotype of Salmonella was first induced by sequential exposure to subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (ranging from 50 to 300 ppm over 18-day period) in tryptic soy broth. Then, rugose and smooth morphotypes of Salmonella...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:26
Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for significant losses in important wild and cultured fish species. E. piscicida strain MS-18-199 recovered from a diseased hybrid catfish from East Mississippi and showed resistance to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, tetracycline, azitromycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamide, and bacitracin. To...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:26
An earlier report described a human case of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by mixed infection with 4 Aeromonas hydrophila strains (NF1–NF4). While the NF2, NF3, and NF4 strains were clonal and possessed exotoxin A (ExoA), the NF1 strain was determined to be phylogenetically distinct, harboring a unique type 6 secretion...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:26
Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic human pathogen causing nosocomial infections and displays expanded resistance towards the conventional antibiotics. In S. marcescens, quorum sensing (QS) mechanism coordinates the population-dependent behaviors and regulates the virulence factors production. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a promising alternative for the treatment of infections caused by...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:26
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that can be found in a broad range of environments, including soil, food, animals, and humans. L. monocytogenes can cause a foodborne disease manifesting as sepsis and meningo-encephalitis. To evaluate signals of selection within the core genome of neuroinvasive L. monocytogenes strains, we sequenced 122 L. monocytogenes strains from...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:26
The enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica is a major cause of human gastroenteritis globally and with increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, alternative solutions are urgently needed. Single domain antibodies (sdAbs), the smallest antibody fragments that retain antigen binding specificity and affinity, are derived from variable heavy-chain only fragments (VHH) of camelid heavy-chain-only...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:26
Conventionally, the delivery of biomolecules into bacteria for the generation of characterized or functional mutants has relied greatly on horizontal gene transfer techniques. However, the low compatibility of these techniques with novel or hard-to-transform bacteria currently serves as a challenge to the bioengineering field. Here, we explored the use of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as an...
Tue, 11/26/2019 - 03:25
Espinoza-Vergara et al. unveiled a novel transmission mode of Vibrio cholerae based on environmental protozoan predation, which the bacterial pathogen evades via its release in ‘expelled food vacuoles.’ Vacuole-enclosed bacteria are not only fairly protected against environmental stressors, but also show enhanced intestinal colonization fitness upon oral ingestion.
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Yuanqing Kan, Lu Meng, Lingling Xie, Lixia Liu, Wenyue Dong, Jintao Feng, Yuchen Yan, Chao Zhao, Gang Peng, Decheng Wang, Mingfang Lu, Chen Yang, Chen NiuAbstractMacrophages are the first-line host defense that the invading Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters. It has been recently reported that host aerobic glycolysis was elevated post the infection by a couple of virulent...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Pramod Kumar, Priti Yadav, K.V. Ingole, Rishi Jaiswal, N.S. Khalid, Durgesh G. Deshmukh, A.K. Goel, P.K. YadavaAbstractIt is evident from previous cholera epidemic/outbreaks in India, Africa and America that seventh pandemic ElTor (7PET) with Haitian genotype (7PET-HCT) were associated with increased mortality. Present study highlights emergence of 7PET-HCT isolates causing two cholera...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Satoshi Nishida, Yasuo OnoAbstractBackground: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has expanded rapidly and is associated with severe nosocomial infections. Last-line antibiotics such as colistin and tigecycline remain the only treatment option. Here, we describe the genetic background of a novel pan-resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolate...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Min-Jin Jeon, Jae-Won HaAbstractWe evaluated the bactericidal efficacy of the simultaneous application of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) irradiation and fumaric acid (FA) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice and as well as investigated the effects of this treatment on product quality. Further, we elucidated the...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Yuanyuan Song, Xuetong FanAbstractIn the present study, we investigated whether cold plasma activation affected the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide against S. Typhimurium and L. innocua. Stem scars and smooth surfaces of grape tomatoes, surfaces of Granny Smith apples and Romaine lettuce (both midrib and upper leaves) and cantaloupe rinds were inoculated with two-strain...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Lele Shao, Yi Liu, Xiaojing Tian, Huicong Wang, Qianqian Yu, Xingmin Li, Ruitong DaiAbstractOhmic heating (OH), an alternative thermal processing technique, has various applications in food industry in recent years. To better understand the inactivation of microorganisms treated with OH, effects of OH with different voltage gradient (5 and 10 V/cm) and frequency (50 and 500 Hz) on the...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:26
In the field, foodborne pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are capable of surviving on produce over time, yet little is known about how these pathogens adapt to this environment. To assess the impact of pre-harvest environmental conditions on EHEC survival, we quantified survival on romaine lettuce under two relative humidity (75% and 45%) and seasonal conditions (March...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Francesco Fancello, Giacomo L. Petretto, Salvatore Marceddu, Tullio Venditti, Giorgio Pintore, Giacomo Zara, Ilaria Mannazzu, Marilena Budroni, Severino ZaraAbstractContamination by Listeria monocytogenes is a particularly challenging problem in the food industry due to the ability of the bacterium to develop under conditions normally used for food preservation. Here, we show that the...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:42
Physical, chemical and antimicrobial properties of fish gelatin films with different concentrations of ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) were studied. Optical properties of film‐forming solution did not vary with increased LAE content. However, pH and surface tension increased. The incorporation of LAE into the formulation increased moisture and solubility of the films. In addition, the presence of...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:40
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may negatively affect muscle growth and strength. We injected BoNT-A into the affected limbs of 14 children (4.57 ± 2.28 years) with hemiplegic CP and exhibiting tip-toeing gait on the affected side and investigated the morphological alterations in the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GCM). We...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:37
Polymyxin antibiotics are a last-line treatment for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the emergence of colistin resistance, including the spread of mobile mcr genes, necessitates the development of improved diagnostics for the detection of colistin-resistant organisms in hospital settings. The recently developed MALDIxin test enables detection of colistin resistance by matrix-...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:37
Blood cultures are routinely collected in pairs of aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Artificial sterilization of Gram-negative bacteria in aerobic bottles containing clinically meaningful antibiotic concentrations has previously been observed. This study assessed recovery from anaerobic bottles with and without antibiotic binding resins. We studied the recovery of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Hongzao Lv, Tao Zhou, Chuanju Dong, Shengnan Kong, Lin Chen, Fei Pu, Xuejun Li, Peng XuAbstractComplement is a complex component of innate immune system, playing an important role in defense against pathogens and host homeostasis. The complement system has been comprehensively studied in mammals, however less is known about complement in teleost, especially in tetraploid common carp (...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Christina Sakarikou, Dimitra Kostoglou, Manuel Simões, Efstathios GiaourisAbstractSalmonella is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne outbreaks throughout the world. In the last years, the resistance of this and other pathogenic bacteria to antimicrobials has become a prime concern towards their successful control. In addition, the tolerance and virulence of pathogenic bacteria...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Diana Alves, Miguel A. Cerqueira, Lorenzo M. Pastrana, Sanna SillankorvaAbstractNotwithstanding the implementation of good processing practices in food companies and appropriate washing of food products by the consumer, Salmonella and Escherichia coli outbreaks continue to occur. In this study, different combinations of bacteriophages (phages) and cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) were...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Els Vossen, Sophie Goethals, Jo De Vrieze, Nico Boon, Thomas van Hecke, Stefaan De SmetAbstractPigs were fed either red and processed meat or chicken meat within either a prudent or a Western dietary pattern for four weeks (2 × 2 full factorial design). The colon microbial community and volatile organic compounds were assessed (either quantified or based on their presence). Results...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Andrea R. McWhorter, Kapil K. ChousalkarAbstractSingle-aged caged layer hen flocks were monitored for Salmonella over the course of their lifetime. Chicks from both flocks were Salmonella negative at hatch and remained negative during rearing. Pullets were transported to production farms at 15 weeks of age. Pre-population dust swabs collected from both production sheds had a high...

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