Bacterial pathogens

Thu, 01/14/2021 - 16:00
BackgroundStaphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacterial bloodstream infections. The heterogeneity in patient outcomes in S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) can be attributed in part to strain characteristics, which may influence host response to infection. We specifically examined the relationship between lipoteichoic acid (LTA) release from S. aureus and disease phenotype, strain background, and...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 16:00
Environmental adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes is a complex process involving various mechanisms that can contribute to their survival in the environment, further spreading throughout the food chain and the development of listeriosis. The aim of this study was to analyze whole-genome sequencing data in a set of 270 strains of L. monocytogenes derived from human listeriosis cases and food and...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 16:00
Brucella species cause brucellosis, a worldwide extended zoonosis. The brucellae are related to free-living and plant-associated α2-Proteobacteria and, since they multiply within host cells, their metabolism probably reflects this adaptation. To investigate this, we used the rodent-associated Brucella suis biovar 5, which in contrast to the ruminant-associated Brucella abortus and Brucella...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 14:05
Passive immunization with antibodies is a promising approach against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea, a prevalent disease in LMICs. The objective of this study was to investigate expression of a monoclonal anti-ETEC CfaE secretory IgA antibody in N. benthamiana plants, with a view to facilitating access to ETEC passive immunotherapy. SIgA1 and SIgA2 forms of mAb 68–81 were produced by...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 04:02
Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one was identified through high-throughput whole-cell screening as a potential antituberculosis lead. The core of this scaffold has been identified several times previously and has been associated with various modes of action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We explored this scaffold through the synthesis of a focused library of analogues and identified key...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 00:00
Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Foodborne illness caused by consumption of food contaminated with Salmonella is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease and affects millions of people worldwide. The rising emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, especially in some serotypes of Salmonella, has raised a great awareness of public health issues worldwide. To ensure safety of the food processing chain, the...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Bacterial resistance to known antibiotics comprises a serious threat to public health. Propagation of multidrug-resistant pathogenic strains is a reason for undertaking a search for new therapeutic strategies, based on newly developed chemical compounds and the agents present in nature. Moreover, antibiotic treatment of infections caused by enterotoxin toxin-bearing strain—enterohemorrhagic...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is becoming the leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis, but its population dynamics in aquafarms have received limited attention. To address this research gap, we selected three shellfish farms to examine the impacts of ocean currents and the transport of live aquatic animals on the transmission and microevolution of V. parahaemolyticus by using...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky is frequently associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and has gained epidemiological importance globally. A retrospective screening was performed to understand the national prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky in China. S. enterica strains (n = 15,405) were collected within the frame of two national surveillance networks...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 08:02
by Wirittamulla Gamage Maheshika Kumudunie, Lakmini Inoka Wijesooriya, Yasanandana Supunsiri Wijayasinghe Rapidly progressing antibiotic resistance is a great challenge in therapy. In particular, the infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are exceedingly difficult to treat. Carbapenemase production is the predominant mechanism of resistance in CRE. Early and accurate...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 08:02
Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of C. burnetii among apparently healthy pregnant, parturient, and postparturient dogs and cats to highlight their role in the transmission of such disease to humans.
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Andrea R. McWhorter, Samiullah Khan, Margaret Sexton, Talia S. Moyle, Kapil K. Chousalkar Despite food safety recommendations, raw egg-based foods, such as mayonnaise, are frequently identified as the source of Salmonella during outbreaks. Acidification and storage temperature have been linked with reduced bacterial culturability. Raw egg-based sauces stored at 25°C have historically...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Wen-Li Seow, Nor Ainy Mahyudin, Syafinaz Amin-Nordin, Son Radu, Noor Azira Abdul-Mutalib The purpose of the study was to identify the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and its antimicrobial resistance profile among food handlers and in cooked food in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The correlation between the prevalence of S. aureus and the occupational information of the food handlers was...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 04:02
Luo Han Guo fruit extract (Siraitia grosvenorii), mainly composed of mogroside V (50%), could be considered a suitable alternative to free sugars; however, its commercial applications are limited by its unpleasant off-notes. In the present work, a central composite design method was employed to optimize the transglycosylation of a mogroside extract using cyclodextrin glucosyltransferases (CGTases...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 02:02
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widely distributed mycotoxin that frequently occurs in various foodstuffs, and poses a health risk to human and animals. Biodegradation of DON to less- or non-toxic substances using naturally existing microorganisms is considered the best approach for DON detoxification. Although various microorganisms capable of detoxifying DON have been reported; however, such studies...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 02:02
Salted duck eggs as a convenient food are very popular in China and Southeast Asia. Generally, they are produced by traditional curing methods. Here we used traditional methods to profile the bacterial community of salted duck eggs purchased from markets to systematically investigate their microbiological safety. 77 bacteria belonging to 14 genera were isolated. Bacillus related to flavor...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 02:02
In nature, the bioaccumulative potent neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) is produced from inorganic mercury (Hg) predominantly by anaerobic microorganisms. Hg-contaminated soils are a potential source of MeHg due to microbial activity. We examine streambank soils collected from the contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Tennessee, USA, where seasonal variations in MeHg levels have been...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 22:14
This review considers how research in China has progressed our understanding and subsequent improved control of Cronobacter. This emergent bacterial pathogen is associated with neonatal infections through the ingestion of contaminated prepared feed. The review includes large‐scale surveys of various sources of the organism, including infant formula production facilities. The analysis of over 20,...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 22:14
The objective of this survey was to estimate the prevalence, contamination level, and genetic diversity of Salmonella in selected raw, shelled tree nuts (Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,374 samples of eight tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 22:13
The antibacterial effect of volatile compounds in millets and cereal by‐products was investigated. Hexane extracts of rice bran (RB), corn cob (CC), green (GM), and yellow millets (YM) showed antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli ATCC 35150, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Helicobacter pylori MH179991, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13150 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 06:18
Author(s): Dipon Sarkar, David A. Ratkowsky, Bing Wang, John P. Bowman, Mark L. Tamplin Paneer is a fresh, soft ready-to-eat cheese that is susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes contamination, exemplified by product recalls in Australia, Canada, and the USA. Previous research demonstrates that L. monocytogenes grows in paneer, however there are no paneer-specific predictive models that quantify...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 06:15
Author(s): Zhengquan Chen, Jie Bai, Xibin Zhang, Shaojun Wang, Kaifeng Chen, Qijie Lin, Chenggang Xu, Xiaoyun Qu, Hongxia Zhang, Ming Liao, Jianmin Zhang This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from retail meat in Southern China, and to characterize the major mechanisms that mediate the ciprofloxacin...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 06:15
Author(s): Hamid Reza Sodagari, Penghao Wang, Ian Robertson, Sam Abraham, Shafi Sahibzada, Ihab Habib Foodborne exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing global health concern. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is well recognised as an indicator of food contamination with faecal materials. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli in table eggs sold at retail...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 06:15
Author(s): J.R. Lucas, A. Alía, R. Velasco, M.D. Selgas, M.C. Cabeza Various adverse conditions can trigger defensive mechanisms in Listeria monocytogenes that can increase the virulence of surviving cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of one stress-response (sigB) and three virulence (plcA, hly, and iap) genes in L. monocytogenes exposed to a sub lethal dose of E-...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Salmonella  has been linked to many food-borne illnesses and epidemics in both humans and animals. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence, serovars and factors associated with Salmonella contamination of chickens slaughtered in outlets of the informal markets in Gauteng Province, South Africa. A total of 151 chicken carcasses were randomly collected from 47 outlets. Standard...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Salad vegetables purchased from farmers’ markets and grocery stores in central Ohio during the summers of 2015 and 2016 were tested for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, Salmonella contamination, and coliform bacteria count. A total of 364 samples were collected from 36 farmers’ markets and 33 grocery stores. Using selective media we...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter butzleri are foodborne pathogens associated with the consumption of contaminated raw chicken meat. At the industry level, the combination of new and common antimicrobials could be used as an strategy to control the presence of pathogens in chicken carcasses. The objective of this study was to determine the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of a mixture of...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 02:02
Gram-negative bacteria release nanovesicles, called outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), from their outer membrane. Proteomics has been used to determine their composition. OMVs contain proteins able to elicit an immune response, so they have been proposed as a model to develop acellular vaccines. In this study, OMVs of Brucella suis, B. ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae were purified and analyzed by...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 22:14
The aim of this work was the establishment of a national laboratory sentinel surveillance service for human clinical Campylobacter in Ireland. This included detailed genomic molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter for 2019. For February‐December 2019, 24 clinical microbiology laboratories in Ireland submitted all PCR/culture‐positive clinical Campylobacter spp. specimens to Public Health...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 22:14
Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic among cattle in Western France. However, studies assessing the risk of human infection in such areas are lacking to date, while they may provide information about key specific preventive actions which could be advised to the human populations living with or close to cattle. Therefore, we conducted a cross‐sectional study in two...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 22:13
Disk diffusion method to determine antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils was used. While the essential oil extracted from oregano has a high effect on 9 of our test microorganisms (75%), one of them had a medium effect and two of them had a weak effect in the test results. While the essential oil obtained from thyme was effective on VRE, MSSA, Escherichia feacalis and Staphylococcus...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 22:10
Antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria and resistance determinants are of great concern to human and veterinary medicine worldwide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Mobile colistin-resistant genes (mcr) have become an increasing public health concern. Since the first report of mcr-1 in Thailand in 2016, perspective surveillance was conducted to explore the genomic characteristics of clinical carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) isolates harboring mcr in 2016–2019. Thirteen (0.28%) out of 4,516 CRE isolates were found to carry mcr genes, including 69.2...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni CsrA is an mRNA-binding, post-transcriptional regulator that controls many metabolic- and virulence-related characteristics of this important pathogen. In contrast to E. coli CsrA, whose activity is modulated by binding to small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), C. jejuni CsrA activity is controlled by binding to the CsrA antagonist FliW. In this study, we identified the FliW binding...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
The lesser-known traditionally processed meat products such as beef kargyong, pork kargyong, satchu, and khyopeh are popular food items in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. The present study aimed to assess the microbiological safety of traditional meat products by identifying the potential spoilage or pathogenic bacteria, detecting the enterotoxins, and screening the antibiotic...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Leuconostoc carnosum is a known colonizer of meat-related food matrices. It reaches remarkably high loads during the shelf life in packaged meat products and plays a role in spoilage, although preservative effects have been proposed for some strains. In this study, the draft genomes of 17 strains of L. carnosum (i.e., all the strains that have been sequenced so far) were compared to decipher...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Pasteurella multocida can invade and translocate through endothelial cells and result in vascular-system infection, which can cause severe economic losses in the poultry industry. Antibacterial therapy (especially florfenicol) plays an important part in controlling P. multocida infection. To preserve the effect of florfenicol, in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Capsule-forming extracellular polysaccharides are crucial for bacterial host colonization, invasion, immune evasion, and ultimately pathogenicity. Due to warming ocean waters and human encroachment of coastal ecosystems, Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a globally important foodborne enteropathogen implicated in acute gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septic shock. Conventionally, the...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 16:00
Development of novel anti-tuberculosis combination regimens that increase efficacy and reduce treatment timelines will improve patient compliance, limit side-effects, reduce costs, and enhance cure rates. Such advancements would significantly improve the global TB burden and reduce drug resistance acquisition. Bioenergetics has received considerable attention in recent years as a fertile area for...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Jing Zhuang, Xiaoyue Ji, Yue Zhu, Wei Liu, Jing Sun, Xinan Jiao, Xiulong Xu Autophagy plays an important role in restricting the growth of invading intracellular microbes. Salmonella (S) Typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and food poisoning in humans, evades autophagic detection by multiple mechanisms. There has been growing interest in developing...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 00:00
The emerging spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) strains, in particular, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, has become a significant threat to hospitalized patients. Carbapenemase genes are frequently located on plasmids than can be exchanged among clonal strains, increasing the antibiotic resistance rate. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CPE...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 22:12
Exudative epidermatitis (EE) or greasy pig disease (GPD) is a contagious disease of pig and endemic worldwide caused by toxigenic strains under genus Staphylococcus. The present study reported an outbreak of GPD in Champhai district of Mizoram adjoining to the southern border of Myanmar. A total of 60 samples were collected from 22 clinically affected animals and processed for isolation and...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 22:09
BACKGROUND Fermentation, a traditional food preserving technique and an effective process, widely used to enrich the nutrients diversity and bioactivity of the fermented foods since ancient times. This study aimed at investigating the effects of various fermentation starters on the physicochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic properties of the blueberry juices. The blueberry...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 22:09
Background In recent years high‐pressure processing (HPP) of fruit products has steadily increased due to antimicrobial effectiveness and the retention of nutritional and quality attributes compared to conventional thermal technologies. Edible coatings are already being used to enhance the quality of minimally processed fruits. Thus, apple cubes (AC) and alginate‐vanillin coated apple cubes (AVAC...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 16:00
The porcine respiratory tract harbours multiple microorganisms, and the interactions between these organisms could be associated with animal health status. Pasteurella multocida is a culturable facultative anaero...
Sun, 01/10/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Renata Galetti, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Alessandro M. Varani, Pavelas Sazinas, Lars Jelsbak, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide. The understanding of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches is providing valuable insights into...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 22:10
Aims A. hydrophila is a zoonotic pathogen displaying resistance to multiple antibiotics. Here we aim to develop a candidate biocontrol agent against A. hydrophila. Methods and results In this study, we isolated and characterized the phage vB‐AhyM‐AP1 from sewage. It showed lytic activity against A. hydrophila strains. One‐step growth curve revealed that the latent period lasted for 40 min. The...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 12:01
ABSTRACT Biofilm is a predominant lifestyle of bacteria that comprises of cells as collectives enmeshed in a polymeric matrix. Biofilm formation is vital for bacterial species as it provides access to nutrients and protects the cells from environmental stresses. Here we show that interference in biofilm matrix production is a strategy by the competing bacterial species to reduce the ability of...
Sat, 01/09/2021 - 08:02
by Omar Assafiri, Adelene Ai-Lian Song, Geok Hun Tan, Irwan Hanish, Amalia Mohd Hashim, Khatijah Yusoff Klebsiella pneumoniae are opportunistic bacteria found in the gut. In recent years they have been associated with nosocomial infections. The increased incidence of multiple drug-resistant K. pneumoniae makes it necessary to find new alternatives to treat the disease. In this study, phage...

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