Bacterial pathogens

Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Luca Settanni, Pietro Barbaccia, Adriana Bonanno, Marialetizia Ponte, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Elena Franciosi, Antonino Di Grigoli, Raimondo GaglioAbstractThe present work was carried out to evaluate the microbiological and physicochemical composition of salamis produced with the meat of beef, horse, wild boar and pork. Salami productions occurred under controlled laboratory conditions to...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:29
Growth behavior of Salmonella (A–E) and Shigella (F–J) in tomato–cucumber, modified tomato–cucumber, tahini tomato–cucumber, coleslaw, and toum sauce salads, respectively, stored for 5 days at 4, 10, and 24°C. Abstract This study evaluated the behavior of Salmonella and Shigella (5–6 log CFU/g) in tomato–cucumber (TC) salad without additives (control), TC with 1.0% lemon juice and 0.5% salt, TC...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:28
Here, two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to different epitopes on ToxB, a toxin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (VPAHPND), were employed to develop a rapid strip test. One MAb was conjugated to colloidal gold to bind to ToxB at the application pad, and another MAb was used to capture colloidal gold MAb–protein complexes at the test...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:26
In the United States, the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has increased during recent years as consumers seek to make healthier lifestyle choices. However, the number of outbreaks associated with fresh produce that involve cases in more than one state (multistate) has increased concomitantly. As the distance along the farm-to-fork continuum has lengthened over time, there are also more...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:26
Extracellular vesicles secreted by Gram-negative bacteria have proven to be important in bacterial defense, communication and host–pathogen relationships. They resemble smaller versions of the bacterial mother cell, with similar contents of proteins, LPS, DNA, and RNA. Vesicles can elicit a protective immune response in a range of hosts, and as vaccine candidates, it is of interest to properly...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:26
Our previous study showed that the srfABC operon, which was originally identified in Salmonella enterica as an SsrB-regulated operon clustered with the flagellar class 2 operon, exhibited significant cytotoxicity against insect midgut CF-203 cells and injectable insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The srfABC operon was widely distributed among bacteria, which raises the...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:26
Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins are the most poisonous substances known, so much so as to be considered for a possible terrorist use. At the same time, botulinum neurotoxin type A1 is successfully used to treat a variety of human syndromes characterized by hyperactive cholinergic nerve terminals. The extreme toxicity of these neurotoxins is due to their neurospecificity and to their...
Sat, 11/23/2019 - 03:25
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to clonal complex 398 is recognized as an occupational hazard for workers employed in intensive animal husbandry, especially in th...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:38
Here, we present data on the complete genome sequences of 11 Staphylococcus sp. isolates (three S. chromogenes isolates and one isolate each of S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. hominis, S. agnetis, S. caprae, S. aureus, and S. warneri), obtained as part of a mastitis study of buffalo milk (from healthy animals and from those with subclinical mastitis) and milkers’ hands.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:38
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains in diverse settings has been reported globally. In the Philippine shrimp aquaculture industry, antibiotics are used for the treatment of bacterial diseases during the production cycle. We report the draft genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus PH698, a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from a Philippine shrimp farm.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:38
Pathogenic Leptospira species represent a major concern for livestock but also for human health, as they cause zoonotic infections. Forty strains representing L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. noguchii were isolated from naturally infected cattle in Uruguay. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences for these strains.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
Salmonella enterica is a natural bacterial pathogen of humans and animals that causes systemic infection or gastroenteritis. During systemic infection, Salmonella generally resides within professional phagocytes, typically macrophages, whereas gastroenteritis is caused by infection of epithelial cells. We are only beginning to understand which host pathways contribute to Salmonella survival in...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
qnr genes are found in aquatic bacteria and were present in the bacterial community before the introduction of synthetic quinolones. Their natural functions are unknown. We evaluated expression of chromosomal qnr in Vibrio species in response to environmental stresses and DNA-damaging agents. Subinhibitory concentrations of quinolones, but not other DNA-damaging agents, increased expression of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death due to infection with a single pathogenic agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the absence of an effective vaccine, new, more powerful antibiotics are required to halt the growing spread of multidrug-resistant strains and to shorten the duration of TB treatment. However, assessing drug efficacy at the preclinical stage remains a long and...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most poisonous substance known. BoNTs are also classified as tier 1 biothreat agents due to their high potency and lethality. The existence of seven BoNT serotypes (A to G), which differ by 35% to 68% in amino acid sequences, necessitates the development of serotype-specific countermeasures. We present results of a phase 1 clinical study of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
A large OXA-48 outbreak in The Netherlands involved the spread of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae among at least 118 patients, suggesting horizontal transfer of this resistance gene through one or more plasmids. Elucidating transmission dynamics of resistance plasmids is hampered by the low resolution of classic typing methods. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:37
Globally, more people die annually from tuberculosis than from any other single infectious agent. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine that is sufficiently effective at preventing the acquisition of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. In this study, preexposure prophylactic pulmonary delivery of active aerosolized antituberculosis bacteriophage D29 was evaluated as an option...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Xiaojing Tian, Yi Liu, Qianqian Yu, Lele Shao, Xingmin Li, Ruitong DaiAbstractTo investigate the inactivation mechanism of ohmic heating (OH) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the same inactivation levels, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach was employed in this study. Quantification of 2633 proteins was obtained with high confidence. Compared to untreated samples (CT), a total...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Paula Vasconcelos Costa, Luiza Vasconcellos, Ingrid Camelo da Silva, Valéria de Mello Medeiros, Stephen James Forsythe, Marcelo Luiz Lima BrandãoAbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 45 samples of corn-based farinaceous foods commercialized in Brazil. The bacteriological analysis performed were: detection of Salmonella and Cronobacter, and...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Ling Jin, Ting Li, Bin Wu, Tan Yang, Dengchao Zou, Xuehua Liang, Liwen Hu, Ganhui Huang, Jinsheng ZhangAbstractEstablishing an efficient and rapid detection method to monitor and control Salmonella is of great significance for ensuring food safety. Here we prepared a new time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) biosensor based on superparamagnetic nanoparticle (SMN) with...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Wankui Jiang, Qinqin Gao, Lu Zhang, Hui Wang, Mingliang Zhang, Xiaoan Liu, Yidong Zhou, Zhijian Ke, Chenglong Wu, Jiguo Qiu, Qing HongAbstractA novel carbofuran-degrading strain CFD-1 was isolated and preliminarily identified as Sphingbium sp. This strain was able to utilize carbofuran as the sole carbon source for growth. The carbofuran hydrolase gene cehA was cloned from strain CFD-1...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:28
DNA phosphorothioation is widely used in antisense drugs. DNA PT modification also exists in bacteria. Using a purified enzyme complex, we show here for the first time how the inert DNA backbone is activated for the exchanging of oxygen with sulfur. Abstract Phosphorothioation (PT) involves the replacement of a nonbridging phosphate oxygen on the DNA backbone with sulfur. In bacteria, the...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT We evaluated the combination of immunomagnetic separation (IMS), multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella from poultry environmental samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of IMS-MDA real-time PCR with different culture enrichment hours (0, 4, 6, and 8 h) were determined in artificially inoculated litter samples from a specific pathogen-free (...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Poultry meats can become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria through digesta leakage during processing. Reducing the bacteria load in digesta of market-aged broilers prior to processing reduces the incidence of fecal contamination at the processing plant. A lysozyme product was incorporated in a maltodextrin-based feed offered during the pre-shipping feed withdrawal period to reduce...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
Salmonella and Campylobacter are leading human foodborne pathogens commonly associated with poultry and poultry products, and several methods to control these pathogens have been applied to poultry production. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CALSPORIN, (CSP), a direct-fed microbial (DFM), and yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cervisiae, IMW50, a mannanoligosaccharide (MOS)-based...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a major concern for public health, and broiler farms are a potential source of MRSA isolates. In this study, a total of 56 MRSA isolates from 15 broiler farms from 4 different counties in Germany were characterised phenotypically and genotypically. Spa types, dru types, SCCmec types, and virulence genes as well as resistance genes...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary yeast products on broiler chickens challenged with salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The chicks were divided into 8 treatments with 6 replicates and 9 birds per replicate. The treatments consisted of a positive control (PC) [without supplementation and not challenged]; negative control (NC) [without supplementation but...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) infection has been recognized as one of the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and is closely associated with eggs. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is an emerging environmentally friendly technology for disinfecting eggshell surfaces to remove dirt and pathogenic microorganisms. However, the efficiency of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of processed lignocellulose (PL) in the diets of broilers has a positive effect on growing performance, pH value of gizzard, hepatic enzyme activity, immunologic indicators, histomorphological character of small intestine, and cecal microflora populations. A total of 720 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a pervasive enteric disease responsible for large scale economic losses within the global poultry industry. The etiologic agent of NE is Clostridium perfringens (CP), an opportunistic pathogen that utilizes numerous extracellular toxins and glycoside hydrolases (GH) as key virulence and nutrient acquisition factors. Notably, some GH, mucinases, degrade...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effects of essential oils and organic acids (EOA) on Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) challenged chickens. One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks (250) were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 50 birds in each group. The treatment groups were as follows: 1) basal diet, negative control group (NC); 2) basal diet + S. Enteritidis,...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Pullorum disease caused by Salmonella Pullorum is one of the most important infectious diseases in the poultry industry worldwide, which leads to serious economic losses in many developing countries because of its high mortality rate in young chicks. The traditional slide agglutination test with low cost, fast reaction, and on-site detection has been widely used in the diagnosis of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) is primarily caused by the gram-positive bacterium, Clostridium perfringens (Cp). The trend towards removal of in-feed antimicrobials and subsequent increased emergence of infection in poultry has resulted in a wide interest in better understanding of the mechanism behind this disease. The virulence of NE, to a large extent, depends on the virulence...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the efficacy of ethanol treatment (0, 30, 50, or 70%) alone or in combination with ultrasound (37 kHz, 380 W) for the reduction of natural indigenous mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), coliforms, and inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken skin. Bacterial cells with loose, intermediate, or tight attachment to chicken skin were recovered by shaking in an...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, poultry production is an important source of domestic food and nutrition security while providing income for nearly 80% of Ethiopians. However, several infectious and parasitic diseases hamper poultry production. To date, evidence on the nationwide burden of specific diseases has not been collated to inform targeting of poultry health interventions. The objective of this...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT The efficiency of combination treatment of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and ultraviolet light (UV) for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) on the surface of plastic poultry coops and other facility surfaces was evaluated in the presence of organic matter. The bactericidal activities of SAEW, UV + SAEW, and composite phenol (CP) for inactivating S....
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of in ovo Bacillus spp. base probiotic (BBP) administration on hatchability, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) recovery, performance, and microbiota composition in 2 independent trials using a virulent E. coli seeder challenge model. In each trial, one hundred and eighty 18-day-old embryos were allocated into 1 of 2 groups: Control and treated group (...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health departments, and other state and federal partners have linked contact with live poultry to 70 human Salmonella outbreaks in the United States from 2000 to 2017, which resulted in a total of 4,794 illnesses, 894 hospitalizations, and 7 deaths. During human salmonellosis outbreaks environmental sampling is rarely conducted as part...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Dietary prebiotics are thought to be potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production because of their beneficial performance and health effects. The administration of dietary prebiotics has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and microbial food safety in poultry production. In this study, we evaluated the effects of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
M. Tobin-D’Angelo et al.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:26
Concerns about food contamination by Listeria monocytogenes are on the rise with increasing consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Biofilm production of L. monocytogenes is presumed to be one of the ways that confer its increased resistance and persistence in the food chain. In this study, a collection of isolates from foods and food processing environments (FPEs) representing persistent, prevalent,...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:37
by Elizeth Lopes, Teresa Conceição, Laurent Poirel, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa Background In 2016, very high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-ST398 (99%) were found in Portuguese pig farms that used colistin, amoxicillin, and zinc oxide as feed additives. Since then, farms A and B banned the use of colistin, and farm C banned the use of both antibiotics...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:37
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and genomic characteristics of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) in fennec fox imported from Sudan to China. We screened 88 fecal samples from fennec fox for ESBL-EC, using cefotaxime- and meropenem-supplemented selective medium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the agar...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Yabo Liu, Fei Wu, Qing Chen, Yuanyuan Ying, Yi Jiang, Junwan Lu, Xi Lin, Kewei Li, Teng Xu, Qiyu Bao, Liyan NiAbstractTo characterize the florfenicol resistance gene and analyze the structure of the resistance gene-related sequence of an Raoultella planticola strain S25 isolated from a duck fecal sample from a farm in South China. Molecular cloning was performed to clone the resistance...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:25
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for multiple clinical syndromes, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E. coli O157:H7 is the most prevalent serotype associated with HUS and produces a variety of virulence factors being Stx2 the responsible of the most HUS severe cases. After intestinal colonization by STEC, Stx2 is released into the intestinal lumen,...

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