Bacterial pathogens

Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:21
The study determined the genetic relatedness of Salmonella serotypes isolated from poultry caeca at the outlets cottage processors in Trinidad by pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of a total of 1503 caecal samples tested 91 (6.1%) yielded Salmonella spp. Ten serotypes were detected in the 91 Salmonella isolates which were digested by Xbal and subjected to PFGE. Based on the similarity of...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:18
Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, we investigated phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance characteristics by a novel method based on epidemiological cut‐off values. This is the second comprehensive study on the antimicrobial susceptibility characteristics of Aeromonas species using NRI and epidemiological cut‐off values. The present research is related to our previous...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:16
Aims To investigate the effects of L. plantarum on inflammatory responses induced by ETEC K88 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods and Results Intestinal porcine cells (IPEC‐1) were incubated with 0 or 1 × 108 CFU well‐1 L. plantarum for 4 h, and then these cells were challenged with 0 or 1 × 108 CFU well‐1 ETEC K88 for 2 h. The results showed that pre‐treatment of IPEC‐1...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 22:16
Aims In previous work, following a pressure treatment of S. aureus wild type, we obtained piezotolerant isolates showing altered phenotypic characteristics. This work focuses on understanding the genetic background of their altered phenotype. Methods and Results AK23, a representative piezotolerant isolate was subjected to DNA microarrays, corroborated by PCR product sequencing and revealed 10‐...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:03
Honey bees are important agricultural pollinators that rely on a specific gut microbiota for the regulation of their immune system and defense against pathogens. Environmental stressors that affect the bee gut microbial community, such as antibiotics and glyphosate, can indirectly compromise bee health. Most of the experiments demonstrating these effects have been done under laboratory conditions...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 10:03
The marine facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae forms complex multicellular communities on the chitinous shells of crustacean zooplankton in its aquatic reservoir. V. cholerae-chitin interactions are critical for the growth, evolution, and waterborne transmission of cholera. This is due, in part, to chitin-induced changes in gene expression in this pathogen. Here, we sought to identify factors...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Shaoying Gong, Peng Fei, Qi Sun, Ling Guo, Liange Jiang, Kai Duo, Xue Bi, Xueqi Yun This study researched the action mode of cranberry anthocyanin (CA) against Staphylococcus aureus and the effect of CA on the counts of S. aureus and the quantity of cooked meat during storage. The antibacterial effect was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and survival populations of S...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 06:11
LWT
Author(s): Ting Li, Ling Jin, Kaiwen Feng, Tan Yang, Xianglin Yue, Bin Wu, Shuangyan Ding, Xuehua Liang, Ganhui Huang, Jinsheng Zhang The growing threat of foodborne disease has made it imperative to develop rapid and efficient detection techniques. Here, we developed dendritic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) combined with low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 06:11
LWT
Author(s): Ilkin Yucel Sengun, Gulden Kilic, Berna Ozturk In this study, the effects of marination liquids (MLs) prepared using koruk juice (25% and 50%) and dried koruk pomace (1% and 2%) with or without additives [salt (1%) and thyme (0.1%)] on meat safety were determined. In the first stage, the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of MLs were observed in the range of 6.50% - >50...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 02:04
Abstract Gluten is a cereal protein that is incompletely digested by human proteolytic enzymes that create immunogenic peptides that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although both environmental and human bacteria have been shown to expedite gluten hydrolysis, gluten intolerance is a growing concern. Here we hypothesize that together with food, we acquire environmental bacteria...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
C3 protein toxins produced by Clostridium (C.) botulinum and C. limosum are mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which specifically modify the GTPases Rho A/B/C in the cytosol of monocytic cells, thereby inhibiting Rho-mediated signal transduction in monocytes, macrophages, and osteoclasts. C3 toxins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytic cells by endocytosis and translocate from acidic...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial infections in animals and humans. We sequenced a collection of 450 Salmonella strains from diseased animals to better understand the genetic makeup of their virulence and resistance features. The presence of Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) varied by serotype. S. Enteritidis carried the most SPIs (n = 15), while S. Mbandaka, S. Cerro, S....
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:22
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of type of milk, fermentation time, temperature, and stirring conditions on the antibacterial activity of fermented milk by kefir grains. All fermentation conditions had a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of kefir samples against four bacteria, except for the effect of temperature on the diameter of the inhibition zone of Shigella...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:18
Significance and impact of the study: The emergence of carbapenemases and extended‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ESBLs) in bacteria has now become a global problem leading to failure of advanced antimicrobial therapy. We report for the first time the blaNDM‐1 gene in non‐fermenting Gram‐negative bacterial isolates, and the blaKPC‐2 gene in an Escherichia coli isolate from goat meat in India. The...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 16:00
Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) challenges effective pulmonary infectious disease control. Current phenotypic and molecular assays could not comprehensively and accurately diagnose MTB, NTM, and drug resistance. Next-generation sequencing allows an “all-in-one” approach providing results on expected drug susceptibility testing (DST) and the...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 10:03
Motility is required for many bacterial pathogens to reach and colonize target sites. Vibrio cholerae traverses a thick mucus barrier coating the small intestine to reach the underlying epithelium. We screened a transposon library in motility media containing mucin to identify factors that influence mucus transit. Lesions in structural genes of the Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) were among those...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 08:04
by Yuen-Yan Chang, Virginie Stévenin, Magalie Duchateau, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Veronique Hourdel, Cristina Dias Rodrigues, Mariette Matondo, Norbert Reiling, Jost Enninga Shigella flexneri invades host cells by entering within a bacteria-containing vacuole (BCV). In order to establish its niche in the host cytosol, the bacterium ruptures its BCV. Contacts between S. flexneri BCV and infection-...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 08:04
Escherichia coli O157 is a Shiga toxin–producing E. coli causing disease in humans. Cattle are the primary reservoir of the pathogen. Information regarding the contribution of cattle to diarrheal illnesses in humans through consumption of contaminated beef is scarce in Ethiopia. We collected samples from 240 cattle, 127 beef, and 216 diarrheic patients in Bishoftu town in Ethiopia to assess the...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): S. Lebrun, T. Van Nieuwenhuysen, S. Crèvecoeur, R. Vanleyssem, J. Thimister, S. Denayer, S. Jeuge, G. Daube, A. Clinquart, B. Fremaux Outgrowth and toxinogenesis of Clostridium botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic) type B were studied in cooked ham prepared with different NaNO2 (ranging from 0 to 80 mg/kg) and sodium chloride (NaCl, ranging from 12 to 19 g/kg) incorporation rates. Cured...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 00:00
In the present investigation, the parent compound 4-amino-5-(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (1) and its Schiff bases 2, 3, and 4 were subjected to whole-cell anti-TB against H37Rv and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) plate method. Test compound 1 exhibited promising anti-TB activity against H37Rv and...
Mon, 08/31/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Mary E. Schoen, Trevor K. Peckham, Jeffry H. Shirai, John C. Kissel, Dipendra Thapaliya, Tara C. Smith, J. Scott Meschke Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been found in raw retail meat products, including pork. A concern has emerged that MRSA-containing meat products might lead to nasal colonization, a risk factor for infection, in individuals that handle and...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Salvatore Antoci, Luigi Iannetti, Gabriella Centorotola, Vicdalia Aniela Acciari, Francesco Pomilio, Paolo Daminelli, Costanza Romanelli, Anna Beatrice Ciorba, Nicola Santini, Marina Torresi, Anna Ruolo, Filippo Castoldi, Marco Pierantoni, Pietro Noè, Giacomo Migliorati Trade of food of animal origin between countries is carried out according to specific bilateral agreements based on...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Lekshmi Narendrakumar, Sivakumar Krishnankutty Chandrika, Sabu Thomas Cholera, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains a serious threat in underdeveloped countries. Although rehydration therapy has been the mainstay of disease management, antibiotics are also being used as an adjunct treatment, resulting in an increase in the circulation of antimicrobial-...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Hye-jin Kim, You-Tae Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Ju-Hoon Lee Vibrio vulnificus is a major food-borne pathogen that causes septicemia and cellulitis with a mortality rate of >50%. However, there are no efficient natural food preservatives or biocontrol agents to control V. vulnificus in seafood. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel bacteriophage VVP001. Host...
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Saša Vatić, Nemanja Mirković, Jelica R. Milošević, Branko Jovčić, Natalija Đ. Polović Numerous applications of proteolytic enzymes include dissociation of fermented meat products for the enumeration of `foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The use of trypsin for this cause is abandoned due to the high concentration of the enzyme affecting released bacteria. Papain, as a suggested replacement...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:22
This study optimized storage conditions for fermented pork jerky via microbial fermentation. Lactobacillus bulogaricus was employed as starter culture, fermentation conditions and baking conditions were optimized in study. Microbial indices reflecting parameters of preserved fermented pork jerky involved the detection of total plate count, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:19
The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae serves as a model organism for many important processes ranging from pathogenesis to natural transformation, which has been extensively studied in this bacterium. Previous work has deciphered important regulatory circuits involved in natural competence induction as well as mechanistic details related to its DNA acquisition and uptake potential. However, since...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:17
The current study was designed as (2 × 3) factorial groups of 20 and 40 mg Zn/kg diet from each inorganic (zinc oxide), organic (Zn‐methionine) and nanoparticle (nano‐zinc oxide) sources supplemented to six Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) fingerling diets. The results showed both organic and nano‐Zn‐administered groups, especially at 40 mg/kg, exhibited significant improvements in body weight, total...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:17
A 115‐day feeding trial and subsequently a 10‐day challenge test with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary antimicrobial peptide APSH‐07 on growth performance, immune response, antioxidative status and vibriosis resistance of abalone Haliotis discus hannai (initial body weight: 2.06 ± 0.01 g; initial shell length: 25.42 ± 0.18 mm). Four artificial diets...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 06:17
LWT
Author(s): Jiacheng Zhou, Eirini Velliou, Seok Hoon Hong The FDA-approved antimicrobial peptide nisin has been used to prevent contamination of food products from Gram-positive pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). However, some L. monocytogenes strains are tolerant or resistant to nisin treatment at a dose that would normally be lethal. Therefore, alternative or combined...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 02:04
Three hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms were isolated from the soil samples collected from the storage sites of low viscosity spindle oil containers and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics as Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The study has revealed high ability of these microorganisms for oil biodegradation. The results have...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 02:03
Food-related diseases are a major challenge for public health and economic development, in which Staphylococcus aureus is often associated. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves against the biofilm and polysaccharide slime produced by two bacterial strains, S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. aureus isolated from the dairy industry environment, on PVC surface....
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 00:01
The intracellular pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella must cope with acidic stress as they penetrate the host via the gastrointestinal route, and again during the initial stages of intracellular infection. A transcription-level regulation has been proposed to explain this but the specific molecular mechanisms are yet to be determined. We recently reported a comparative...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 00:00
Bacteriophages (phages) are considered as one of the most promising antibiotic alternatives in combatting bacterial infectious diseases. However, one concern of employing phage application is the emergence of bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIMs). Here, we isolated six BIMs from E. coli B in the presence of phage T4 and characterized them using genomic and phenotypic methods. Of all six BIMs,...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Adam R. Quinn, Ruo Fen Liao, Frost M. Steele, Laura K. Jefferies, Bradley J. Taylor Pathogens in low water activity foods are an important emerging food safety concern due to notable survival and thermotolerance. Limited but growing data are publicly available to compare the thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 (a Salmonella...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Hongchao Zhang, Shawn Tsai, Rohan V. Tikekar We explored the efficacy of ultrasound in combination with carvacrol and carbonated water as a treatment to decontaminate fresh produce using blueberries as a model system. We also evaluated its impact on the quality of blueberries during refrigerated storage. Blueberries inoculated with Listeria innocua, a model pathogen, were washed in...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Caroline Willis, Jim McLauchlin, Heather Aird, Corinne Amar, Clare Barker, Timothy Dallman, Nicola Elviss, Sandra Lai, Lorraine Sadler-Reeves Frozen vegetables have previously been associated with outbreaks of listeriosis in both the USA and Europe. An outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes serogroup 4 caused 53 cases in five European countries between 2015 and 2018. Whole genome...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Wageha A. Awad, Daniel Ruhnau, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess In recent years several studies emphasize on the deleterious effects of Campylobacter jejuni on the chicken intestine. In this context it was shown that Campylobacter jejuni, contrary to the general belief, has a negative influence on the gut barrier in chickens. More precisely, we demonstrated that C. jejuni affects gut...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 04:02
The ability of the enterocin-A-B-P-producing Enterococcus faecium KE82 adjunct strain to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes during Galotyri PDO cheese processing was evaluated. Three artisan cheese trials from traditionally ‘boiled’ (85oC) ewe’s milk were processed. The milk cooled at 42oC was divided in two parts: A1 was inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 and Lactococcus lactis subsp...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 04:02
Managing the presence of Salmonella in ground beef has been an ongoing challenge for the beef industry. Salmonella prevalence can vary regionally, seasonally, and within the animal, making intervention development difficult. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of an autogenous Salmonella vaccine in mitigating Salmonella in lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle. An autogenous...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 04:02
The lack of hygiene and sanitation practices and insufficient infrastructure in Cambodian informal markets may increase the risk of food contamination, specifically raw vegetables, which in turn may increase the chances of contracting a foodborne disease. The aims of this study were i) to quantify the prevalence of Salmonella enterica based upon seasonal differences (rainy and dry) between...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 00:00
To study the jitter parameters in the distant (DM) and the adjacent muscle (AM) after botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) injection in 78 patients, jitter was measured by voluntary activation in DM (n = 43), and in AM (n = 35). Patients were receiving BoNT/A injections as a treatment for movement disorders. Mean age 65.1 years (DM) and 61.9 years (AM). The mean jitter was abnormal in 13.9% (...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 00:00
Clinical management of tuberculosis (TB) in endemic areas is often challenged by a lack of resources including laboratories for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) culture. Traditional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for Mtb is costly and time consuming, while PCR-based methods are limited to selected target loci. We herein utilized a portable, USB-powered, long-read sequencing instrument (...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 22:22
• Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium were identified as the predominant serotypes (prevalence 3.35%) in the poultry (live chicken, 2.5%) and poultry products (carcass meat 4.83% and table eggs 2.15%).• Salmonella isolates produced virulence determinants associated with invasion (invA gene, 100%), toxin production (spvR gene, 77.27% and spvC gene, 22.72%) and...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 16:00
Drug-resistant bacteria infections and drug residues have been increasing and causing antibiotic resistance and public health threats worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are novel antimicrobial drugs with the potential to solve these problems. Here, a peptide based on our previously studied peptide PMAP-36PW was designed via N-terminal myristoylation and referred to as Myr-36PW. The fatty...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Cholera remains a formidable disease, and reports of multidrug-resistant strains of the causative agent Vibrio cholerae have become common during the last 3 decades. The pervasiveness of resistance determinants has largely been ascribed to mobile genetic elements, including SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements, IncC plasmids, and genomic islands (GIs). Conjugative transfer of IncC...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 10:04
Bacteriophage OSY-STA is a new anti-Salmonella phage that was isolated from a chicken farm in Ohio. It is a promising candidate for food safety applications, considering its efficiency in infecting several Salmonella enterica serovars. The current work presents its genomic characteristics. Salmonella phage OSY-STA has a 111,039-bp genome and 166 open reading frames.
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 10:04
The complete genome sequences of 12 isolates of the rare Salmonella enterica serovar Adjame were determined by combining Nanopore and Illumina sequence reads. Chromosome sizes ranged from 4,597,011 bp to 4,678,052 bp, and the GC content was 52.3%. A virulent plasmid of 87,433 bp was found in only one isolate.
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 08:05
by Laura Belmont-Monroy, Waleska Saitz-Rojas, Jorge Soria-Bustos, Abigail S. Mickey, Nicholas E. Sherman, Benjamin C. Orsburn, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Araceli E. Santiago Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a diarrheagenic pathotype associated with traveler’s diarrhea, foodborne outbreaks and sporadic diarrhea in industrialized and developing countries. Regulation of virulence in EAEC is...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 08:05
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of Amaranthus tricolor crude extract (ATCE) against Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF). The antibacterial activity of ATCE was assessed by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal...

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