Bacterial pathogens

Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:42
Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen carried in milk powder that can cause severe bacteremia, enterocolitis, and meningitis in newborns, which can lead to death of newborns. Preventing infection by this pathogen is significant to the health of newborns. Since infants and young children are the main target group of C. sakazakii, it is considered that maternal immunity can enhance the...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:37
Sixty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates carrying incompatibility group FIB (IncFIB) plasmids were sequenced to further characterize the IncFIB plasmid-encoded factors associated with virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. In addition to the IncFIB plasmid, many of these isolates harbored additional plasmids encoding virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes.
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:36
Nisin is a class I polycyclic bacteriocin produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis, which is used extensively as a food additive to inhibit the growth of foodborne Gram-positive bacteria. Nisin also inhibits growth of Gram-negative bacteria when combined with membrane-disrupting chelators such as citric acid. To gain insight into nisin’s mode of action, we analyzed chemical–genetic...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:29
Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum type A, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens Alpha toxin, and Yersinia enterocolitica are 11 common foodborne pathogens. Traditional bacterial culture methods for detecting pathogens are time‐consuming and labor‐...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:25
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing mastitis in dairy herds. The colonization of dairy cows and subsequent contamination of raw milk by S. aureus, especially strains exhibiting multidrug resistance and biofilm-forming and toxin-producing abilities, remains an important issue for both dairy farmers and public health. In this study, we investigated the prevalence,...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:25
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the main contagious mastitis agents in cattle and can express a set of antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence-associated genes that explain the wide range of outcomes of intramammary infections. Staphylococcus aureus strains are heterogeneous: their different resistance and virulence patterns, associated with host-level factors and...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Dissemination of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, often on plasmids, leads to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, which is a major problem for animal and public health. Bacterial conjugation is the primary route of AR gene transfer in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Significant gaps in knowledge about which gastrointestinal communities and host factors promote plasmid...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:36
Pathogenic microorganisms use various mechanisms to conserve energy in host tissues and environmental reservoirs. One widespread but often overlooked means of energy conservation is through the consumption or production of molecular hydrogen (H2). Here, we comprehensively review the distribution, biochemistry, and physiology of H2 metabolism in pathogens. Over 200 pathogens and pathobionts carry...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Hani El Kadri, Teyfik Celen, Alaa Alaizoki, Madeleine Smith, Helen OnyeakaAbstractLow-temperature long-time (LTLT) cooking may lead to risk of potential survival of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens in cooked meat. In this study, the effect of LTLT cooking on C. perfringens was investigated at temperatures commonly used by caterers. Brain heart infusion broth (BHIB)...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:29
Arabic gum has an interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Arabic gum can be used as a natural emulsifier and egg substitution in vegan mayonnaise. The manufacture of mayonnaise with Arabic gum was useful in controlling the development of rancidity. Abstract The main factors affecting the spoilage of mayonnaise are lipid oxidation and microbial contamination. Therefore, the...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:29
Many laboratories sampling foods for Salmonella are interested only in presence or absence of Salmonella, so only one colony may be selected. The objectives of this study were to use two selective enrichment broths and two selective agar plating media for Salmonella recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcass rinsates and evaluate these media combinations on Salmonella serotypes...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:28
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:26
ABSTRACT The current vaccines against brucellosis, namely Brucella abortus strains 19 and RB51, prevent infection in animals but pose potential risks like virulence and attenuation reversal. In this milieu, although subunit vaccination using a single potent immunogen of B. abortus, e.g. BP26 or Omp25 or L7/L12 etc., appears as a safer alternative, nonetheless it confers inadequate protection...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Fresh produce contaminated with human pathogens may result in foodborne disease outbreaks that cause a significant number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and death episodes affecting both public health and the agribusiness every year. The ability of these pathogens to survive throughout the food production chain is remarkable. Using a genetic approach, we observed that leaf colonization by...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp), a major food-borne pathogen, is responsible for severe infections such as gastroenteritis and septicemia, which may be accompanied by life-threatening complications. While studies have evaluated factors that affect the virulence of the pathogen, none have investigated the interaction of Vp with gut microbiota. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the effect of...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Epigenetic agents, histone deacetylase inhibitor (SAHA) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-Aza), were added to Czapek-Dox medium to trigger the chemical diversity of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor XS-20090066. By HPLC and 1H NMR analysis, the diversity of fungal secondary metabolites was significantly increased compared with the control. With the aid of MS/MS-based molecular...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
The encouraging safety and immunogenicity of ETVAX and benefit of dmLT adjuvant in young children support its further assessment for protective efficacy in children in enterotoxigenic E coli-endemic areas.
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Deciphering the evolutionary history of pathogenic bacteria and their near neighbors may help to understand the genetic or ecological bases which led to their pathogenic behavior. The Brucellaceae family comprises zoonotic pathogenic species belonging to the genus Brucella as well as the environmental genus Ochrobactrum for which some species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. Here, we...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
An estimated 700 000 soldiers belonging to the Union Army and the Confederate States Army died in the 1861–65 American Civil War.1 Many camp epidemics attributed to dysentery, typhoid fever, measles, smallpox, cholera, and malaria spread quickly among the troops, affecting the Confederate Army more and surely to some extent shaping the outcome of the war.2
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of diarrhoea in children in low-income and middle-income countries (children's diarrhoea) and international travellers (travellers' diarrhoea).1,2 ETEC strains produce heterogeneous fimbrial or non-fimbrial adhesins (of which there are >25), which attach bacteria to host receptors for colonisation in human small intestines and deliver...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (luk-pv) is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the pv1, mecA, and nuc genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from anterior nares and superficial infection sites of skin in a slum population of West Bengal, India. Expression level of pv1 gene was also analysed. Twenty-two...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wukari, Taraba state, Nigeria, to determine the prevalence of Brucella antibodies and the risk factors associated with brucellosis in indigenous breeds of goats. A total of 386 goats were sampled from three political wards: Puje, Avyi, and Hospital: harvested sera samples were subjected to Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). GraphPad Prism version 7.03 for...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
General hygienic parameters and selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk cheeses at the retail level were evaluated. A total of 245 raw milk cheese samples were analysed for total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and staphylococcal enterotoxin. Results showed only 3 samples that were not compliant with...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:25
Foodborne infections, mainly those attributable to Campylobacter, are one of the most common causes of intestinal diseases, of bacterial origin in humans. Although the vehicle of transmission is not always identified, the most common vehicles are poultry, poultry products, and contaminated water. In Southern Benin, an excessive use of poultry manure as fertilizer in vegetable farms was noted....
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:12
From 2015 to 2017, 11 confirmed brucellosis cases were reported in New York City, leading to 10 Brucella exposure risk events (Brucella events) in 7 clinical laboratories (CLs). Most patients had traveled to countries where brucellosis is endemic and presented with histories and findings consistent with brucellosis. CLs were not notified that specimens might yield a hazardous organism, as the...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:12
Piperacillin-tazobactam (P/T) is a β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination frequently used in the hospital setting. Etest is a gradient diffusion method that represents an alternative to broth microdilution (BMD) for performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the performance of the new P/T Etest compared to that of BMD following U....
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:11
Several commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of phase II IgG or IgM antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were compared. In addition, an indirect immunofluorescence test was used as a confirmation test. In all, 70 serum samples for IgG and 43 serum samples for IgM were tested. The ELISAs showed large differences in sensitivity and specificity, which...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:08
Author(s): Junchang Feng, Zhongliang Cai, Yongyan Chen, Haoyong Zhu, Xulu Chang, Xianfeng Wang, Zhen Liu, Jianxin Zhang, Guoxing NieAbstractMicrobial exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactococcus have been found to have an important role in the probiotic activity of this bacterium; however, the immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities have not been fully explored in aquaculture. In the present...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:08
Author(s): Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Milena Carlot, Shadi Pakroo, Armin Tarrah, Angiolella Lombardi, Helena Santiago, Viviana Corich, Alessio GiacominiAbstractThe microbiota of cheese whey from four dairy companies located in the North-East of Italy was evaluated during winter and spring using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. Although no significant differences were observed (p...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:07
Author(s): Zhen Jia, Weijuan Bai, Xiaoting Li, Ting Fang, Changcheng LiAbstractThis study was aimed at investigating the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in irradiated and raw salmon. Mathematical models were developed to describe the growth of L. monocytogenes with or without the presence of the native microbiota in salmon. At temperatures between 4 and 35 °C, the growth data...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:01
Author(s): Nguyen Nhat Minh Phuong, Thien Trung Le, John Van Camp, Katleen RaesAbstractMicrobial safety in food products is not always adequately controlled. Chemical antimicrobials which are recognized as hazards to human health are gradually replaced by natural antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria by the...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:58
LWT
Author(s): Alonzo A. Gabriel, Israel N. NepomucenoAbstractVirgin Coconut Oil (VCO) consumption as functional food has recently become popular together with increasing evidence of its health benefits. However, cold-pressed VCO types are highly manually produced without the application of kill step to ensure safety from possible pathogenic contaminants. The study therefore determined the...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:58
LWT
Author(s): Katy A. Bermudez-Beltrán, Juliet K. Marzal-Bolaño, Aura B. Olivera-Martínez, Paula J.P. EspitiaAbstractThis study aimed to prepare a Petit Suisse cheese added with cape gooseberry and supplemented with moringa leaf powder and gelatin. Formulations were: control formulation (F1); a product with 3% gelatin (F2); and product with 3% gelatin and 2% moringa (F3). Microbiological analyses...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:45
ABSTRACT Preventing microbial contamination of non-food products is a major area of industrial microbiology where preservatives are used to stop microbial growth. However, microorganisms occasionally overcome product preservation, causing recalls and the implementation of multiple procedures to prevent further contamination. Correct reporting of microbial contamination in non-food industrial...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:44
Insect tea is a unique beverage that is native to Southwestern China and traditionally produced by local farmers in an elaborate process. It consists of insect larvae excrements that are commonly obtained from meal moths (Pyralis farinalis Linnaeus 1758) reared on a specific plant-based diet. We have reconstructed the whole production process under laboratory conditions in order to obtain...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:44
The role of agriculture in the transfer of drug resistant pathogens to humans is widely debated and poorly understood. Escherichia coli is a valuable indicator organism for contamination and carriage of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foods. Whilst whole genome sequences for E. coli from animals and associated meats are common, sequences from produce are scarce. Produce may acquire drug...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:43
Loranthus europaeus is a well-known and important medicinal plant, with a long history of traditional medicine use. Several studies showed that it contains many bioactive compounds with a wide range of pharmacological effects. In light of these past researches, L. europaeus were chosen to consider its potential antimicrobial action. To this aim, different protocols were performed to selectively...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:38
Exoelectrogens are able to transfer electrons extracellularly, enabling them to respire on insoluble terminal electron acceptors. Extensively studied exoelectrogens like Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella oneindensis are Gram-negative, but more recently it has been reported that Gram-positive bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis also exhibit the ability to transfer...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:38
The physiological relevance of bacterial iron efflux has only recently been appreciated. The Bacillus subtilis P1B4-type ATPase PfeT (peroxide-induced ferrous efflux transporter) was one of the first iron efflux pumps to be characterized, and cells lacking pfeT accumulate high levels of intracellular iron. The pfeT promoter region has binding sites for both PerR, a peroxide sensing Fur-family...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:38
We identified fosA3 at a rate of 2.6% in 310 Salmonella isolates from food animals in Guangdong province, China. The fosA3 gene was genetically linked to diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including mcr-1, blaCTX-M-14/55, oqxAB, and rmtB. These gene combinations were embedded in heterogeneous fosA3-containing multidrug resistance regions on the transferable ST3-IncHI2 and F33:A–:B...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:38
The worldwide spread of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales is a serious threat to public health. Here, we compared the MICs of plazomicin, amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against 303 multinational multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. We followed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and applied CLSI breakpoints as well as those of the European Committee on...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:37
Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) colonize the intestine asymptomatically from where they can breach into the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections, especially in heavily colonized patients. Despite the clinical relevance of MRE colonization levels, we know little about how they vary in hospitalized patients and the clinical factors that determine those levels. Here, we...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:37
In this study, we aimed to assess the in vitro susceptibility to GSK656 among multiple mycobacterial species and to investigate the correlation between leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) sequence variations and in vitro susceptibility to GSK656 among mycobacterial species. A total of 187 mycobacterial isolates, comprising 105 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and 82 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:37
Author(s): David Buckley, Bassam A. Annous, Bryan VinyardAbstractThe diverse food safety issues facing developed countries require innovations to current food safety intervention technologies and chemistries. Several innovations have been made to highly efficacious treatments, such as chlorine dioxide (ClO2). However, many of the innovations stop short of evaluating actual yield, practical...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:29
Food poisoning risk related to the consumption of contaminated food with known foodborne pathogens or antibiotic‐resistant bacteria is currently a serious threat for public health. Thus, pathogenic Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus strains are considered as one of the major cause of food‐borne diseases in hospitals. The present study aims to determine the prevalence and the antibiotic...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:29
Industrial aerobic fermentation of natural black olives. Summary The fermentation of natural black olives is currently carried out under anaerobic conditions. This work investigates the aerobic fermentation of this product in tanks containing 16 000 kg of Empeltre olives during two seasons. The microorganisms in brines were yeasts in all cases, whereas lactic acid bacteria growth was only...

Pages