Bacterial pathogens

Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Hanxu Pan, Kai Dong, Lei Rao, Liang Zhao, Xiaomeng Wu, Yongtao Wang, Xiaojun LiaoAbstractEscherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome in humans, has been implicated in large food-borne outbreaks all over the world. When confronted with harsh environmental stresses, it can enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, which...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Shymaa Enany, Samira Zakeer, Ahmed A. SayedAbstractKlebsiella pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium that is responsible for a wide range of infections in humans. An increased rate of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae has been noted in the last two decades. The association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence is an important topic of study. Genomic tools...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Charlotte Genestet, Elisabeth Hodille, Jean-Luc Berland, Christophe Ginevra, Juliet E. Bryant, Florence Ader, Gérard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu, Lyon TB study groupAbstractObjectivesRapid and correct determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug-susceptibility is a challenge for tuberculosis management. Phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing (DST) remains the reference method but...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Amila Srilal Nawarathna Weligala Pahalagedara, Steve Flint, Jon Palmer, Gale Brightwell, Tanushree Barua GuptaAbstractAntimicrobial resistance continues to grow on a global scale affecting environment, humans, animals and food systems. The use of natural antimicrobials has been favoured over synthetic molecules in food preservation due to concerns over adverse health effects of...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Priscila R. Guerra, Gang Liu, Sebastien Lemire, Arkadiusz Nawrockic, Egle Kudirkiene, Jakob Møller-Jensen, John E. Olsen, Lotte JelsbakAbstractPolyamines are small cationic amines required for modulating multiple cell process, including cell growth and DNA and RNA stability. In Salmonella polyamines are primarily synthesized from L-arginine or L-ornithine. Based on a previous study,...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Tooraj Mehdizadeh, Hossein Tajik, Ali Mojaddar Langroodi, Rahim Molaei, Alireza MahmoudianAbstractThe aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and chitosan-starch (CH-S) composite film incorporated with Thymus kotschyanus essential oil (TEO) on the shelf-life of beef during storage period of 21 days at 4 °C. The physico-mechanical...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Anna PsaroulakiAbstractQ fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Greece. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease in Greece through the operation of the national reference centre for Q fever.A total of 5397 sera were received from febrile patients under the suspicion of Q fever infection during a 13 years period (2001-20013). A...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Mahmoud Ge. Zayda, Yoshimitsu Masuda, Ahmed M. Hammad, Ken-ichi Honjoh, Abdelrahman M. Elbagory, Takahisa MiyamotoAbstractWe investigated the characteristics of S. aureus isolates causing bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM), and their genetic relatedness with the isolates obtained from Egyptian cheese. Twenty-five S. aureus isolates were identified from 150 SCM milk and 75 cheese samples...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Leonardo Acuña, Natalia Corbalan, Marcos Quintela-Baluja, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, Augusto BellomioAbstractBacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides synthesised ribosomally. One of the main drawbacks of bacteriocins as food biopreservative agents is their restricted action spectrum. To obtain a broad-spectrum bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacterium, we engineered a fusion protein...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Sara Ceballos, Carmen Aspiroz, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Myriam Zarazaga, Carmen Torres, Spanish study group on clinical LA-MRSAAbstractLivestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant Staphyloccoccus aureus (MRSA) of lineage CC398 is an emerging clone causing human infections, although they are most commonly found in pigs. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Johannes Hamel, Yanchao Zhang, Nicole Wente, Volker KrömkerAbstractNon-S. aureus staphylococci (NAS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens from bovine milk and can cause intramammary infections (IMI). They can also be found in teat canals, on bovine skin and in cows’ environment, which may lead to unnoticed contamination of milk samples. The aim of this study was to investigate...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Elisabetta Razzuoli, Walter Vencia, Paola Modesto, Giulia Franzoni, Silvia Dei Giudici, Erica Parisi, Angelo Ferrari, Massimo AmadoriAbstractGut is often subject to infection by different pathogens like Y. enterocolitica. To date, biotypes (BTs) 1A have been considered as non-pathogenic, because they do not express plasmid of virulence pYV; however, BTs 1A strains present other...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): J.L. Banach, H. van Bokhorst-van de Veen, L.S. van Overbeek, P.S. van der Zouwen, M.H. Zwietering, H.J. van der Fels-KlerxAbstractFresh leafy greens like lettuce can be consumed raw and are susceptible to food-borne pathogens if they become contaminated. Recently, the number of reported pathogenic foodborne outbreaks related to leafy greens has increased. Therefore, it is important to...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Kyle Ganz, Etsuko Yamamoto, Kate Hardie, Christine Hum, Hussein Hussein, Annie Locas, Marina SteeleAbstractA profile of the microbial safety of cheese in Canada was established based on the analysis of 2955 pasteurized and raw-milk cheeses tested under Canada's National Microbiological Monitoring Program (NMMP) and 2009 raw-milk cheeses tested under the Targeted Survey Program. 97.8%...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Chris Boulias, Farooq Ismail, Chetan P. PhadkeAbstractIntroductionIn patients taking warfarin, the level of anticoagulation status using the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is one consideration before botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections; however, there is wide diversity in physician approaches and preferences in using INR status and the INR cut-off values to determine...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Joseph K.C. TsuiAbstractBotulinum toxin (BoNT) has become a therapeutic agent for a large variety of medical conditions. It is a symptomatic treatment and in most cases requires repeat injections at regular intervals. The first session is crucial in establishing rapport between the physician and the patient to ensure a continuity of treatment on a long term basis. Since the clinical...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:27
The aim of this study was to investigate if HtrA is responsible for differences in adherence and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni towards human and chicken cell lines. Gentamicin protection assays were performed with either human Caco‐2 or chicken 2G4 cells using C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 to compare the adhesion and invasion rates towards these two cell types. The results revealed significant...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:27
Aim The current study was conducted to determine the incidence, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes of Vibrio strains isolated from ready‐to‐eat shrimps in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria. Methods and Results A total of 1440 ready‐to‐eat shrimp's samples were obtained from open markets from November 2016 to October 2017 and analysed using standard culture‐based procedures. Overall, our result...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:26
A study was undertaken to develop a user‐friendly, software tool (ValT) for validation of predictive models based on the acceptable prediction zones (APZ) method. ValT was developed in Excel and was demonstrated using a newly developed growth model for Salmonella and chicken skin. The model provided acceptable predictions when the proportion (p) of residuals in the APZ was ≥ 0.70 and there were...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:35
by Tania Henríquez, Juan Carlos Salazar, Massimiliano Marvasi, Ajit Shah, Gino Corsini, Cecilia S. Toro In recent years, multidrug resistance of Shigella strains associated with genetic elements like pathogenicity islands, have become a public health problem. The Shigella resistance locus pathogenicity island (SRL PAI) of S. flexneri 2a harbors a 16Kbp region that contributes to the multidrug...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:35
by Jamie L. Burgess, Heather B. Case, R. Alan Burgess, Nicholas E. Dickenson Type three secretion systems (T3SS) are complex nano-machines that evolved to inject bacterial effector proteins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Many high-priority human pathogens rely on one or more T3SSs to cause disease and evade host immune responses, underscoring the need to better understand the...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Ganyu Gu, Samantha Bolten, Joseph Mowery, Yaguang Luo, Connor Gulbronson, Xiangwu NouAbstractChemical sanitizers are commonly used for fresh produce washing to reduce potential presence of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and to prevent cross-contamination. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens, including Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli,...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Jocelyn Medina-Gudiño, Andres Rivera-Garcia, Liliana Santos-Ferro, Juan C. Ramirez-Orejel, Lourdes T. Agredano-Moreno, Luis F. Jimenez-Garcia, David Paez-Esquiliano, Sandra Martinez-Vidal, Eduardo Andrade-Esquivel, Jose A. Cano-BuendiaAbstractNeutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW) was tested in vitro and on artificially contaminated eggs against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica or...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:30
LWT
Author(s): Padmanabha Reddy Velugoti, Saurabh Kumar, Lalit Kumar Bohra, Vijay K. Juneja, Harshavardhan ThippareddiAbstractInhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by buffered calcium, potassium, and sodium citrates (Ca-Cit, K-Cit, and Na-Cit, respectively) during exponential cooling of non-cured and cured pork was evaluated. Antimicrobials were added to a base...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:27
Scope Urolithin A (UA) is a gut‐derived metabolite from ellagic acid found in pomegranates, berries and nuts can down‐regulate cell proliferation and migration. Cell proliferation and cell motility require actin reorganization which is under control of ras‐related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and p21 protein‐activated kinase 1 (PAK1). The present study explored whether Urolithin A can...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:26
Many pathogenic bacteria use different types of thermosensors to sense increased temperature once inside the host. In this review, we are describing the identification of protein, DNA and RNA thermosensors that took place around 20 years ago. In particular, we describe the events leading to the discovery of the prfA thermosensor in Listeria monocytogenes (depicted). Abstract An outstanding...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:26
Teichoic acids are a diverse class of molecules on the surface of Gram‐positive bacteria known to play important roles in fitness, virulence and bacteriophage susceptibility. A significant level of structural and constitutional heterogeneity exists within the Listeria genus, and it is this variation which serves as a basis for serotyping. Here, we elaborate on recent findings in the Listeria...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:26
While exposure to high levels of toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic is only experienced in a handful of special habitats and ecosystems, Listeria and other Gram‐positive bacteria have evolved an impressively diverse array of genetic tools for acquiring enhanced tolerance to such metals. Here we summarize this fascinating collection of resistance determinants in Listeria monocytogenes and...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:24
The whole-cell bioreporters based on the cop-operon sensing elements have been proven specifically useful in the assessment of bioavailable copper ions in water environments. In this study, a series of experiments was conducted to further improve the sensitivity and robustness of bioreporters. First, an Escherichia coli △copA△cueO△cusA mutant with three copper transport genes knocked out was...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:24
Contamination of edible produce leaves with human bacterial pathogens has been associated with serious disease outbreaks and has become a major public health concern affecting all aspects of the market, from farmers to consumers. While pathogen populations residing on the surface of ready-to-eat produce can be potentially removed through thorough washing, there is no disinfection technology...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:24
Intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin can occur through various routes. Foodborne botulism results after consumption of food in which botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia (i.e., Clostridium botulinum or strains of Clostridium butyricum type E or Clostridium baratii type F) have replicated and produced botulinum neurotoxin. Infection of a wound with C. botulinum and in situ production of...
Sat, 01/25/2020 - 03:24
Rats are a reservoir of human- and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the composition of the natural S. aureus population in wild and laboratory rats is largely unknown. Here, 144 nasal S. aureus isolates from free-living wild rats, captive wild rats and laboratory rats were genotyped and profiled for antibiotic resistances and human-specific...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:35
by Sarah Ben Maamar, Adam J. Glawe, Taylor K. Brown, Nancy Hellgeth, Jinglin Hu, Ji-Ping Wang, Curtis Huttenhower, Erica M. Hartmann The decades-long global trend of urbanization has led to a population that spends increasing amounts of time indoors. Exposure to microbes in buildings, and specifically in dust, is thus also increasing, and has been linked to various health outcomes and to...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:34
Clostridium perfringens causes severe gastrointestinal diseases, which include necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, a deadly disease worldwide. We report here the draft genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens strain TAMU, which was used in developing an NE chicken challenge model. This C. perfringens TAMU genome sequence will aid in advancing potential intervention strategies to reduce NE...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:34
The complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH003, isolated from retail chicken, was determined using PacBio and Illumina technologies. The assembled genome is 1,743,985 bp (G+C content of 30.3%). Genome annotation revealed several genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance factors, including a type VI secretion system, cytolethal distending toxins, and a multidrug efflux system.
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Junjie Nie, Zhixue Yu, Defu Yao, Fan Wang, Chunhua Zhu, Kaihui Sun, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yueling ZhangAbstractThe histone deacetylase, sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), plays an essential role in the regulation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function and inflammation in mammals. However, the specific role of SIRT6 in invertebrate immunity has not been reported. Here, we characterized for the...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Gülden Göksen, Maria José Fabra, H. Ibrahim Ekiz, Amparo López-RubioAbstractThe aim of this work was to develop novel active edible electrospun coatings with antimicrobial properties through the encapsulation of essential oils (EOs) from two widely used spices (Laurus nobilis and Rosmarinus officinalis) for inactivating or reducing spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Firstly, EOs...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Yi Li, Leyi Zhang, Yuqin Hu, Chengji Hong, Airong Xie, Yuejin Wu, Zhihui, Shangguan, Lingling Mei, Biao Zhou, Yanjun Zhang, Lei FangAbstractPathogenic Cronobacter species are responsible for life-threatening illness in neonates. A ten-year comprehensive survey was conducted to examine the population structure and antimicrobial resistant patterns of Cronobacter isolates from food (n=78...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:26
Populations of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae consist of dozens of distinct lineages, with primarily (but not exclusively) members of the pandemic generating (PG) lineage capable of causing the diarrheal disease cholera. Assessing composition and temporal dynamics of such populations requires extensive isolation efforts and thus only rarely covers large geographic areas or timeframes exhaustively...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:24
Increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance in skin and soft tissue infections is a concerning public health challenge currently facing medical science. A combinatory, broad spectrum biocidal antiseptic has been developed (“ASP”) as a topically applied solution to potential resistant and polymicrobial infected wounds that may be encountered in this context. The ASP-105 designate was evaluated...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:24
Poultry is a major reservoir for the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni inhabits the poultry gastrointestinal tract as a part of the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate both the survival of C. jejuni and the changes in the population dynamics of the cecal microbiome during an in vitro C. jejuni inoculation in the presence or absence of the functional metabolites of...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:24
Yersinia enterocolitica, a zoonotic foodborne pathogen, is able to withstand low temperatures. This psychrotrophic ability allows it to multiply in food stored in refrigerators. However, little is known about the Y. enterocolitica cold response. In this study, isolate-specific behavior at 4°C was demonstrated and the cold response was investigated by examining changes in phenotype, gene...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:24
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections, as well as food poisoning. This bacterium is resistant to antimicrobial agents and can survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to measure the uptake and release of amino acids by S. aureus at mid-exponential and stationary phases of growth following exposure to a...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
In contrast to the prevailing arguments presented in the current review, the incidence of neutralising antibody (NAb) formation is not a significant issue for any of the present type A therapeutic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) products. Furthermore, clinical non-responsiveness is poorly correlated with the presence of NAbs. The overriding evidence supports the view that the rate of NAb formation is...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
We appreciate the commentary on our article by Foster and Beard, both employees of Ipsen [...]
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
Cystoscopic onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNTA) intradetrusor injection is an efficient and durable modality for treating sensory bladder disorders. However, the inconvenience of using the cystoscopic technique and anesthesia, and the adverse effects of direct needle injection (e.g., haematuria, pain, and infections) have motivated researchers and clinicians to develop diverse injection-free procedures...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:35
l-Serine is a nonessential amino acid and a key intermediate in several relevant metabolic pathways. In bacteria, the major source of l-serine is the phosphorylated pathway, which comprises three enzymes: d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH; SerA), phosphoserine amino transferase (PSAT; SerC), and l-phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP; SerB). The Brucella abortus genome encodes two PGDHs (SerA-1...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:35
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, meningitis, or abortion. Listeria induces its internalization (entry) into some human cells through interaction of the bacterial surface protein InlB with its host receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase. InlB and Met promote entry through stimulation of localized actin polymerization and exocytosis. How actin cytoskeletal...

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