Bacterial pathogens

Sat, 12/26/2020 - 00:00
Effective alternatives to antibiotics for alleviating symptoms of acute infections may be appealing to patients and enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Cranberry-based products are already in wide use for symptoms of acute urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this review was to identify and critically appraise the supporting evidence. Methods: The protocol was registered on PROSPERO. Searches...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Anupa Anirudhan, Victor Tosin Okomoda, Mat Taib Mimi Iryani, Yosie Andriani, Mohd Effendy Abd Wahid, Min Pau Tan, Muhd Danish-Daniel, Li Lian Wong, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku-Muhammad, Wen Jye Mok, Patrick Sorgeloos, Yeong Yik Sung Plants and herbal extracts are indispensable for controlling the spread of disease-causing bacteria, including those that infect aquatic organisms used in...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Cristina Serra-Castelló, Anna Jofré, Nicoletta Belletti, Margarita Garriga, Sara Bover-Cid Food safety is often based on the application of several preservative (hurdle) factors whose combination must be smartly selected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lactate and diacetate on the high pressure processing (HPP) inactivation of three L. monocytogenes strains...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Xiaojing Tian, Qianqian Yu, Lele Shao, Wladimir Silva-Vera, Xingmin Li, Ruitong Dai In this study, the high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2000 mRNA sequencing technique was used to investigate the transcriptome response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 exposed to ohmic heating (OH) and water bath heating (WB). Compared to untreated samples, a total of 293, 516, and 498 genes showed differential...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Junjie Li, Yameng Li, Yifeng Ding, Chenxi Huang, Yu Zhang, Jia Wang, Xiaohong Wang Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne diseases and can cause severe economic loss. Increased antibiotic resistance, particularly of multidrug-resistant strains, has led to the use of phages as substitute agents. However, bacteriophages are usually sensitive to harsh environments. At...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Zengfeng Zhang, Shoukui He, Baowei Yang, Chunlei Shi, Yanhong Liu, Xianming Shi The recent emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) foodborne bacteria is posing a huge threat to food safety and public health. In this study, we reported the genome features of an XDR Salmonella Indiana isolate (SJTUF87912v2) recovered from a chicken carcass in 2012 in Guangdong, China. This isolate...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Hui-Erh Chai, Shiowshuh Sheen High pressure processing (HPP) technique combined with food-grade antimicrobials, i.e. allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, a major compound in mustard oil) and acetic acid (AA, a key component in vinegar), is a promising preservative hurdle system for meat industries to reduce foodborne pathogens. With the addition of AITC and AA, the hydrostatic pressure level...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Masaru Usui, Sho Tateno, Masanobu Onozaki, Naoaki Misawa, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Yutaka Tamura, Chie Nakajima A rapid method for the simultaneous detection of fluoroquinolone- and macrolide-resistant Campylobacter jejuni/coli in food products is long-awaited. In this study, we developed a DNA microarray-based method with primer extension, named CAMpylobacter Express Resistance Array (CAMERA...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Xiaoyi Ma, Cang wang, Mingcan Qin, Xiaopeng Tian, Shihui Fan, Hangtian Zu, Mingsheng Lyu, Shujun Wang Aeromonas hydrophila is a highly pathogenic bacteria that is naturally present in foods and the environment. A. hydrophila contamination can lead to economic losses to food industries and pose a critical threat to human's health. In this study, an unmodified DNA library was used for...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Xiaonan Zhao, Xiaomeng Yuan, Ming Hu, Yin Zhang, Lulu Li, Qing Zhang, Xuexia Yuan, Wenbo Wang, Yuqing Liu Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) constitutes a serious public health concern due to its ability to colonize and infect humans and animals. In this study,...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 06:08
Author(s): Michelle Qiu Carter, Antares Pham, Wen-Xian Du, Xiaohua He Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O145 is a major serotype associated with severe human disease. Production of Shiga toxins (Stxs), especially Stx2a, is thought to be correlated with STEC virulence. Since stx genes are located in prophages genomes, induction of prophages is required for effective Stxs production....
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 04:02
Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents one of the largest challenges for tuberculosis control and novel antimycobacterial drug development. A series of pyrano[3,2-b]indolone-based compounds was designed and synthesized via an original eight-step scheme. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis strains H37Rv and streptomycin-starved...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most poisonous known biological substances, and therefore the availability of reliable, easy-to use tools for BoNT detection are important goals for food safety and human and animal health. The reference method for toxin detection and identification is the mouse bioassay (MBA). An EndoPep-MS method for BoNT differentiation has been developed based on...
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 00:00
Pathogenic microorganisms produce various virulence factors, e.g., enzymes, cytotoxins, effectors, which trigger development of pathologies in infectious diseases. Cholera toxin (CT) produced by O1 and O139 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is a major cytotoxin causing severe diarrhea. Cholix cytotoxin (Cholix) was identified as a novel eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) adenosine-...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 12:00
More than 3 decades have passed since infection control was implemented nationwide in China in 1986. A comprehensive set of regulations and guidelines has been developed, and almost all hospitals have established infection control teams. However, compliance is variable and is usually suboptimal. The incidence of certain multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), including carbapenem-resistant...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 12:00
Background Considering the increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in China, this study aimed to establish the in vitro effectiveness of imipenem/relebactam (IMI/REL) on clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates derived from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), respiratory tract infections (RTIs), and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in China between 2015 and 2018. Methods In...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella has increased dramatically in the past decade. To track the evolutionary trend of ciprofloxacin resistance-encoding genetic elements during this period, we surveyed the prevalence of Salmonella in food products in Shenzhen, China, during the period of 2012 to 2017 and performed whole-genome sequencing and genetic analysis of 566...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 10:02
The function of cvpA, a bacterial gene predicted to encode an inner membrane protein, is largely unknown. Early studies in E. coli linked cvpA to Colicin V secretion and recent work revealed that it is required for robust intestinal colonization by diverse enteric pathogens. In enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), cvpA is required for resistance to the bile salt deoxycholate (DOC). Here, we carried...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
by Rafika Indah Paramita, Erni Juwita Nelwan, Fadilah Fadilah, Editha Renesteen, Nelly Puspandari, Linda Erlina Escherichia coli are one of the commonest bacteria causing bloodstream infection (BSI). The aim of the research was to identify the serotypes, MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Type), virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolated from bloodstream infection hospitalized...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common mastitis-causing bacteria in dairy cows. It is associated with reduced production performance in animals and with huge financial losses for the dairy industry worldwide. An accurate and sensitive method for the early diagnosis and identification of Staph. aureus in milk samples is essential. The present study aimed to establish a closed-tube...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens causing intramammary infections in dairy herds. Consequently, virulence factors, pathobiology, and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains have been widely assessed through the years. Nevertheless, not much has been described about the epidemiology of Staph. aureus strains from bulk tank milk (BTM) and adherences on milking...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
Staphylococcus aureus can elicit mild to more severe degrees of mastitis in cattle, depending on the response of the host's immune system and the virulence factors of the specific isolate. Several virulence factors are controlled by a global regulatory system, designated accessory gene regulator (agr). Thus, the objective was to examine associations between different capsular and agr types and...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread foodborne pathogen that threatens human health. In particular, multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are emerging problems in modern health care, food safety, and animal health, which require the development of new antimicrobials to replace overused conventional antibiotics. Dairy products can potentially act...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
Bacteria alternate between being free-swimming and existing as members of sessile multicellular communities called biofilms. The biofilm lifecycle occurs in three stages: cell attachment, biofilm maturation, and biofilm dispersal. Vibrio cholerae biofilms are hyperinfectious, and biofilm formation and dispersal are considered central to disease transmission. While biofilm formation is well...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 08:04
The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic organelle encoded by many gram-negative bacteria that can be used to kill competing bacterial prey species in densely occupied niches. Some predatory species, such as Vibrio cholerae, use their T6SS in an untargeted fashion while in contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa assembles and...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection is considered an available alternative treatment for myofascial pain. However, its efficacy in treating masticatory myofascial pain syndrome (MMPS) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BTA injection into the affected muscles would significantly reduce pain and improve function, and to assess its efficacy, safety, and...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections can cause EHEC-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS) via its main virulent factor, Shiga toxins (Stxs). Complement has been reported to be involved in the progression of eHUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions of the most effective subtype of the toxin, Stx2a, with pivotal complement proteins C3b and C5. The study...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 00:00
The risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in surgical wards remains closely related to the type of surgery and procedures performed on patients. Those factors also condition the risk of various forms of clinical infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are most frequently (70–80% of cases) caused by the use of bladder catheter in the perioperative period....
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 22:10
This paper presents the first evidence of a heterodimer formation between the periplasmic domains of ToxR and ToxS, two main regulators of the cholera causative Vibrio cholerae. The interaction establishes a protection of ToxR against proteolysis. The atomic resolution structure of ToxRp shows an αβ‐fold followed by a long unstructured C‐terminal stretch which plays a significant role in the...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 16:00
Flagellar motility is considered an important virulence factor in different pathogenic bacteria. In Listeria monocytogenes the transcriptional repressor MogR regulates motility in a temperature-dependent manner, directly repressing flagellar- and chemotaxis genes. The only other bacteria known to carry a mogR homolog are members of the Bacillus cereus group, which includes motile species such as...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 16:00
PGLYRP1/Tag-7/PGRP-S is one of mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). Here, we demonstrate that human recombinant PGLYRP1/Tag-7/PGRP-S potentiates the response of murine macrophage-like ANA-1 cells and human macrophages to facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. PGLYRP1/Tag-7/PGRP-S binds to the surface of L. monocytogenes and other bacterial cells but has no...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 12:00
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to illustrate the relative pervasiveness of Borderline Oxacillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in community and food of animal origin and their relationship with other genetic determinants. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were subjected to E-test using the antibiotics: oxacillin, ceftriaxone,...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 08:02
by Diana Ibañez-Peinado, Maria Ubeda-Manzanaro, Antonio Martínez, Dolores Rodrigo The antimicrobial capability of chitosan from Tenebrio molitor as compared with chitosan from crustacean (Penaeus monodon) on different pathogenic microorganisms of concern in food safety was studied. The antimicrobial effect was tested at pH 5 and pH 6.2 and at two different initial concentrations (103 or 106 CFU/...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) show increasing therapeutic applications ranging from treatment of locally paralyzed muscles to cosmetic benefits. At first, in the 1970s, BoNT was used for the treatment of strabismus, however, nowadays, BoNT has multiple medical applications including the treatment of muscle hyperactivity such as strabismus, dystonia, movement disorders, hemifacial spasm, essential...
Tue, 12/22/2020 - 16:00
A total of 291 non-duplicate isolates of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) were collected from the fecal samples of patients with salmonellosis in Armenia and Georgia during 1996–2016. The isolates were tested for resistance to antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). The high prevalence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) and ESBL-producer phenotypes was detected among Salmonella...
Tue, 12/22/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella is an important food pathogen that can cause severe gastroenteritis with more than 600,000 deaths globally every year. Colistin (COL), a last-resort antibiotic, is ineffective in bacteria that carry a functional mcr-1 gene, which is often spread by conjugative plasmids. Our work aimed to understand the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates of Salmonella, as the frequency of...
Tue, 12/22/2020 - 16:00
Poultry has been one of the major contributors of Campylobacter related human foodborne illness. Numerous interventions have been applied to limit Campylobacter colonization in poultry at the farm level, but other strategies are under investigation to achieve more efficient control. Probiotics are viable microbial cultures that can establish in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the host animal...
Mon, 12/21/2020 - 16:00
Genetic plasticity promotes evolution and a vast diversity in Escherichia coli varying from avirulent to highly pathogenic strains, including the emergence of virulent hybrid microorganism. This ability also contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. These hybrid pathogenic E. coli (HyPEC) are emergent threats, such as O104:H4 from the European outbreak in 2011, aggregative...
Mon, 12/21/2020 - 00:00
In this first, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and feasibility of using kinematic tremor assessment to aid in the planning of muscle selection in a multicenter setting. Reproducibility of the planning technology to other clinical sites was explored. In this trial (NCT02207946), patients with upper-limb...
Sun, 12/20/2020 - 22:10
Aims To evaluate the applicability of the Mimosa tenuiflora and Eucalyptus urograndis pyroligneous acids (PAs) as alternative antiseptics in dairy goats. Methods and Results Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro using bacteria, as well as in vivo using goats, and the influence of PAs on the physicochemical parameters of fresh milk were examined. The cytotoxicity of PAs was evaluated in terms of...
Sun, 12/20/2020 - 22:10
Aims To investigate the effects of the lectin from Punica granatum sarcotesta (PgTeL) on growth, viability, cell structure, biofilm formation and chitinase activity of Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of PgTeL on the adhesion and invasion of human cells (HeLa) was determined. Methods and Results PgTeL showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on the strains Listeria...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 22:14
Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution and high levels of endemism in some regions, including the Middle East. In Iran, sheep and goats constitute a major part of the livestock population, often kept by small‐scale farmers for their own consumption and economic purposes. This investigation aimed at characterizing the Brucella spp. and biovars circulating in...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 22:11
Rapid and user‐friendly diagnostic tests are necessary for early diagnosis and immediate detection of diseases, particularly for on‐site screening of pathogenic microorganisms in aquaculture. In this study, we developed a dual‐sample microfluidic chip integrated with a real‐time fluorogenic loop‐mediated isothermal amplification assay (dual‐sample on‐chip LAMP) to simultaneously detect 10...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 22:09
Background The replacement of synthetic preservatives with their natural alternatives is a growing demand in the food industry, which has led to the development of novel methods such as encapsulation of plants essential oil with appropriate physicochemical stability, and antibacterial and organoleptic properties. This study aimed to prepare an optimal nanoemulsion of Thymus daenensis L. essential...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 08:02
M. Nüesch-Inderbinen et al. A nationwide outbreak of human listeriosis in Switzerland was traced to persisting environmental contamination of a cheese dairy with Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b, sequence type 6, cluster type 7488. Whole-genome sequencing was used to match clinical isolates to a cheese sample and to samples from numerous sites within the production environment.
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 08:02
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of global relevance that causes outbreaks and sporadic cases of listeriosis, acquired through the consumption of contaminated products, including milk or meat products and ready-to-eat meat products subjected to intensive handling. The objective of the present study was to classify L. monocytogenes isolated from various food-related sources in the...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Sanga Kang, Joshua T. Ravensdale, Ranil Coorey, Gary A. Dykes, Robert S. Barlow Detection and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from manufacturing beef is challenging and it may be affected by microbial changes during enrichment. This study was designed to understand population changes during enrichment of beef from an integrated (Samples A and B) and a...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype A inhibits neurotransmitter release by cleaving SNAP-25 and represents an established pharmaceutical for treating medical conditions caused by hyperactivity of cholinergic nerves. Oversecretion from non-neuronal cells is often also the cause of diseases. Notably, excessive release of inflammatory messengers is thought to contribute to diseases such as chronic...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
Salmonella Infantis carrying extended spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M-65 on a pESI-like megaplasmid has recently emerged in United States poultry. In order to determine the carriage rate and gene content variability of this plasmid in U.S. Salmonella Infantis, whole genome sequences of Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in the U.S. and internationally containing the pESI-like...
Sat, 12/19/2020 - 00:00
The present research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by octocoral-associated bacteria Bacillus sp. BO53 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327. The volatilome bioactivity of both bacteria species was evaluated against human pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumanni, and...

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