Bacterial pathogens

Fri, 08/21/2020 - 22:17
High‐pressure processing is among the most widely used nonthermal intervention to reduce pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in meat and meat products. However, resistance of pathogenic bacteria strains in meats at the current maximum commercial equipment of 600 MPa questions the ability of inactivation by its application in meats. Pathogens including Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Salmonelle, and...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 22:17
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is frequently found in the environment. It can easily enter food processing environments and contaminate food, potentially causing public health issues. Food business operators (FBOs) are responsible for the control of L. monocytogenes in the food processing environment, particularly in facilities producing ready‐to‐eat food. The design and...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the main pathogen of food-borne diarrheal in coastal areas. Through the study of pathogen characteristics of 1870 V. parahaemolyticus, the isolation rate of O4:KUT had increased significantly since 2013. In this study, we analyzed virulence, antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular, and epidemiological characteristics of a new serotype named O4:KUT2. O4:KUT2 strains had...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella is a common causative agent of enteric disease and is developing mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Probiotics, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and prebiotic fibers are a potential alternative to counteract this pathogen as they have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing its adhesion, reducing intestinal damage, and enhancing the host immune system. Furthermore,...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
HapR is designated as a high cell density quorum sensing master regulatory protein of Vibrio cholerae. It is a member of the TetR family protein and functions both as an activator and a repressor by directly communicating with cognate promoters, thus controlling the expression of a plethora of genes in a density-dependent manner. Molecular insights reveal the domain architecture and further...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 16:00
The processing and storage conditions of flour food inevitably pose environmental stress, which promote bacteria to enter a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. The existence of VBNC cells causes false-negative detection in traditional culture-based detection methods, resulting in food quality and safety issues. This study aimed at investigating the influence factors including nutrition, acid...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:03
Carbapenem and colistin antibiotics are often the last-resort treatment for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (1–3). Fortunately, most carbapenemase producers are susceptible to colistin, and many colistin-resistant strains have been reported to be sensitive to carbapenems (2–5). The present study is the first report of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain LM22-1 harboring blaNDM...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:02
The increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and lack of therapeutic options due to the scarcity of new antibiotics has sparked interest toward the use of intravenous fosfomycin against systemic CRE infections. We aimed to investigate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of fosfomycin against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella aerogenes. Time-kill studies and...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:02
The treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, especially New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria, is challenging. Although less common in the United States than some other carbapenemase producers, NDM-producing bacteria are a public health threat due to the limited treatment options available. Here, we report on the antibiotic susceptibility of...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:02
Erm proteins methylate a specific adenine residue (A2058, Escherichia coli coordinates) conferring macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotic resistance on a variety of microorganisms, ranging from antibiotic producers to pathogens. To identify the minimal motif required to be recognized and methylated by the Erm protein, various RNA substrates from 23S rRNA were constructed, and the...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Ahmed G. Abdelhamid, Ahmed E. Yousef Some Salmonella enterica serovars adapt effectively to low-water activity (low-aw) environments but this desiccation stress also induces collateral responses that have not been fully explored. Additionally, it is not known how long these responses are retained during refrigerated storage of the dehydrated pathogen. To investigate these issues, two S...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
The clinical effectiveness of the important β-lactam class of antibiotics is under threat by the emergence of resistance, mostly due to the production of acquired serine- (SBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) enzymes. To address this resistance issue, multiple β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations have been successfully introduced into the clinic over the past several decades. However, all of...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
Clostridium estertheticum and C. estertheticum -like spp. are obligate anaerobic psychrophiles causing “blown pack” spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed meat. The present study aimed at detecting and isolating these spoilage bacteria in fecal samples of cattle of different ages at the slaughterhouse level. One-hundred-and-two swab fecal samples were obtained and enriched anaerobically in pre-reduced...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
Prior efforts to model bacterial thermal inactivation in/on low-moisture foods generally have been based on isothermal and iso-moisture experiments and rarely included dynamic product and process variables. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test appropriate secondary models to quantify the effect of product temperature, product moisture, and process humidity on thermal inactivation of...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
The study used PCR to determine the molecular basis of the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of isolates of Salmonella by targeting genes encoding for carriage and persistence in the poultry.  A total of 1503 cecal samples from poultry were collected, 91 (6.1%) were positive for Salmonella spp. Ten different serotypes were detected from Salmonella isolates.  The study was also...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR (RT-PCR) molecular method and Crystal Diagnostic Xpress  ( CDx) immunoassay for detecting  Salmonella  and STEC in air samples collected from abattoirs in Texas. A total of 70 air samples were collected from two small and two large plants in the spring and summer season using a wall wetted cyclone (...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 00:01
Staphylococcus aureus constitutes a major food-borne pathogen, as well as one of the main causative agents of mastitis in dairy ruminants. This pathogen can produce a variety of extracellular toxins; these include the shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), exfoliative toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), hemolysins, and leukocidins. S. aureus expresses many virulence proteins, involved in evading...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 16:00
The carriage of both, heavy metal and antibiotic resistance appears to be a common trait in bacterial communities native to long-term contaminated habitats, including the Savannah River Site (SRS). There is widespread soil contamination at the SRS; a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility with long-term contamination from past industrial and nuclear weapons production activities. To...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria often leave limited or no treatment options. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) carrying plasmids between bacterial species by horizontal gene transfer represents an important mode of expansion of ARGs. Here, we demonstrate the application of Nanopore sequencing in a hospital setting for monitoring transfer and rapid...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 10:03
Symptomatic and asymptomatic infection with the diarrheal pathogen enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is associated with growth faltering in children in developing settings. The mechanism of this association is unknown, emphasizing a need for better understanding of the interactions between EAEC and the human gastrointestinal mucosa. In this study, we investigated the role of the...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 10:03
Enteric pathogens exploit chemical and nutrient signaling to gauge their location within a host and control expression of traits important for infection. Ethanolamine-containing molecules are essential in host physiology and play important roles in intestinal processes. The transcription factor EutR is conserved in the Enterobacteriaceae and is required for ethanolamine sensing and metabolism. In...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 02:03
With its ability to easily infect each step of food production chain, Salmonella spp. stands as one of the most important foodborne pathogens which impose threats against economy and human health by creating high morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Although sensitive screening and detection methodologies based on common conventional techniques have been developed for Salmonella spp., their long...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 22:21
Brucellosis is an important occupational disease, mainly among veterinarians, because of their frequent contact with sick animals, contaminated secretions and live attenuated anti‐Brucella vaccines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of accidental exposure to S19 and RB51 vaccine strains and occupational brucellosis among veterinarians registered to administer vaccinations in Minas...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 16:00
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) constantly evolves under host and environment pressures. The monitoring network is essential in assessing the epidemiology of S. aureus infections. A total of 555 S. aureus isolates were collected from five hospitals in three different geographical regions of China for the investigation of molecular characteristics, antibiotic resistance, virulence gene, and wall...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:03
Staphylococcus aureus and other coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. bind the Fc region of IgG antibodies through expression of protein A (SpA). These species have consequently been a source of false-positive signals in antibody-based assays designed to detect other target bacteria. Here, flow cytometry was used to study the influence of a number of factors on the SpA-mediated binding of single...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:03
The use of exogenous functional microorganisms to regulate biogenic amine (BA) content is a common approach in fermentation systems. Here, to better understand the microbial traits of succession trajectories in resource-based and biotic interference systems, the BA-related primary and secondary succession were tracked during industrial semidry Chinese rice wine (CRW) fermentation. Dominant...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:03
Interactions between Listeria monocytogenes and food-associated or environmental bacteria are critical not only for the growth but also for a number of key biological processes of the microorganism. In this regard, limited information exists on the impact of other microorganisms on the virulence of L. monocytogenes. In this study, the growth of L. monocytogenes was evaluated in a single culture...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:02
The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) includes a time-to-harvest interval following the application of noncompliant water to preharvest produce to allow for microbial die-off. However, additional scientific evidence is needed to support this rule. This study aimed to determine the impact of weather on the die-off rate of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on spinach and lettuce under field...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:02
Clinical surveillance of enteric pathogens like Salmonella is integral to track outbreaks and endemic disease trends. However, clinic-centered disease monitoring biases toward detection of severe cases and underestimates the incidence of self-limiting gastroenteritis and asymptomatic strains. Monitoring pathogen loads and diversity in municipal wastewater (MW) can provide insight into...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
by Lovasoa N. Randriantseheno, Anjanirina Rahantamalala, Ando L. Randrianierenana, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana Background Several tests are available for plague confirmation but bacteriological culture with Yersinia pestis strain isolation remains the gold standard according to the World Health Organization. However, this is a time consuming procedure; requiring specific...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
by Amanda Aparecida Seribelli, Marcelo Ferreira Cruz, Felipe Pinheiro Vilela, Miliane Rodrigues Frazão, Mario H. Paziani, Fernanda Almeida, Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Marcia R. von Zeska Kress, Marc W. Allard, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes gastroenteritis in many countries. However, in...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
All cells require Mg2+ to replicate and proliferate. The macrophage protein Slc11a1 is proposed to protect mice from invading microbes by causing Mg2+ starvation in host tissues. However, the Mg2+ transporter MgtB enables the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to cause disease in mice harboring a functional Slc11a1...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) represent a major mechanism that bacteria use to sense and respond to their environment. Prototypical TCSs are composed of a membrane-embedded histidine kinase, which senses an environmental stimulus and subsequently phosphorylates a cognate partner protein called a response regulator that regulates gene expression in a...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 08:02
Salmonella enterica is among the most important foodborne pathogens. In Ecuador, there is limited information about non-typhoidal S. enterica occurrence in raw meats, its serotype distribution, and antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we addressed this issue in 1095 retail fresh meats (chicken, pork, veal, lamb, beef, and turkey) in Quito by performing a traditional culture methodology and...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Ji Hyun Yoo, Ki Ho Baek, Ye Seul Heo, Hae In Yong, Cheorun Jo We investigated the bactericidal effect of clove oil and encapsulated atmospheric pressure plasma (EAP), individually or in combination, against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. The bactericidal effect of the combined treatment was also investigated in inoculated beef jerky. For both pathogens, clove oil...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
Escherichia coli O157:H7 entered into the Viable but Non Culturable (VBNC) state under salinity stress of 10 and 30% during production of salted silver carp. VBNC E. coli O157:H7 induced by NaCl stress during salted fish production continued to express its pathogenic genes of stx1, stx2, eae and hly. Abstract Many bacteria including Escherichia coli can enter into the viable but non‐culturable (...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
A microfluidic device was applied to enumerate Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in lettuce and beef samples. E. coli O157:H7 inoculated in lettuce and beef were collected with high efficiency by using filtration or two‐step centrifugation. This method could quantify target microbial cells within 1 hr. Abstract Quality assurance is one of the fundamental ways of preventing infections from foodborne...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most hazardous pathogens causing seafood‐borne diseases in the southern Fujian coast, China. From June to October 2016, a total of 250 samples were collected from retail markets in the Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou regions. Seventy‐seven V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, molecular typing was performed...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 10:02
Fluctuations in osmolarity are one of the most prevalent stresses to which bacteria must adapt, both hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions. Most bacteria cope with high osmolarity by accumulating compatible solutes (osmolytes) in the cytoplasm to maintain the turgor pressure of the cell. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophile, utilizes at least six compatible solute transporters for the uptake of...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 08:04
by Amanda L. Laverty, Sebastian Primpke, Claudia Lorenz, Gunnar Gerdts, Fred C. Dobbs Since plastics degrade very slowly, they remain in the environment on much longer timescales than most natural organic substrates and provide a novel habitat for colonization by bacterial communities. The spectrum of relationships between plastics and bacteria, however, is little understood. The first objective...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 06:22
Author(s): Marie Noel Mansour, Joseph Yaghi, André El Khoury, Arnaud Felten, Michel-Yves Mistou, Ali Atoui, Nicolas Radomski Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars are considered major causes of food poisoning and we performed this study because Salmonella is a burden in Lebanon. The present study investigated the ability of genomic information to predict serovar using a collection of...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 02:04
The problems of parasite resistance, as well as the toxic residues to most of the commercially available antipiroplasmic drugs severely weaken their effective, curative, and environmental safe employment. Therefore, it is clear that the development of treatment options for piroplasmosis is vital for improving disease treatment and control. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that targets...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:17
Listeria monocytogenes, a well‐known foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis, has the ability to persist in food processing environments due to its high adhesion ability in different surfaces, playing an important role in the food industry. The aim of this study was to assess how the main stressing conditions, usually observed in meat processing facilities (sanitizers, NaCl,...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:16
The dissemination and abundances of Vibrio species in aquatic environments are of interest, as some species cause emerging diseases in humans and in aquatic organisms like fish. It is suggested that Vibrio cholerae non‐O1 infections of Plecoglossus altivelis (‘ayu’) were spread to various parts of Japan through the annual transplantation of juvenile fish. To investigate this, we used genome‐aided...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:15
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, STM) is a leading cause of non‐typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) worldwide. The pathogenesis of NTS has been studied extensively using a streptomycin‐pretreated mouse colitis model with the limited numbers of laboratory S. Typhimurium strains. However, the pathogenicity of the clinically isolated S. Typhimurium (STMC) strains endemic in...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 16:00
The chemotherapeutic options for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are limited. Due to the multiple resistant MRSA, therapeutic failure has occurred frequently, even using antibiotics belonging to different categories in clinical scenarios, very recently. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between 11 antibiotics representing different mechanisms of action...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 14:07
Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is an important pathogen specific to avian species, which poses a serious threat to the poultry industry. The transmission of S. Pullorum occurs both horizontally and vertically but the airborne transmission of S. Pullorum has been neglected historically. In this study, the effects of aerosolized S. Pullorum on young chickens were investigated....
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Zhongguo Shan, Yanpeng Yang, Ning Guan, Xiaodong Xia, Weidong Liu The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has resulted in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, consequently, new antibacterial strategies or drugs with clear modes of action are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently widely considered as alternatives to antibiotics in the...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Mengyuan Qi, Ruoqing Zhao, Qingyan Liu, Haiyang Yan, Yan Zhang, Shiyi Wang, Yuan Yuan Inhibitory effects of three kinds of electric fields, high voltage electrostatic field (HVEF), alternating electric field (HVAEF) and prick electrostatic field (HVPEF) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were investigated in medium plates and food systems. The results showed that S. aureas was...
Sun, 08/16/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Ruixue Chang, Pramod Pandey, Yanming Li, Chandrasekar Venkitasamy, Zhao Chen, Rodrigo Gallardo, Bart Weimer, Michele Jay-Russell, Bart Weimer Poultry litter is used as soil amendment or organic fertilizer. While poultry litter is enriched with organic matter suitable for land, the presence of pathogens such as Salmonella in poultry litter is a concern. To investigate the effect of...

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