Bacterial pathogens

Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:35
Isoprenoids are an essential and diverse class of molecules, present in all forms of life, that are synthesized from an essential common precursor derived from either the mevalonate pathway or the nonmevalonate pathway. Most bacteria have one pathway or the other, but the Gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is unusual because it carries all the genes for both...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Zhiwei Li, Wenjuan Ma, Wanning Li, Yifeng Ding, Yu Zhang, Qile Yang, Jia Wang, Xiaohong WangAbstractSalmonella is a foodborne pathogen constantly threating public health. The widespread use of antibiotics and globalization of the food industry result in rapid growth of drug-resistance. Eggs contaminated by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella are one of the riskiest factors of...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): J.O. de Moraes, S.T. Hilton, C.I. MoraruAbstractThe main goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of antimicrobial films and Pulsed Light (PL) on inactivation of Listeria innocua on Cheddar cheese surface, and maintaining of product quality during refrigerated storage. The mechanical and antimicrobial properties of starch films (ASF) containing sodium...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Hao Cheng, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Zhenfeng Xie, Shengnan Tao, Yunxing Li, Li LiangAbstractThe combination of different antimicrobial agents might produce synergistic effects and has gained increasing interest. Interfacial engineering of emulsion systems has been developed to co-encapsulate and protect bioactive components with different solubility. In this study, peppermint oil and...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Liping Zhou, Tingwei Xu, Jicheng Yan, Xin Li, Yuqing Xie, Hao ChenAbstractThe konjac glucomannan (hereafter referred to simply as konjac) hydrogel has favorable gel-forming ability and swelling capacity, but the insufficient flexibility and poor water retention have limited its utilization. In this study, composite gels based on konjac and fish gelatin (FG) were prepared by alkali...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Jinru Chen, Yin WangAbstractSalmonella is a bacterial pathogen frequently involved in human gastrointestinal infections including those associated with low-moisture foods such as dehydrated food powders/spices, vegetable seeds, and tree nuts. The survival/persistence of Salmonella on low moisture foods and in dry environments is enhance by its ability in developing biofilms. This study...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:27
Aims This study was conducted to early detect the negative culture bacterial pathogens causing subclinical mastitis for the fast diagnosis of the disease and the reduction of some milk transmitted pathogenic bacteria to human consumers. Methods and Results A total of 171 positive California mastitis test (CMT) milk samples collected from asymptomatic dairy cows in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt were...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:25
Phage lytic proteins are promising antimicrobials that could complement conventional antibiotics and help to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria that cause important human and animal infections. Here, we report the characterization of endolysin LysRODI (encoded by staphylophage phiIPLA-RODI) and its application as a prophylactic mastitis treatment. The main properties of LysRODI were compared...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:24
The aim of this study was the assessment of the effect of time exposure, temperature, distance, and organic contaminants on radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) microbicidal effectiveness. The number of all examined bacteria decreased together with time exposure of RCI. The lowest recovery was obtained, both from the rubber surface (6.36 log CFU × cm–2) and steel (6.04 log CFU × cm–2) in the case...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:24
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a global health concern during the last decade. In spite of a high mortality rate in pregnant women with fulminant hepatitis, no antiviral drugs or licensed vaccine is available in India. HEV-protease is a pivotal enzyme responsible for ORF1 polyprotein processing leading to cleavage of the non-structural enzymes involved in virus replication. HEV-protease...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Machine learning has proven to be a powerful method to predict antimicrobial resistance (AMR) without using prior knowledge for selected bacterial species-antimicrobial combinations. To date, only species-specific machine learning models have been developed, and to the best of our knowledge, the inclusion of information from multiple species has not been attempted. The aim of this study...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Transition metals are essential for life, but are toxic when in excess. Metal ion intoxication may result from the mismetallation of essential metal-dependent enzymes with a non-cognate metal. To begin to identify enzymes and processes that are susceptible to mismetallation, we have selected for strains with increased resistance to Mn(II) and Co(II). In Bacillus subtilis, cells lacking the MntR...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive Firmicute that causes food-borne infections, in part due to its ability to use multiple strategies, including biofilm formation, to survive adverse growth conditions. As a potential way to screen for genes required for biofilm formation we harnessed the ability of bacteria to accumulate mutations in the genome over time, diverging the properties of...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Staphylococcus aureus infection poses a serious threat to public health, and antibiotic resistance has complicated the clinical treatment and limited the solutions available to solve this problem. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a promising strategy for microorganism inactivation. However, the mechanisms of microbial inactivation or resistance remain unclear. In this study, we treated S. aureus...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Antibiotic resistance continues to be an emerging threat both in clinical and environmental settings. Among the many causes, the impact of postchlorinated human wastewater on antibiotic resistance has not been well studied. Our study compared antibiotic susceptibility among Aeromonas spp. in postchlorinated effluents to that of the recipient riverine populations for three consecutive years...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a cattle-adapted S. enterica serovar causing both intestinal and systemic infection in its bovine host, and it is also a serious threat to human health. The present study aimed to determine the population structure of S. Dublin isolates obtained from Danish cattle herds and to investigate how cattle isolates relate to Danish human isolates, as well as to non-...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Alteromonas is a widely distributed genus of marine Gammaproteobacteria, with representatives shown to be key players in diverse processes, including biogeochemical cycling and biofouling of marine substrata. While Alteromonas spp. are early colonizers of copper-based antifouling paints on marine vessels, their mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. PacBio whole-genome sequencing of...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:35
Current California agricultural practices strive to comanage food safety and habitat conservation on farmland. However, the ecology of foodborne pathogens in wild bird populations, especially those avian species residing in proximity to fresh produce production fields, is not fully understood. In this repeated cross-sectional study, avifauna within agricultural lands in California were sampled...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Christina Charmpi, David Van der Veken, Emiel Van Reckem, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric LeroyAbstractAcidification level and temperature modulate the beneficial consortia of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) during meat fermentation. Less is known about the impact of other factors, such as raw meat quality and salting. These could for instance affect the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:29
Antibiotics are one of the most widely used types of drugs in pharmaceutics. However, efficiency of these drugs has decreased recently owing to the threat of antibiotic resistance. One of the important factors causing antibiotic resistance is the excessive use of antibacterials in animals. Therefore, detection of antibiotics in foods of animal origin is crucial. The aim of this study was to...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:28
A newly isolated Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage CJ01 was partially characterized and might be a potential biocontrol agent to improve food safety. Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen causing acute bacterial enteritis worldwide. Screening of novel bacteriophages as biocontrol tools to eliminate C. jejuni in food during pre‐ and postharvest is an emerging research field...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:26
Background Many foods contain proteins and polyphenols, but there is a poor understanding of the nature of the inhibitory effect of protein on the biologic activity of polyphenols. The inhibitory mechanism of the food protein lactoferrin on the antibacterial activity of oligomeric ellagitannin oenothein B (OeB) was investigated using fluorescence quenching, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:25
The study evaluated the antibacterial activity of chlorogenic acid (CA) against Salmonella Enteritidis S1, a foodborne pathogen in chilled fresh chicken. Its minimum inhibitory concentration for S. Enteritidis S1 was 2 mM. 1 MIC CA treatment reduced the viable count of S. Enteritidis S1 by 3 log cfu/g in chilled fresh chicken. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that CA induced the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:25
Brucellosis, caused by intracellular gram-negative pathogens of the genus Brucella, continues to be one of the most pandemic zoonotic diseases in most countries. At present, the therapeutic treatment of brucellosis relies on a combination of multiple antibiotics that involves a long course of treatment, easy relapse, and high side effects from the use of certain antibiotics (such as streptomycin...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:25
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes survives exposure to a variety of stresses including desiccation in the food industry. Strand-specific RNA sequencing was applied to analyze changes in the transcriptomes of two strains of L. monocytogenes (Lm 568 and Lm 08-5578) during desiccation [15°C, 43% relative humidity (RH)] on food grade stainless steel surfaces over 48 h to simulate a...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:25
Previous studies on the influence of food matrix fat content on thermal inactivation kinetics of food pathogens have shown contradictory results due to the combined influence of fat content and other factors such as composition. Therefore, thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes at 59, 64, and 69°C was systematically investigated in emulsion and gelled emulsion food model systems with...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:25
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in several biological systems. The long intergenic RNA-erythroid pro-survival (lincRNA-EPS) has been shown to play a critical role in restraining inflammatory gene expression. However, the function of lincRNA-EPS during bacterial infections remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that following infection with the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in cheeses produced with raw milk, including Minas artisanal cheese from Brazil. However, information about S. aureus isolated from artisanal cheeses and its sources of production in small-scale dairies is very limited. We aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from raw milk, endogenous starter culture, Minas...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
: Bacterial genotoxins (BTGX) induce DNA damage, which results in senescence or apoptosis of the target cells if not properly repaired. Three BTGXs have been identified: the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) family produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, the typhoid toxin produced by several Salmonella enterica serovars, and colibactin, a peptide-polyketide, produced mainly by the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
The severity of human infection by one of the many Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is determined by a number of factors: the bacterial genome, the capacity of human societies to prevent foodborne epidemics, the medical condition of infected patients (in particular their hydration status, often compromised by severe diarrhea), and by our capacity to devise new therapeutic approaches...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
This study investigated the antibiotic resistance, virulence profiles, and clonality of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from an intensive poultry farming system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Following ethical approval, samples were collected over six weeks using the farm-to-fork approach. Campylobacter spp. were identified using culture, confirmed and differentiated to...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
Following the ban on antimicrobial usage for growth promotion in animal husbandry in the EU, non-antimicrobial agents including heavy metal ions (e.g. zinc and copper), prebiotics or probiotics have been sugge...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Virginia Filipello, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Silvia Gallina, Nicoletta Vitale, Alessandro Mannelli, Mirella Pontello, Lucia Decastelli, Marc W. Allard, Eric W. Brown, Sara LomonacoAbstractListeriosis is a foodborne illness characterized by a relatively low morbidity, but a large disease burden due to the severity of clinical manifestations and the high case fatality rate. Increased...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:29
LWT
Author(s): Moussa S. Diarra, Yousef I. Hassan, Glenn S. Block, John C.G. Drover, Pascal Delaquis, B. Dave OomahAbstractCranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruits are known for their high polyphenolics content making them a rich source of antioxidants. These polyphenolics have been reported to promote human health and are gaining attention for their antimicrobial activities against foodborne...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:29
LWT
Author(s): Haiying Cui, Chenghui Zhang, Changzhu Li, Lin LinAbstractIn recent years, studies have found that in addition to nosocomial infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can even cause community-associated infections, and MRSA spreads through food and animal that produce products in the community. In addition, MRSA can colonize the surface of food and food container...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:23
In its native environment of rotting vegetation, the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans encounters a range of bacteria. This includes species from the ESKAPE group of pathogens that pose a clinical problem in acquired hospital infections. Here, we investigated three Gram-negative members of the ESKAPE group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii....
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:23
Listeria monocytogenes is a well-characterized pathogen that represents a major threat to food safety. In this study, we examine the chromosomal and plasmid transcriptomes of two different L. monocytogenes strains, 6179 [belonging to sequence type (ST) 121] and R479a (ST8), in response to 30 min exposure to oxidative (0.01% hydrogen peroxide) and acid (1% lactic acid, pH 3.4) stress. The exposure...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:23
aEPEC are associated with persistent diarrhea, and diarrheal outbreaks in both humans and animals worldwide. They are differentiated from typical EPEC by the lack of bundle-forming pili, and from EHEC by the lack of phage-mediated stx toxins. However, phylogenetic analyses often associate aEPEC with EHEC, promoting the hypothesis that aEPEC are the progenitors of EHEC, which is supported by aEPEC...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:23
Aim of this study was to genetically characterize two carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli strains obtained from a pediatric patient affected by diarrhea, expressing OXA-181 and/or NDM-5 type enzymes. The above microorganisms were collected in the same Desenzano hospital (Northern Italy) where the blaNDM–5 gene was detected for the first time in Italy 3 years ago. One strain (5P), belonged to...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:23
Listeria monocytogenes is a widespread foodborne pathogen of high concern and internalin A is an important virulence factor that mediates cell invasion upon the interaction with the host protein E-cadherin. Nonsense mutations of internalin A are known to reduce virulence. Although missense mutations are largely overlooked, they need to be investigated in respect to their effects in cell invasion...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): N. Higuero, I. Moreno, G. Lavado, M.C. Vidal-Aragón, R. CavaAbstractFour batches of Iberian dry-cured loins were manufactured with reduced ingoing amounts of both nitrate and nitrate: 150 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, 37.5 mg/kg and 0 mg/kg. The effect of reducing or removing nitrate and nitrite and time of drying on physicochemical parameters (moisture, pH, water activity, chloride and residual...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Dongdong Jiao, Ying Liu, Ying Liu, Ruchun Zeng, Xiaoqin Hou, Guochao Nie, Lijun Sun, Zhijia FangAbstractA novel bacteriocin CAMT2, produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ZJHD3-06, has potential as a natural biopreservative for the control of food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. To avoid interaction of CAMT2 with components of food that may adversely impact its antibacterial...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:40
: The influence of the intestinal microbiota, such as Lactobacillus, on the intestinal mucosa, particularly intestinal stem cells, remains incompletely understood. In this study, mice and intestinal organoids were used to explore the regulatory effect of Lactobacillus on the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. Methods and results: This study demonstrated that S....
Sun, 01/19/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Jackie K. Cheung, Vicki Adams, Danielle D’Souza, Meagan James, Christopher J. Day, Michael P. Jennings, Dena Lyras, Julian I. RoodAbstractClostridium perfringens is the causative agent of human clostridial myonecrosis; the major toxins involved in this disease are α-toxin and perfringolysin O. The RevSR two-component regulatory system has been shown to be involved in regulating...

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