Bacterial pathogens

Wed, 12/16/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Karen Jaqueline Haselroth, Poline Wilke, Ingrid Miotto Dalla Costa, Victor Manuel Lustoza Rotta, Adriana Fiorini Rosado, Eliane Hermes Little is known about the use of microbial lipases for the treatment of beef industry effluent. It is essential to develop techniques for the sustainable management of this waste, given its high polluting potential, especially due to the high...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 06:08
Author(s): L.H.B. Hansen, B. Nielsen, E.J. Boll, L. Skjøt-Rasmussen, A. Wellejus, L. Jørgensen, C. Lauridsen, N. Canibe Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), being the major cause of post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in newly weaned piglets, induces poor performance and economic losses in pig production. This functional in vitro screening study investigated probiotic strains for use in suckling...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 06:08
Author(s): Selçuk Kılıç, Bekir Çelebi, Meral Turan Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus account for almost all cases of brucellosis in Turkish population. We developed a fourplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the electrophoresis-free, rapid and cost-effective differentiation of B. abortus and B. melitensis from the other Brucella spp. The 4-plex species differentiation assay was...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 04:02
As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) activities, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) collected cecal samples from food animal slaughter facilities throughout the country between 2014 and 2018. Of the 26,780 cecal samples from cattle, swine, chicken and turkey , 6,350 (23.71%) tested positive for Salmonella...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 04:02
Vegetables in Cambodia are commonly sold in informal markets lacking food safety standards and controls. Currently, data on microbial contamination of vegetables in Cambodian informal markets are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate Salmonella enterica and indicator organisms (generic Escherichia coli and coliforms) on the surface of fresh vegetables sold in informal markets in...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S). Typhimurium is a primary foodborne pathogen infecting both humans and animals. Salmonella plasmid virulence C (spvC) gene is closely related to S. Typhimurium dissemination in mice, while the mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Pyroptosis, a gasdermin-mediated inflammatory cell death, plays a role in host defense against bacterial infection,...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 16:00
Brucellosis, an important bacterial zoonosis caused by Brucella species, has drawn increasing attention worldwide. As an intracellular pathogen, the ability of Brucella to deal with stress within the host cell is closely related to its virulence. Due to the similarity between the survival pressure on Brucella within host cells and that during the stationary phase, a label-free proteomics approach...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 16:00
Listeria monocytogenes is an etiologic agent of listeriosis, and has emerged as an important foodborne pathogen worldwide. In this study, the molecular characteristics of 155 L. monocytogenes isolates from seven food groups in Shanghai, the biggest city in China, were identified using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Most L. monocytogenes isolates (79.3%) were obtained between May and October from...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 14:06
Botulinum toxin is the highly toxic substance that causes very dangerous neuroparalytic disease called botulism. It is produced by anaerobic and endospore forming bacteria called C. botulinum. In the absence of licensed vaccine against botulism, an immunoproteome-based approach was developed to find immunogenic proteins of C. botulinum type B for development of vaccine against botulism....
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Equinovarus/equinus foot is a pattern most commonly treated with botulinum toxin type A in patients with post-stroke spasticity involving the lower limbs; the gastrocnemius is the muscle most frequently injected. Spastic equinovarus/equinus can present a mixture of conditions, including spasticity, muscle/tendon shortening, muscle weakness and imbalance. In this study, we wanted to determine...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Escherichia coli are among the most common foodborne pathogens associated with infections reported from meat sources. This study investigated the virulome, pathogenicity, stress response factors, clonal lineages, and the phylogenomic relationship of E. coli isolated from different meat sources in Ghana using whole-genome sequencing. Isolates were screened from five meat sources (beef, chevon,...
Tue, 12/15/2020 - 00:00
Bacteriophage endolysins have attracted attention as promising alternatives to antibiotics, and their modular structure facilitates endolysin engineering to develop novel endolysins with enhanced versatility. Here, we constructed hybrid proteins consisting of two different endolysins for simultaneous control of two critical foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The full-...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 22:14
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. Its primary mode of transmission is by inhalation of aerosols originating from infected animals and contaminated environments. The organism has a very low infective dose, can persist in the environment for long periods of time and large outbreaks fuelled by windborne spread have been previously reported....
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 16:00
Bacteria face diverse stresses in the environment and, sometimes, respond by forming multi-cellular structures, e.g., biofilms. Here, we report a novel macroscopic and multi-cellular structure formed by Salmonella Typhimurium, which resembles small strings. These string-like structures, ∼1 cm long, are induced under some stress conditions: iron deprivation by 2,2-Bipyridyl or low amounts of...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 16:00
Ozone (O3) is an attractive alternative antimicrobial in the poultry processing industry. The optimal operational conditions of O3 for improving food safety concerns are poorly understood. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize the microbial killing capacity of aqueous O3 and O3–lactic acid blend (O3–LA) at different operational conditions on chicken drumsticks...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 16:00
Vibrio are widely distributed in aquatic environments and strongly associated with eutrophic environments and human health through the consumption of contaminated seafood. However, the response of the Vibrio community to seasonal variation in eutrophic environments is poorly understood. In this study, we used a Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA sequencing approach to reveal the seasonal distribution...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Parmanand Prabhakar, Manjusha Lekshmi, Toms C. Joseph, Amjad K. Balange, Binaya Bhusan Nayak, Sanath H. Kumar In this study using 57 finfish samples of marine origin, selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth followed by isolation on the Hektoen enteric agar (HEA) yielded 50 (53.2%) of 94 isolates. The results suggest RV-HEA as the most suitable media combination for the...
Mon, 12/14/2020 - 00:00
Native egg albumin (NEA) was isolated from hen eggs and hydrolyzed by pepsin to produce hydrolyzed egg albumin (HEA). HEA was chemically characterized and screened for its antibacterial activity against 10 pathogenic bacteria (6 Gram (+) and 4 Gram (−)). The SDS-PAGE pattern of NEA showed molecular weights of hen egg albumin subunits ranging from 30 to 180 kDa. The highest intensive...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Daiqi Shang, Hang Zhao, Xuebin Xu, Kannappan Arunachalam, Jiang Chang, Ling Bai, Chunlei Shi Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most important serovars among nontyphoidal Salmonella. The inappropriate and over usage of antimicrobials in clinical and animal husbandry has increased the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)....
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 06:05
LWT
Author(s): Xinyao Wei, Long Chen, Byron D. Chaves, Monica A. Ponder, Jeyamkondan Subbiah This research investigated the effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH)conditions during ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation for inactivation of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354on wholeblack peppercorns. Black peppercorn samples were inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail or E....
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 06:05
LWT
Author(s): Sudarsan Mukhopadhyay, Kimberly Sokorai, Dike O. Ukuku, Tony Jin, Xuetong Fan, Ocean M. Olanya, Juncai Leng, Vijay Juneja The microbial safety of fresh produce continues to be a real concern. Novel nonthermal technologies are required to lessen the risk of pathogen contamination. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate the effects of direct and in-package pulsed...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
Pyruvate is an important platform material widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Pyruvate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca PDL-0 was chosen as a chassis for pyruvate production via metabolic engineering. Genes related to by-product generation were knocked out to decrease the production of 2,3-butantediol, acetate, ethanol, and succinate. The NADH oxidase encoding gene nox was...
Sun, 12/13/2020 - 04:01
Studies on the possible alternative supplements to breastmilk are gaining research interests. Although milk from cow, goat, and mare is nutritious, its effects on the relationship between the immune system, metabolites, and gut microbiota remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of cow, goat, and mare milk on the immune system, metabolites, and gut microbiota of...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 22:09
Yanghe decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription and has been used for breast cancer treatment for many years. However, the effective ingredients in the decoction have not been identified. The expression of poly (ADP‐ribose) polymerase‐1 is highly related to breast cancer. Using poly (ADP‐ribose) polymerase‐1 as a probe, we expressed the haloalkane dehalogenase‐tagged protein in E...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 16:00
Environmental biofilms can induce attachment and protection of other microorganisms including pathogens, but can also prevent them from invasion and colonization. This opens the possibility for so-called bioco...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 08:01
by Octavio Mesa-Varona, Heike Kaspar, Mirjam Grobbel, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat in humans and animals, and antimicrobial usage (AMU) has been identified as a main trigger of AMR. The purpose of this work was to compare data on AMR in clinical and non-clinical isolates of Escherichia coli in German broilers and turkeys between 2014 and 2017. Furthermore...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 08:01
The present study was undertaken to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of melon seed powder sold in some open Ghanaian markets. Twenty-five samples of powder were collected randomly from each of four major markets and analyzed for moisture, pH, total ash, acid insoluble ash, and free fatty acids (FFA) using standard methods. The microbial population was determined using...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 06:08
Author(s): Md. Sharifull Islam, Xiangwei Yang, Chad W. Euler, Xueqing Han, Jiahui Liu, Md. Isrfil Hossen, Yang Zhou, Jinquan Li Aeromonas hydrophila is an important pathogenic bacterium that causes foodborne illness worldwide. In this study, virulent phages from the sediment of a fish farm were propagated and isolated on a multidrug-resistant strain of A. hydrophila, ZYAH75. One phage, designated...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Chenxiao Lang, Yimin Zhang, Yanwei Mao, Xiaoyin Yang, Xiaoyun Wang, Xin Luo, Pengcheng Dong, Lixian Zhu To investigate the persistence of acid tolerance response (ATR) and the regulatory mechanism during chilled storage, Salmonella ATCC 14028 and the △phoP mutant were acid adapted and then incubated in meat extract at 4 °C for 24 days as simulated beef storage. The bacterial population...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): E.L. Shebs-Maurine, F.M. Giotto, S.T. Laidler, A.S. de Mello Research has suggested that the incidence of Salmonella in ground beef may be associated with contaminated lymph nodes that are not removed from trimmings destined for grinding. In this study, we tested the application of bacteriophages and peroxyacetic acid solutions on trimmings and on coarse and fine ground beef to...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 00:00
The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens leads to a gradual decline in the efficacy of many antibacterial agents, which poses a serious problem for proper therapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms allow resistant bacteria to have limited uptake of drugs, modification of their target molecules, drug inactivation, or release of the drug into the extracellular space by efflux pumps (EPs). In...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 22:09
Contaminated fresh produce has increasingly been implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks. As microbiological safety surveillance in South Africa is limited, a total of 545 vegetable samples (spinach, tomato, lettuce, cucumber, and green beans) were purchased from retailers, street traders, trolley vendors and farmers’ markets. Escherichia coli, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 22:09
The development of natural antimicrobial agents has attracted long‐term attention due to the increasing demand for food preservation. Papaya, a widely cultivated nutritious tropical fruit, has benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) as one of the most important secondary metabolites in its seeds. And the antibacterial activity of BITC toward different strains and the main antibacterial pathway remain...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 22:08
This study aimed to characterize yerba‐maté kombucha by showing its oxidative stress inhibitory property with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as the model and to determine its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Different yerba‐maté concentrations and fermentation temperatures were analyzed by an experimental design. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 16:00
Mononuclear molybdoenzymes are highly versatile catalysts that occur in organisms in all domains of life, where they mediate essential cellular functions such as energy generation and detoxification reactions. Molybdoenzymes are particularly abundant in bacteria, where over 50 distinct types of enzymes have been identified to date. In bacterial pathogens, all aspects of molybdoenzyme biology such...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 16:00
ObjectiveThe gut microbiota is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We isolated the Escherichia coli strain NF73-1 from the intestines of a NASH patient and then investigated its effect and underlying mechanism.Methods16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) amplicon sequencing was used to detect bacterial profiles in healthy controls, NAFLD patients and NASH patients. Highly enriched E...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 16:00
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne zoonotic pathogen that causes listeriosis with a mortality rate of 20–30%. Serovar 4b and 1/2b isolates account for most of listeriosis outbreaks, however, no listeriosis vaccine is available for either prophylactic or therapeutic use. Here, we developed a triple-virulence-genes deletion vaccine strain, and evaluated its safety, immunogenicity, and cross...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Rui Liu, Yunlian Zhang, Shujat Ali, Suleiman A. Haruna, Peihuan He, Huanhuan Li, Qin Ouyang, Quansheng Chen In this study, a simple fluorescence aptasensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food. The aptasensor was comprised of two parts. Aptamer-functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) recognized and adhered to the L. monocytogenes...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Fan Sun, Xiu Li, Yan Wang, Fan Wang, Haojie Ge, Zhiming Pan, Yaohui Xu, Yanhong Wang, Xin'an Jiao, Xiang Chen Pullorum is a chicken–specific systemic disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum). This study was carried out to provide basic data for understanding the trends of S. Pullorum. A total of 652 S. Pullorum isolates collected in China...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 06:05
Author(s): Zolzaya Byambajav, Erdenebat Bulgan, Yuji Hirai, Momoko Nakayama, Misaki Tanaka, Nitta Yurika, Akio Suzuki, Takashi Umemura, Bold Altankhuu, Alimaa Tsagaan, Batbaatar Vanaabaatar, Erdenebaatar Janchivdorj, Nyam-Osor Purevdorj, Narantuya Ayushjav, Takeshi Yamasaki, Motohiro Horiuchi There has been no report on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in farm animals in Mongolia. To uncover...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products, such as deli ham, can support the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) which can cause severe illness in immunocompromised individuals. The objectives of this study were to validate a miniature ham model (MHM) against the ham slice method and screen antimicrobial combinations to control LM on ham using response surface methodology (RSM) as a time- and cost-...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
Antibiotics used during food-animal production account for approximately 77% of U.S. antimicrobial consumption by mass. Ground beef products labeled as raised without antibiotics (RWA) are perceived to harbor lower antimicrobial resistance (AMR) levels than conventional (CONV) products with no label claims regarding antimicrobial use. Retail ground beef samples were obtained from 6 U. S. cities....
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 04:02
Once pathogens are internalized in fresh produce, they pose a challenging food safety issue since they are not effectively inactivated by conventional rinsing or sanitization. To protect food safety and public health, the objectives were to examine internalized levels of foodborne pathogens in different types of fresh produce and to investigate the effectiveness of photocatalytically enhanced...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 16:00
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a universal solvent widely used in the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. As a refractory organic contaminant, it can only be degraded by a small group of microbes. In this study, a thiamine auxotrophic THF-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus ruber ZM07, was isolated from an enrichment culture H-1. It was cocultured with Escherichia coli K12 (which cannot degrade...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to report the characterization of the first mcr-positive Enterobacterales isolated from Czech hospitals. In 2019, one Citrobacter freundii and four Enterobacter isolates were recovered from Czech hospitals. The production of carbapenemases was examined by a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) imipenem...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae require careful regulation of horizontally acquired virulence factors that are largely located on horizontally acquired genomic islands (HAIs). While TsrA, a Vibrionaceae-specific protein, is known to regulate the critical HAI virulence genes toxT and ctxA, its broader function throughout the genome is unknown. Here, we find that deletion of tsrA...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 10:01
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain 20R2R is a derivative of clinical isolate PA20. Prophage excision from the coding region of a PA20 transcription factor restored RpoS-dependent biofilm formation in 20R2R, providing a model for O157:H7 stress adaptation when transitioning between clinical and environmental settings. We report here the complete 20R2R genome sequence.
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 10:01
Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Enterobacter hormaechei 2B-MC1, isolated from a shrimp sample collected from a farmer’s market in Atlanta, Georgia. The assembled genome sequence observed was 4,661,561 bp long with a G+C content of 55.3%. The isolate harbored sul1, sul2, qnrA1, oqxB, dfrA23, blaACT, floR, fosA, tet(A), aph(6)-Id, and aph(3'')-Ib antibiotic resistance genes.
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Tae-Sik Kim, Gang-San Kim, Joo-Sung Son, Van Dam Lai, In-Pil Mo, Hyesun Jang Duck meat consumption in South Korea has increased in recent years, but no standard about duck farm-specific biosecurity and hygiene guidelines have yet been established. We here investigated Salmonella contamination levels in duck farms to evaluate biosecurity and hygiene practices. We collected 1,116...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Tianmin Li, Claudia D. Castañeda, Julio Miotto, Chris McDaniel, Aaron S. Kiess, Li Zhang Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis in poultry, which has been traditionally controlled by the prophylactic in-feed supplementation of antibiotics. However, antibiotics are being removed from poultry diets due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria....

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