Bacterial pathogens

Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:40
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) infections have been recurrently associated with produce. The physiological state of EcO157 cells surviving the many stresses encountered on plants is poorly understood. EcO157 populations on plants in the field generally follow a biphasic decay in which small subpopulations survive over longer periods of time. We hypothesized that these subpopulations include...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:39
Author(s): Tatiana Umpeleva, Kseniya Belousova, Ludmila Golubeva, Tatiana Boteva, Irina Morozova, Anna Vyazovaya, Igor Mokrousov, Natalia Eremeeva, Diana VakhrushevaAbstractThe aim of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in one of the “closed” Russian cities under conditions of the limited population migration and high HIV...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:39
Author(s): Xifeng Qiao, Pingchao Li, Jianan He, Zeshu Yu, Jiaxing Chen, Liangge He, Xue Yu, Haoran Lin, Danqi Lu, Yong ZhangAbstractScavenger receptors play a central role in defending against infectious diseases in mammals. However, the function of SRECII remains unknown in teleost fish. In this study, type F scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells-II (SRECII) cDNA sequence was first...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:37
Author(s): Zhen Jia, Yanhong Liu, Chang-An Hwang, Lihan HuangAbstractClostridium perfringens is a strictly anaerobic pathogen that requires absence of oxygen for its growth in laboratory experiments, which is usually attained by using an anaerobic chamber or anaerobic jars. However, it has been demonstrated that C. perfringens may survive for short periods of times due to its adaptive response to...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): João Anes, Scott V. Nguyen, Athmanya K. Eshwar, Evonne McCabe, Guerrino Macori, Daniel Hurley, Angelika Lehner, Séamus FanningAbstractAntimicrobial resistance reported in bacteria of animal origin is considered a major challenge to veterinary public health. In this study, the genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of twelve Escherichia coli isolates of bovine origin is reported....
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:34
LWT
Author(s): Yumin Xu, Jinru ChenAbstractIntegrons in Salmonella are critical genetic elements with antibiotic resistance genes that could be disseminated through horizontal gene transfer, imposing risks to public health. This study was undertaken to determine the structure of integrons in Salmonella isolated from flies on cattle farms and examine the transferability of the integrons through...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:34
LWT
Author(s): Cibeli Viana, Vanessa Mendonça Soares, Juliano Gonçalves Pereira, Leonardo Ereno Tadielo, Luís Augusto Nero, José Paes de Almeida Nogueira Pinto, Luciano dos Santos BersotAbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a water spray system in cleaning conveyor belts contaminated with Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were obtained from modular and smooth conveyor...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:34
LWT
Author(s): Rok Fink, Anja Potočnik, Martina OderAbstractCleaning the surfaces enables reducing microbial populations and consequently the risk of food contamination. The aim of this research was to study the potential of natural extracts from soap nuts, quillaja bark, and horse chestnuts for the reduction of Escherichia coli on glass surfaces. Analogous to that, we tested the efficacy of standard...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:34
LWT
Author(s): Qian Hua, Pei Gao, Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia, Yingying Sun, Qixing JiangAbstractThe effects of commercial starter cultures on the quality characteristics of fermented fish-chili paste were investigated. Five batches of fish-chili paste were prepared with different starter cultures, namely, SBM-52 (Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus carnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:32
The apple‐, carrot‐, and hibiscus‐based edible films containing carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde showed antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags. All three types of 3% carvacrol‐containing films reduced E. coli O157:H7 population by about 5 log CFU/g at day 0. The 1.5% carvacrol‐containing films reduced E. coli O157:H7 population by 1–4...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:27
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been reported to colonize and cause infections in animals as well as in humans. LA-MRSA isolates have only recently been identified in patients admitted to Kuwait hospitals. This study was conducted to characterize LA-MRSA isolates obtained from patients admitted to Kuwait hospitals. A total of 202 (7.1%) of 2,823 MRSA...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:27
Shiga toxin (Stx) produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli produces hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathies in patients, which can lead to either reversible or permanent neurological abnormalities, or even fatal cases depending on the degree of intoxication. It has been observed that the inflammatory component plays a decisive role in the severity of the disease. Therefore, the objective of...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:27
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming cytolysin that allows Listeria monocytogenes to escape from phagocytic vacuoles and enter the host cell cytosol. LLO is expressed continuously during infection, but it has been a challenge to evaluate the importance of LLO secreted in the host cell cytosol because deletion of the gene encoding LLO (hly) prevents localization of L. monocytogenes to the...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:30
The current study demonstrated that SEU promoted the proinflammatory activity of macrophage via upregulation of AIF‐1 expression. The expression of AIF‐1 was inferred by RNAi and the interference abolished the increase of cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine TNFα, IL6 secretion. Abstract Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a wide array of virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:28
To improve upon understanding of the quality characteristics of dry‐aged pork, pork belly and arm shoulder were dry aged for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Their physicochemical, free amino acids (FAAs) content, and microbiological analysis were performed to evaluate palatability and hygiene. After 28 days of aging, total FAAs content increased by 56.1% and 71.4% for pork belly and arm shoulder,...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:26
Epsilon toxin (ETX), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, causes serious neurological disorders in animals. ETX can bind to the white matter of the brain and the oligodendrocytes, which are the cells forming the myelin sheath around neuron axons in the white matter of the central nervous system. After binding to oligodendrocytes, ETX causes demyelination in rat cerebellar slices. We...
Mon, 01/06/2020 - 03:49
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important foodborne pathogen that causes food poisoning and severe infections. Herein, we design a novel and sensitive colorimetric immunoassay for the detection of S. aureus based on the formation of a magnetic bead-based sandwich complex and signal amplification via an enzyme mimic. Magnetic nanoparticles decorated with carbon dots offer rapid enrichment...
Mon, 01/06/2020 - 03:46
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) possess an analgesic effect through several mechanisms including an inhibition of acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction as well as an inhibition of specific pain transmitters and mediators. Animal studies have shown that a peripheral injection of BoNTs impairs the release of major pain transmitters such as substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide (...
Sun, 01/05/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Zhuojun Han, Yi Zhou, Xiaojin Zhang, Jinpeng Yan, Jun Xiao, Yongju Luo, Huifang Zheng, Huan ZhongAbstractGhrelin is a peptide hormone secreted by gastrointestinal tract which regulates multiple physiological processes such as appetite, metabolism, growth and gonad development in fish. In the present study, the effects of ghrelin on hybrid tilapia infected with Aeromonas hydrophila are...
Sun, 01/05/2020 - 03:31
LWT
Author(s): Nam Hee Kim, Hye Won Kim, Hyeree Moon, Min Suk RheeAbstractThis study investigated the synergistic effects of sodium chloride and essential oils (EOs) on three representative halotolerant species of foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. When bacterial cells were treated with carvacrol or thymol alone (0.5–2.0 mM), NaCl alone (...
Sun, 01/05/2020 - 03:29
The carriage of two important pathogens of pigs, i.e. enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Clostridioides difficile, was investigated in 104 cloacal samples from wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) fed on pig carcasses at supplementary feeding stations (SFS), along with their level of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). E. coli was isolated from 90 (86.5%) samples but no ETEC was detected, likely...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Xiaoling Dai, Xin Huang, Zhuoxing Zhang, Ruidong Zhang, Xueying Cao, Chao Zhang, Kaiqiang Wang, Qian RenAbstractInnate immunity is the primary defense of crustaceans against pathogens. Crustins, as antimicrobial peptides, are important to crustacean innate immunity. In this study, two kinds of Gly-rich crustin genes were cloned from Macrobrachium nipponense and were referred to as Mn-...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Chao Zhang, Xueying Cao, Kaiqiang Wang, Xiaoling Dai, Ruidong Zhang, Zhuoxing Zhang, Xin Huang, Qian RenAbstractTranscription factor activator protein 1 (AP1) plays an irreplaceable role in the response to a variety of external stimulants, such as cellar stress, bacterial and viral infections, and inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we identified a novel AP1 gene from Macrobrachium...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Lei Liu, Yunfei DangAbstractMannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a crucial pattern recognition receptor in the host innate immune system. Previously, we reported the biological function of Ctenopharyngodon idella MBL (CiMBL) in initiating the lectin pathway of the complement system. In the present study, we further explored its biological function including the agglutinating ability,...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Parya Ezati, Jong-Whan RhimAbstractA chitosan-based pH-responsive functional film was prepared by the incorporation of alizarin and its properties were tested for active and intelligent food packaging applications. SEM and FTIR results showed that alizarin was uniformly distributed in the chitosan matrix to form a homogeneous film. The alizarin-added chitosan film showed high UV-...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:30
Boning of dry‐cured hams involves additional handling which increases the risk of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. This work studies the ability of E‐beam to eliminate this pathogen from boned dry‐cured ham (BDH). The destruction kinetics of four L. monocytogenes strains (S2, S4‐2, S12‐1, and S7‐2) and L. innocua NCTC 11288 as a surrogate were determined at doses up to 3 kGy. L. innocua...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 04:13
Here, we report the genome sequence of the megaplasmid-bearing Staphylococcus sciuri strain B9-58B, isolated from retail pork. This strain contains a 2,761,440-bp chromosome and a 162,858-bp megaplasmid. The genome contains putative genes involved in virulence, the stress response, and antimicrobial agent and heavy metal resistance.
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 04:13
Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial foodborne disease in humans, who are exposed mostly by consumption of contaminated poultry products. C. jejuni strain NADC 20827 was isolated from the feces of turkeys naturally colonized with Campylobacter spp. We present the complete annotated genome and plasmid sequences of strain NADC 20827.
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 04:13
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that plays an important role in spreading drug resistance. We report the draft genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant C. jejuni isolates which contained similar mutations in the CmeR box. This will improve the understanding of C. jejuni antimicrobial resistance and genetic characteristics.
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 04:13
Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen and an important contributor to gastroenteritis in humans. C. jejuni readily forms biofilms which may play a role in the transmission of the pathogen from animals to humans. Herein, we present RNA sequencing data investigating differential gene expression in biofilm and planktonic C. jejuni. These data provide insight into pathways which may be...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:48
Staphylococcus hyicus, considered as a leading pathogen of exudative epidermitis, is a serious threat to humans and animals. The emergency of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, especially in human and animal health fields, leads to an urgent need of exploration of new antimicrobial agents. In this study, NZX, a plectasin-derived peptide, was firstly expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 and was...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:48
Streptococcus mutans is a common principal causative agent of dental caries. In this communication, we describe that the antibodies raised against purified dextransucrase effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans. The purified enzyme showed 58-fold enrichment, 17.5% yield and a specific activity of 3.96 units/mg protein. Purified IgG fraction of the antibody showed significant affinity with...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:48
Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness throughout the world and has resulted in a serious of public health issues over the past decades. The conventional culture methods for Salmonella detection are laborious and time-consuming; thus a variety of new methods have been developed to enable rapid detection. Among them, immuno- and nucleic acid-based methods are fast developing because the...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:45
Toxin–antitoxin systems (TASs) are widely distributed in prokaryotes and encode pairs of genes involved in many bacterial biological processes and mechanisms, including pathogenesis. The TASs have not been extensively studied in Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), a pathogenic bacterium of the Firmicutes phylum causing infections in animals and humans. Using our recently published TASmania...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:29
The combined effect of the 222‐nm krypton‐chlorine (KrCl) excilamp and ohmic heating for the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice was investigated in this study. When ohmic heating and a KrCl excilamp were applied to apple juice simultaneously, the reduction level of E. coli O157:H7 following 70 s (target...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:26
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important zoonotic pathogen in public health and food safety. The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) is a sophisticated molecular machine that facilitates active invasion, intracellular replication, and host inflammation. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, new therapeutic strategies...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:25
Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human, animal, and environmental commensal and a leading cause of nosocomial infections, which are often caused by multiresistant strains. We evaluate putative sources of K. pneumoniae that are carried by and infect hospital patients. Methods We conducted a 6-month survey on 2 hematology wards at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, in 2015 to...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:25
Background One-third of the 100 million travelers to the tropics annually acquire extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), with undefined clinical consequences. Methods Symptoms suggesting Enterobacteriaceae infections were recorded prospectively among 430 Finnish travelers, 90 (21%) of whom acquired ESBL-PE abroad. ESBL-PE isolates underwent polymerase chain...
Thu, 01/02/2020 - 03:25
The ionophore lasalocid is widely used as a veterinary drug against coccidiosis. We found recently that lasalocid protects cells from two unrelated bacterial toxins, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) from Escherichia. coli and diphtheria toxin. We evaluated lasalocid’s capacity to protect cells against other toxins of medical interest comprising toxin B from Clostridium...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Natalia Crespo Tapia, Amber L. Dorey, Cormac G.M. Gahan, Heidy M.W. den Besten, Conor P. O'Byrne, Tjakko AbeeAbstractListeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is able to utilize a variety of carbon sources, to produce biofilms on food-processing surfaces and to survive food preservation–associated stresses. In this study, we...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:26
The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been extensively researched over the years in regard to its structure, mode of action, and applications. Nevertheless, the biological roles of four proteins encoded from a number of BoNT gene clusters, i.e., OrfX1-3 and P47, are unknown. Here, we investigated the diversity of orfX-p47 gene clusters using in silico analytical tools. We show that the orfX-p47...
Wed, 01/01/2020 - 03:26
Foodborne outbreaks due to the consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables have increased worldwide, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) being one of the main sources responsible. Viable but nonculturable bacteria (VBNC) retain virulence even after some disinfection procedures and constitute a huge problem to public health due to their non-detectability through conventional microbiological techniques....
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 04:08
Author(s): Ailian Zhou, Yifang Cao, Donggen Zhou, Shuangfang Hu, Wanjing Tan, Xinglong Xiao, Yigang Yu, Xiaofeng LiAbstractCronobacter sakazakii is a common foodborne pathogen that can tolerate various stress conditions. Acidic environment is a common stress condition encountered by bacteria in food processing and gastrointestinal digestion, including both inorganic and organic acids. In order to...
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 04:00
Author(s): Ayanna Glaize, Eduardo Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Irene Hanning, Sandra Díaz-Sánchez, Chris Gunter, Arnoud H.M. van Vliet, Wes Watson, Siddhartha ThakurAbstractThe interaction of typical host adapted enteric bacterial pathogens with fresh produce grown in fields is complex. These interactions can be more pronounced in co-managed or sustainable farms where animal operations are, by design,...
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 03:44
Botulism is a rare but severe neurological disease in man and animals that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum and atypical strains from other Clostridium and non-Clostridium species. BoNTs are divided into more than seven toxinotypes based on neutralization with specific corresponding antisera, and each toxinotype is subdivided into subtypes according to...
Tue, 12/31/2019 - 03:44
Drug-resistant bacteria threaten the health of people world-wide and cause high costs to their health systems. According to Scientific American, the number of regrettable fatalities due to the bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotics will sum up to 300 million until 2050 if the problem is not tackled immediately. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) has proven effective against...

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