Chemical contaminants

Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:56
Total mercury levels and methylmercury levels were investigated for various grain parts (whole rice, rice husk, brown rice, polished rice, and bran) of 507 rice samples from 15 main rice-producing areas of China. The average total mercury contents in brown rice samples and polished rice samples were 4.2 and 3.3 μg/kg, respectively, the percentages exceeding the national standard limit were 0.59%...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:56
An analytical method is applied to simultaneously determine bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and tert-nonylphenol in fish muscle. The method consisted of a cleanup on molecularly imprinted polymers cartridges (MIPs) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. The method is rapid, specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): M.Á. Martínez, J. Blanco, J. Rovira, V. Kumar, J.L. Domingo, M. Schuhmacher This study was aimed at comparing the toxicity effects on cell viability and the obesogenic activity of Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol F (BPF), by in vitro assays with a preadipocytic 3T3-L1 cell line. To compare the toxic potential and select the concentrations of each...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:31
Seafood can be a source of contaminants, which may raise health concerns. The aim of this study was to analyse the levels of inorganic contaminants in commercially available seafood products and assess consumer exposure. Commercially available samples were collected from 2015–2018 and analysed as composite samples for mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium, using accredited methods. Levels of...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:26
Luteolin (LUT) is a glycosylated flavonoid compound that has multiple beneficial pharmacological and biological impacts. The current investigation was undertaken to evaluate the putative neuroprotective potency of LUT against neuronal damage induced by lead acetate (PbAc). Twenty-eight rats were placed into four equal groups. Group 1: served as the control group, group 2: rats were supplemented...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:26
Research in toxinology has created a pharmacological paradox. With an estimated 220,000 venomous animals worldwide, the study of peptidyl toxins provides a vast number of effector molecules. However, due to the complexity of the protein-protein interactions, there are fewer than ten venom-derived molecules on the market. Structural characterization and identification of post-translational...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:33
by Fatemeh Ashrafi Tafreshi, Zahra Fatahi, Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghasemi, Amirali Taherian, Neda Esfandiari Pesticides, widely used in modern agriculture, could potentially cause environmental pollution and affect human lives. Hence, the development of a highly sensitive sensing element to detect pesticide residues is crucial for food safety and ecosystem protection. Optical methods based on...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:33
Drug repositioning offers an effective alternative to de novo drug design to tackle the urgent need for novel antimalarial treatments. The antiamoebic compound emetine dihydrochloride has been identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of the multidrug-resistant strain K1 of Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 47 nM ± 2.1 nM [mean ± standard deviation])....
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:26
Assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the important safety considerations in drug development. Thus, in the present research, the naïve Bayes (NB)‐classifier method was applied to develop binary classification models. Six important molecular descriptors for reproductive toxicity were selected by the genetic algorithm. Then, 110 classification models were developed using six molecular...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:26
We previously reported that immunostaining for γ‐H2AX, a biomarker of DNA damage, in the rat urinary bladder is useful for early detection of bladder carcinogens in 28‐day toxicity studies. Here, we aimed to examine the dose dependency of γ‐H2AX formation in the urinary bladder of rats. Male F344 rats (aged 6 weeks) were orally administered N‐butyl‐N‐(4‐hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN; 0%, 0.0001...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:26
Free and protein-bound Maillard reaction products (acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, α-dicarbonyl compounds, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-carboxymethyllysine and N-ε-carboxyethyllysine) and the reaction precursors (sugars and amino acids) were investigated in bread crust-like systems prepared with different cereal flours. Selected cereals were; whole and refined wheat, whole einkorn, whole rye,...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 04:00
Author(s): Marjeta Mencin, Helena Abramovič, Rajko Vidrih, Matthias Schreiner This short communication reports on exposure of Slovenian adult population to acrylamide. For food products from five food categories on the Slovenian market, the acrylamide levels ranged from 20.5 μg/kg to 3,439.4 μg/kg, and varied considerably between the single food products within each food category. The highest...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:59
Author(s): Lubin Qi, Wenli Wu, Qi Kang, Qiongzheng Hu, Li Yu Here, we demonstrate use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-responsive polyoxometalate (POM)/surfactant supramolecular spheres to build a liquid crystal (LC)-based sensing platform for detection of organophosphorus pesticides. The self-assembled spheres are composed of hybrid materials of a POM, sodium dodecatungstophosphate (PW12), and a...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Flavia Badoud, Bernd Goeckener, Kevin Severin, Marion Ernest, Roman Romero, Thibaut Alzieu, Arne Glabasnia, Jonas Hamel, Mark Buecking, Thierry Delatour Acrylamide (AA) formation during coffee roasting happens rapidly, reaching a peak value within the first minutes of roasting followed by a fast decrease to reach an asymptote at approximately 200 µg/kg. Today, the mechanisms by which...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Marion Hulin, Véronique Sirot, Paule Vasseur, Aurelie Mahe, Jean-Charles Leblanc, Julien Jean, Philippe Marchand, Anaïs Venisseau, Bruno LE. Bizec, Gilles Riviere A total diet study (TDS) was conducted between 2010 and 2016 to characterize the health risk related to chemical residues in food of French not breastfed children under three years of age (infant TDS). Among the targeted...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Congcong Yu, Dongyu Hao, Qiao Chu, Ting Wang, Songnan Liu, Tao Lan, Fenghe Wang, Canping Pan Tea polyphenols, chlorophyll and lutein generally cause strong matrix effects and challenge analysis of trace substances in tea. Seven frequently used adsorbents were chosen to test removal ability for tea polyphenols, chlorophyll and lutein based on the adsorption isotherm fitting. Results...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Chao Feng, Qian Xu, Xinlei Qiu, Yu'e Jin, Jieyun Ji, Yuanjie Lin, Sunyang Le, Guoquan Wang, Dasheng Lu A rapid and high-throughput method using both GC–MS/MS and UPLC-Q-Orbitrap systems was applied for pesticide multi-residues analysis in food samples. Strategies based on QuEChERs extraction, intelligent data mining tools with in-house/online database, and in-silico fragment prediction...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Keqi Hu, Hang Yu, Zihuan Li, Guifang Jin, Hansi Jia, Meiqi Song, Yungang Liu Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with human carcinogenicity. Many lower chlorinated and non-dioxin-like PCBs have been observed to be mutagenic following activation by human CYP2E1, while activation of dioxin-like (DL-) PCBs by this enzyme has never been evidenced. In this...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Matt K. Broadhurst, David J. Sterling Various, low-cost modifications to the anterior sections of penaeid trawls have been shown to realise significant improvements in species selectivity. This study expands the existing options by quantifying the importance of top-panel orientation relative to the bottom panel (dictated by relative headline and footrope lengths; termed ‘lead-ahead' or...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:29
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and their accurate determination is very important to human health and environment safety. In this review, sorptive-based micro-extraction techniques [such as Solid-Phase Micro-extraction (SPME), Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE), Micro-extraction in Packed Sorbent (MEPS)] and solvent-based micro-extraction [...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:25
Female vinegar flies (Drosophila melanogaster) preferentially oviposit eggs on oviposition substrates that decrease larval foraging costs. We tested whether female D. melanogaster would avoid oviposition substrates containing lead (Pb2+), which could potentially decrease offspring fitness. Wild type D. melanogaster were reared on control or Pb-treated medium from egg stage to adulthood and tested...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:25
Abstract Background Phytoextraction is an in situ technique that can be applied to minerals and mining wastes using hyperaccumulator plants to purposely bio-concentrate high levels of metals or metalloids into their shoots in order to remove them from the substrate, while achieving monetary gain. Phytoextraction can be applied to a limited number of elements depending on the existence of...
Sat, 03/21/2020 - 03:36
In the course of optimizing a novel indazole sulfonamide series that inhibits β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KasA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a mutagenic aniline metabolite was identified. Further lead optimization efforts were therefore dedicated to eliminating this critical liability by removing the embedded aniline moiety or modifying its steric or electronic environment. While the narrow SAR...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:34
The typical bitter taste of beer is caused by adding hops (Humulus lupulus L.) during the wort boiling process. The bitter taste of hop-derived compounds was found to be mediated by three bitter taste receptors: TAS2R1, TAS2R14, and TAS2R40. In this work, structural bioinformatics analyses were used to characterize the binding modes of trans-isocohumulone, trans-isohumulone, trans-isoadhumulone,...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:34
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) produces a range of defense phytochemicals containing a quinone core structure: sorgoleone allelochemical, flavonoid phytoalexins, and a broad spectrum of polyphenols. Those phytochemicals react with the components of cellular and agroecosystems to form stable semiquinone radicals engaging in different proton-coupled electron transfer reactions. This unique...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:34
by Chunxia Zhang, Jingli Gao, Yidan Guo, Aijun Xing, Pengpeng Ye, Yuntao Wu, Shouling Wu, Yang Luo Objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with adverse outcomes in the general population, but its impact on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the association between AF and risks of all-cause mortality and stroke in Chinese adults with CKD...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Linting Hao, Lianghua Chen, Peng Zhu, Jian Zhang, Danju Zhang, Jiujin Xiao, Zhenfeng Xu, Li Zhang, Yang Liu, Han Li, Hanbo Yang, Guoxing Cao More research about branch order-specific accumulation of toxic ions in root systems is needed to know root branch-related responses in growth and physiology. In this study, we used Populus deltoides females and males as a model to detect sex-...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:26
Daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected from an urban community in Tianjin. The major chemical components in PM2.5, including metal elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic water-soluble ions, were monitored. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to apportion the potential sources of PM2.5 under different weather conditions. When the Air Quality Index (...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:25
Eugenia brejoensis L. (Myrtaceae) is an endemic plant from caatinga ecosystem (brazilian semi-arid) which have an E. brejoensis essential oil (EbEO) with reported antimicrobial activity. In this work, in vitro and in vivo models were used to characterize the inhibitory effects of EbEO in relation to Staphylococcus aureus. EbEO inhibited the growth of all tested S. aureus strains (including...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:34
Retroviral reverse transcriptases (RTs) have the ability to carry out strand displacement DNA synthesis in the absence of accessory proteins. Although studies with RTs and other DNA polymerases suggest that fingers subdomain residues participate in strand displacement, molecular determinants of this activity are still unknown. A mutant human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RT (M41L/D67N/...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:34
by Ahmad R. Kirmani, Ahmed E. Mansour, Chen Yang, Rahim Munir, Ahmed M. El-Zohry, Omar F. Mohammed, Aram Amassian Halide vacancies and associated metallic lead (Pb°) observed at the surface and deep inside macroscopic organolead trihalide perovskite crystals is removed through a facile and noninvasive treatment. Indeed, Br2 vapor is shown to passivate Br-vacancies and associated Pb° in the bulk...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:30
As a prebiotics, lactosucrose plays an important role in maintaining human gastrointestinal homeostasis. In this study, a thermostable enzyme from Arthrobacter sp. 10138 was screened from six β-fructofuranosidase-producing strains for the lactosucrose production and the coding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for efficient expression. Recombinant β-fructofuranosidase was...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:25
Gram-negative bacteria expressing class A β-lactamases pose a serious health threat due to their ability to inactivate all β-lactam antibiotics. The acyl–enzyme intermediate is a central milestone in the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by these enzymes. However, the protonation states of the catalytic residues in this complex have never been fully...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:35
Since coffee is a significant contributor to the consumption of acrylamide, its reduction is required. Acrylamide is produced during the roasting of coffee beans, but the roasting process is an essential step in determining the taste of coffee. Acrylamide content in coffee has been suggested to decrease by reacting with proteins and/or other substances during storage, but details are unknown....
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:35
To investigate the drug residue situation in commercial liquid milk products in China, 190 samples, including ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk (n=168) and pasteurized (n=22) milk samples, were collected in 2019. Milk samples were analyzed for the presence of any of the sixty-one veterinary drugs in them by using a screening assay combined with a UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Ten (5.26%) samples were...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:34
by Elena Gorokhova, Anne L. Soerensen, Nisha H. Motwani Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that biomagnifies in marine food webs. Inorganic mercury (Hg) methylation is conducted by heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting sediment or settling detritus, but endogenous methylation by the gut microbiome of animals in the lower food webs is another possible source. We examined the occurrence of the...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:34
by Yi-Jia Lin, Hsuan-Kai Lin, Ying-Hong Lin Banana (Musa sp.) is cultivated worldwide and is one of the most popular fruits. The soil-borne fungal disease Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB), commonly known as Panama disease, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and is a highly lethal vascular fungal disease in banana plants. Raman spectroscopy, an emerging laser-based technology based...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Ming-Yuan Xu, Ying-Jian Sun, Pan Wang, Lin Yang, Yi-Jun Wu Heavy metals and pesticides can be easily enriched in food chains and accumulated in organisms, thus pose significant threat to human health. However, their combined effects for long-term exposure at low dose has not been thoroughly investigated; especially there was no biofluid biomarker available to noninvasively diagnose the...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:27
ABSTRACT Pesticides have posed significant threats to aquatic ecosystems, yet little is known about their transformation products. The challenge is to simultaneously analyze various pesticides and transformation products in water as they have distinct physicochemical properties. A mix‐mode solid phase extraction method was established to simultaneously analyze current‐use pesticides and their...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:25
In this study, the molecularly imprinted nano-polymer of minocycline was polymerized on the surface of a metal organic framework material to synthesize a novel composite. This composite was used as absorbent to develop a dispersive solid phase microextraction method for extraction of 7 tetracyclines in chicken muscle followed by determination with ultra performance liquid chromatography. The...
Mon, 03/16/2020 - 03:25
Clayey soils have been used as liners at the base of waste deposits due to their geotechnical characteristics and capacity to adsorb metallic cations. However, a number of soils may not possess all required properties to ensure contaminant retention and therefore require additives. This study investigated whether the addition of commercial peat to a tropical residual soil (from the Ribeira Valley...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:47
The potential toxicity of cadmium‐containing quantum dots (QDs) has received much attention because of increasing biomedical applications. However, little has been known about how cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs influence the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism. In this study, mice were exposed orally to CdTe QDs (200 μL of 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μm; twice per week) for 4 weeks. The oral experiments...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:45
Cadmium contamination of agricultural soils is a serious problem due to its toxic effects on health and yield of crop plants. This study investigates the potential of low-dose nano-TiO2 as soil nanoremediation on Cd toxicity in cowpea plants. To achieve this goal, cowpea seeds were germinated on Cd-spiked soils at 10 mg/kg for 14 days and later augmented with 100 mg nTiO2/kg (nTiO2-50 nm and...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:44
Abstract Aims Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling are key ecosystem functions potentially altered by heavy metal pollution. We used an ecosystem approach to study the long-term effect of lead (Pb) on C and N cycles in a natural grassland in a former shooting range. Methods Microbial activity was evaluated by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) in situ, adding isotopically labelled C4-sugar to...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:43
Antibiotic residues in chicken meat samples is a serious public health concern due to their harmful effects on consumers’ health. We conducted this research in 2017 to determine antibiotic residues in chicken meat samples and to describe the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of farmers on the antibiotic uses in poultry farms at Tay Ninh province. Farmers who raised chickens at their...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:34
Malaria is a tropical disease that kills about half a million people around the world annually. Enzymatic reactions within pyrimidine biosynthesis have been proven to be essential for Plasmodium proliferation. Here we report on the essentiality of the second enzymatic step of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, catalyzed by aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). Crystallization experiments using a...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Hamdy A. Abdel-Gawwad, Mona S. Mohammed, Sahar E. Zakey Recycling/valorization of solid-wastes in the cleaner production of building materials not only strongly contributes to the environmental protection from pollutants, but it is regarded as an ideal solution in the conservation of naturally-occurring resources that are used in the construction sector. Accordingly, this work aims at...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:26
Metal exposure has recently been related to the risk of hypertension. However, the association remains unclear and relevant epidemiologic studies are limited. The present study aimed to assess the associations between exposure to metals and the odds of hypertension, as well as blood pressure (BP) levels. A total of 816 participants were enrolled in southwestern China. Hypertension was defined as...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:26
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a typical carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, exists worldwide in vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke and other polluted environments. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong association between B[a]P and lung cancer. However, whether B[a]P at human blood equivalent level can promote epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial molecular event during cell...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:26
BACKGROUND Flavor rapeseed oil is a type of hot‐pressed oil in China. In this work, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability index (OSI), tocopherols, sterols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in flavor rapeseed oils were evaluated. Additionally, the cancer risk assessment pertaining to PAHs in flavor rapeseed oil was investigated. RESULTS Acid values (0.64‐2.68 mg KOH g‐1),...

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