Chemical contaminants

Fri, 11/27/2020 - 16:00
Suilysin (SLY) plays a critical role in Streptococcus suis infections making it an ideal target to the combat infection caused by this pathogen. In the present study, we found that piceatannol (PN), a natural compound, inhibits pore-formation by blocking the oligomerization of SLY without affecting the growth of S. suis and the expression of SLY. Furthermore, PN alleviated the J774 cell damage...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 12:01
The opioid epidemic in the United States, along with a lack of adequate harm reduction services, has contributed to a sharp rise in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Despite considerable evidence of the effectiveness of HCV treatment in people who inject drugs (PWID), and recommendations from clinical guidelines to prioritize treatment in PWID, there are multiple barriers to broad uptake of HCV...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Lisa Goedtke, Andrea John, Alfonso Lampen, Albrecht Seidel, Albert Braeuning, Stefanie Hessel-Pras Carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and other non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) like fluoranthene (FA) and pyrene (PYR) occur as food contaminants. Molecular effects of BP, FA and PYR in human liver cells were investigated using mixtures occurring in grilled meat....
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 18:02
Lead is a ubiquitous heavy metal toxin of significant public health concern. Every individual varies in their response to lead’s toxic effects due to underlying genetic variations in lead metabolizing enzymes or proteins distributed in the population. Earlier studies, including our lab, have attributed the influence of ALAD (δ-Aminolevulinate dehydratase) polymorphism on blood lead retention and...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Total biosynthesis or whole-cell biocatalytic production of sulfated small molecules relies on the discovery and implementation of appropriate sulfotransferase enzymes. Although fungi are prominent biocatalysts and have been used to sulfate drug-like phenolics, no gene encoding a sulfotransferase enzyme has been functionally characterized from these organisms. Here, we identify a...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 04:02
Staphylococcus aureus is a primary pathogen responsible for causing postoperative infections as it survives and persists in host cells, including osteoblasts and macrophages. These cells then serve as reservoirs resulting in chronic infections. Most traditional antibiotics have poor effects on intracellular S. aureus because they cannot enter the cell. Herein, a cell-penetrating peptide TAT-KR-12...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 00:00
As the field of forensic DNA analysis has started to transition from genetics to genomics, new methods to aid in crime scene investigations have arisen. The development of informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has led the forensic community to question if DNA can be a reliable “eye-witness” and whether the data it provides can shed light on unknown...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 00:00
Agricultural fungicides contaminate the environment and promote the spread of fungicide-resistant strains of pathogenic fungi. The enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to these pesticides using chemosensitizers allows the reducing of fungicide dosages without a decrease in their efficiency. Using Petri plate and microplate bioassays, 6-demethylmevinolin (6-DMM), a putative sensitizer of a...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 14:06
Helium is commonly used as a carrier gas in gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS); however, there are growing concerns regarding its global shortage and the resulting limited supply and high cost. Using nitrogen as an alternative carrier gas in GC-MS/MS with the widely used electron ionisation (EI) technique leads to a significantly lower sensitivity; thus, in this study, we...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Evolution of bacterial tolerance to antimicrobials precedes evolution of resistance and may result in cross-tolerance, cross-resistance, or collateral sensitivity to other antibiotics. Transient exposure of gut bacteria to glyphosate, the world’s most widely used herbicide, has been linked to the activation of the stress response and changes in susceptibility to antibiotics. In this study,...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
by José M. Di Diego, Bence Patocskai, Hector Barajas-Martinez, Virág Borbáth, Michael J. Ackerman, Alexander Burashnikov, Jérôme Clatot, Gui-Rong Li, Victoria M. Robinson, Dan Hu, Charles Antzelevitch Background J wave syndromes (JWS), including Brugada (BrS) and early repolarization syndromes (ERS), are associated with increased risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Pharmacologic...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), also known as ABCB1, is a cell membrane transporter that mediates the efflux of chemically dissimilar amphipathic drugs and confers resistance to chemotherapy in most cancers. Homologous transmembrane helices (TMHs) 6 and 12 of human P-gp connect the transmembrane domains with its nucleotide-binding domains, and several residues in...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Tomoaki Tsutsumi, Ayato Kawashima, Noriyuki Hamada, Rika Adachi, Hiroshi Akiyama We developed an analytical method for determining total (sum of all 209 congeners) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in fish and shellfish using a newly developed clean-up method and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The clean-up involved passing a sample extract through a column...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Muhammad Adrees, Zahra Saeed Khan, Muhammad Hafeez, Muhammad Rizwan, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Asrar, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Shafaqat Ali A pot study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) foliar exposure on growth and development of wheat, zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) uptake in Cd-contaminated soil under various moisture...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
The inhibition kinetics of glutathione (GSH) and quercetin on Acrylamide (AA) formation in the low-moisture Maillard systems were investigated at 180 °C. The inhibition rates in an equal-molar asparagine/glucose (Asn/Glc) system was higher than those in asparagine/fructose (Asn/Fru) system, and the maximum inhibition rates for AA were 57.75% with GSH of 10 -2 mol L -1 and 51.38% with quercetin of...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 12:02
ABSTRACT Mercury superfamily proteins, i.e. inner membrane-spanning proteins (MerC, MerE, MerF and MerT) and a periplasmic mercury-binding protein (MerP), transport mercury into the cytoplasm. A previous study demonstrated that a Mer transporter homolog exhibits cadmium transport activity; based on this, the present study aimed to evaluate the cadmium transport activity of MerC, MerE, MerF and...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 08:02
by Takako Kato-Minoura, Yutaro Ogiwara, Takashi Yamano, Hideya Fukuzawa, Ritsu Kamiya The single-cell green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses two α-tubulin genes (tua1 and tua2) and two β-tubulin genes (tub1 and tub2), with the two genes in each pair encoding identical amino acid sequences. Here, we screened an insertional library to establish eight disruptants with defective tua2, tub1,...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 06:26
Author(s): Ellairaja Sundaram, Abhijit Manna, Karthika Lakshmi Servarayan, Vairathevar Sivasamy Vasantha Current study is focusing mainly on the development of simple, novel, and cost-effective optical sensor to detect and quantify Bisphenol A (BPA) contamination. We designed a very selective and sensitive colorimetric sensor using synthesized 3', 6'- bis(diethylamino) -2- ((3,4,5 trimethyl...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 02:02
The combination of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS) is one of the most powerful analytical tools in terms of selectivity, sensitivity and speed. However, due to the gap on regulation and guidelines concerning the validation criteria for the use of ToF-MS methodology not only for screening but also for confirmatory and...
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 02:02
Polyaniline-modified magnetic halloysite nanotube composites (MHNTs@PANI) were evaluated for the first time as an efficient adsorbent for the magnetic micro-solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from beer samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection. MHNTs@PANI were prepared from naturally available material halloysite by coating magnetic HNTs with...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 08:02
Deficiency of selenium (Se) will lead to malnutrition and decreased immune function of the body. There is a common phenomenon of Se deficiency in foods. In this study, different concentrations of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) were applied to Moringa oleifera grownin soil. The purpose was to explore the feasibility of Se biofortification of M. oleifera root. The effect of exogenous Se on the...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Shan Wang, Qi Li, Suzhen Huang, Wei Zhao, Zheng Zheng Recently, the pollution of microplastics (MPs) in the global freshwater environment has become increasingly problematic, but there are few studies on the freshwater environment risks of MPs. The present study, therefore, has investigated the single and combined effects of MPs and lead (Pb) on the freshwater algal Microcystis...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 02:03
Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful element to human health and biodiversity. The removal of Cd from groundwater is of great significance to maintain the environmental sustainability and biodiversity. In this work, a novel low-temperature roasting associated with alkali was applied to synthesize an eco-friendly adsorbent using coal fly ash. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 22:12
Development of novel snack foods is an important area of research and different ingredients are being tested to develop and process new formulations. In this study, lupin chips prepared using different formulations (hulled lupin, whole lupin, wheat and corn flours) were cooked using baking and frying and changes in the sensory and colour parameters, acrylamide contents, fat absorption, peroxide...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 22:11
BACKGROUND Ginkgo biloba seeds are used as a functional food across Asia. However, the presence of toxic compounds has dwindled its application. In this study, freeze‐drying, infrared drying, hot‐air drying and pulsed‐vacuum drying were used to dry GBS. A comprehensive analysis was performed on their product quality, antioxidant activities, bioactive and toxic components. RESULTS Results showed...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Lirui Hou, Shuo Liu, Chong Zhao, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu, Shutao Yin T-2 toxin is a common fungal toxin, which is not only widely found in wheat, barley, corn, and other food crops and their related products, but also in various animal feeds. Acrylamide (ACR) is mainly formed by the free amino acid, asparagine and reducing sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and is commonly found in...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 22:11
BACKGROUND Porphyra haitanensis now faces serious heavy metal pollution problems. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) have been recognized as a novel class of sustainable solvents, which can be used for heavy metal removal. In this study, 28 kinds of NADESs were prepared and investigated as eluent in the removal of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and copper (Cu) from P....
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 04:02
Plant cell cultures can be used to identify the metabolic degradation of pesticides in crops. Therefore, Brassica napus L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Zea mays L. and Triticum aestivum L. were used to elucidate the metabolic degradation of the following pesticides: tebuconazole, flurtamone, fenhexamid, and metalaxyl-M. Callus cultures were treated with 10 μM of the named pesticides by passive...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 22:17
In this work, levels of cyromazine and its metabolite melamine in chicken products and its transfer factors (TFs) and dietary risks assessment for Chinese consumers are presented. Cyromazine was added to chicken feed at doses of 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg for 42 days. Cyromazine residues were found in frequently consumed chicken products (meat, heart, liver, gizzard, and eggs), with liver and eggs...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 08:02
by Marta Gabryszewska, Barbara Gworek Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been withdrawn from the market due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation capacity, and persistence. PCBs have been observed to potentially form in combustion processes under appropriate conditions and in the presence of precursors containing chlorine. The study covered a municipal waste incineration plant and an industrial...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 04:02
β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III, FabH) is essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. Recent studies indicate that FabH can be a potential target for bactericide development. In the present study, an immobilized FabH column was developed and used to screen FabH inhibitors from complex natural product extracts. Combined with HPLC, four secondary metabolites, alternariol...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 02:04
Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic metal for plant metabolic processes even in low concentration due to its longer half-life and non-biodegradable nature. The current study was designed to assess the bioremediation potential of a Cd-tolerant phytobeneficial bacterial strain Bacillus sp. SDA-4, isolated, characterized and identified from Chakera wastewater reservoir, Faisalabad, Pakistan, together with...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 02:03
The studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurrence, distribution, health risk, and composition in drinking water are limited in India and worldwide. The main objective of this study was to find the contaminant sources, composition, health risk, and distribution of USEPA’s 16 priority pollutant PAHs in the drinking water samples collected between July 2019 to September 2019 from six...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 00:00
Antibiotic resistance is one of the major current global health crises. Because of increasing contamination with antimicrobials, pesticides, and heavy metals, the aquatic environment has become a hotspot for emergence, maintenance, and dissemination of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes among bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine the co-resistance to quinolones,...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter is the leading cause of the human bacterial foodborne infections in the developed countries. The perception cues from biotic or abiotic environments by the bacteria are often related to bacterial surface and membrane proteins that mediate the cellular response for the adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to the environment. These proteins function rarely as a unique entity, they are...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 10:02
Halomonas sp. strain ML-15 is an aerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The draft genome sequence of the isolate contains 19 contigs encompassing 4.8 Mb and a G+C content of 65.38%. This sequence will provide essential information for future studies of PAH degradation, particularly under haloalkaliphilic conditions.
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 06:25
Author(s): Marta Mesias, Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Francisca Holgado, Lucía González-Mulero, Francisco J. Morales Variability in home-cooking practices affects dietary exposure to acrylamide, limiting risk evaluation. Two observational tests (controlled and randomized) involving 127 volunteers was designed to investigate the influence of consumer decisions on acrylamide formation during the...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 22:11
Cadmium (Cd) is an occupational and environmental heavy metal pollutant derived from many sources that is linked to endothelial homeostasis. The endothelium is an important site of Cd deposition, while increasing evidence has revealed there is a close relationship between endothelial dysfunction and abnormal lipid metabolism. However, the effects of the alterations in lipid metabolism on...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 10:02
Extended-spectrum class C β-lactamases have evolved to rapidly inactivate expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, a class of antibiotics designed to be resistant to hydrolysis by β-lactamase enzymes. To better understand the mechanism by which Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase-7 (ADC-7), a chromosomal AmpC enzyme, hydrolyzes these molecules, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 08:02
Political polarization has intensified in the lead-up to the 2020 US presidential election, with liberal and conservative politicians hurling insults at one another, journalists highlighting ways in which Americans are deeply divided, and parts of the general American public condoning violence if their side does not win the upcoming election....
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 02:03
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential use of metabolic parameters as non-specific biomarkers of pollution. The Igarapé do Quarenta is a small urban river crossing an industrial area in the city of Manaus, Amazon, and receives the city wastewater without treatment. The fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) were exposed to water collected from two different sites of...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 02:02
Tortoise shell is not only an armor, but also an important structure for storing nutrients for tortoise. The shell from one tortoise strain, Chinemys reevesii (CR), has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Nowadays, massive CR shells are also processed into healthy food in Asian countries. Despite large-scale culture of CR in nowadays, there still exist massive counterfeit CR...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 00:00
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is one of the leading causes of human deaths globally according to the WHO TB 2019 report. The continuous rise in multi- and extensive-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis broadens the challenges to control tuberculosis. The availability of a large number of completely sequenced genomes of M. tuberculosis has provided an...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:18
Recently, a wound dressing formulation, (Tri‐Solfen®, Medical Ethics Pty Ltd, Australia; TS) registered for use in ruminant husbandry in Australia, was registered for Foot‐and‐Mouth Disease (FMD) therapy in large ruminants in Laos, following clinical observations of improved welfare and healing following treatment of FMD lesions. In November 2019, an FMD outbreak in Cameroon provided an...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:15
A novel worm‐like nickel‐titanium oxide nanocomposites coating was directly grown on a nickel‐titanium alloy wire by low‐voltage electrochemical anodization in alkaline ethylene glycol and water solution. The in situ growth of nickel‐titanium oxide nanocomposites greatly depended on the volume ratio of ethylene glycol to water and temperature. Coupled to HPLC with UV detection by static...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:14
The Contamination agricultural soils and food by cadmium(cd) is one of the major concerns of the world. The field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) fertilizer on bioavailability and accumulation of Cd in soil, Cd chemical fractions, dynamic changes of soil pH, available Cd content and Cd content of various parts of rice plants. The results revealed that...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 18:03
Platinum group metals (PGMs) are widely applied in the field of catalysts due to their excellent catalyst activity and high-temperature stability. The rapid generation of the waste catalyst has become the significant characteristic of PGMs with the accelerating consumption of limited PGMs nature resources. It is necessary to recover/recycle PGMs from a waste catalyst for both economic and...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:02
An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established for the determination of four highly polar agricultural antibiotics kasugamycin, validamycin A, ningnanmycin, and polyoxin B in plant-derived foods. The samples were extracted with a 0.2% formic acid solution, purified by hydrophilic–lipophilic balance and mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:02
The present study describes using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology for determination of patulin (PAT) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in beverages by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array (UPLC-PDA). PAT (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2-c]pyran-2(6H)-one) is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium fungi and Penicillium expansum is probably the most commonly...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 02:03
This study aims to investigate the formation mechanism of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acrylamide in sesame seeds during roasting. Sesame seeds were roasted at 180, 200, and 220 °C for different time intervals, and changes in the concentration of sucrose, free amino acids, asparagine, 3-deoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acrylamide were monitored. Multiresponse kinetic modelling was used...

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