Chemical contaminants

Tue, 07/07/2020 - 02:03
In order to assess environmental exposure-associated human health risk of dioxin compounds for the population in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Shanghai, the atmospheric samples (n = 24) and soils samples (n = 96) were collected and analyzed to obtain the concentration level, pollution characteristics and seasonal changes of dioxin compounds in environmental medias...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 22:18
In this review, we highlight new and emerging metrics and tools in esophageal function testing and the clinical manifestations and management of esophageal involvement in connective tissue disorders. Abstract This work summarizes new and emerging metrics and tools in esophageal function testing and their potential clinical impact. Because the diagnostic sensitivity and reliability of conventional...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 22:16
High levels of p‐Coumaric acid was first isolated and identified from Spirulina. Inhibitory kinetics and mechanism of p‐Coumaric acid on two enzymes were studied. Molecular modeling revealed the Spirulina p‐Coumaric acid binding mode. Abstract Spirulina species are edible with high nutritional as well as potential therapeutic values. In this work, we show that phenolic extracts from Spirulina (p‐...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 22:15
This research is an application of fiber‐in‐tube solid phase microextraction followed by HPLC‐UV for extraction and determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A. Nano magnetic Fe3O4 was formed on the surface of polypropylene porous hollow fibers to increase the surface area and then it was coated with polystyrene. The introduction of polystyrene improves the surface hydrophobicity and is an...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 04:03
Acetylcholinesterase inactivating compounds, such as organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) pesticides, are widely used in agriculture to ensure sustainable production of food and feed. As a consequence of their applications, they would result in neurotoxicity, even death. In this essence, the development of enzyme inhibition methods still shows great significance as rapid detection techniques...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Fangfang Yan, Li Zhao, Wanbing Chen, Qun Lu, Cuie Tang, Chengming Wang, Rui Liu This study evaluated the stabilities of catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), procyanidin B3, procyanidin A1 and epicatechin-(4β → 6)-epicatechin-(2β → O → 7,4β → 8)-catechin (PCA-trimer) during in vitro digestion, as well as characterized their digestion products (DPs), and evaluated their protective effects...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Wei Quan, Yong Li, Ye Jiao, Chaoyi Xue, Guoping Liu, Zhaojun Wang, Zhiyong He, Fang Qin, Maomao Zeng, Jie Chen The simultaneous formation of acrylamide; β-carboline heterocyclic amines (HAs): harmane and norharmane; and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL)) was analyzed based on an aqueous model system. The model...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Wantang Huang, Hua Yin, Yuanyuan Yu, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang, Zhanghong Chen In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was applied to degrade tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) with glucose as a co-metabolic substrate. Influencing factors of co-metabolic degradation such as pH, TBBPA and glucose concentration were examined and the degradation efficiency under optimal condition reached about 50% on...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 00:00
Overwhelming empirical evidence has highlighted the contribution of indiscriminate antibiotic usage (ABU) in food animals to the overall burden of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in humans, thus making antibiotic use the main selective pressure driving antibiotic resistance. The social and behavioral perspective on antibiotic use and resistance in poultry is limited. Our study therefore aimed at...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Dilumi W.K. Liyanage, Dmytro P. Yevtushenko, Michele Konschuh, Benoît Bizimungu, Zhen-Xiang Lu Potato chips are among the highest contributors to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a potent neurotoxin and likely carcinogen in heat-processed foods. The present study aimed to determine the effects of frying conditions and additive treatments on reducing sugars, asparagine levels, and...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 02:02
Marine pollution has increased reaching the entire marine environment, from the surface to the deepest sediment, and has become more concerning in the last 70 years. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a fraction of ocean waste that includes, among the others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and plastic polymers. These chemicals have an extremely long half-life, and (bio)accumulate...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:15
Detecting pesticide residues in human serum is a challenging process. This study developed and validated a method for the extraction and recovery of residues of multiple classes of pesticides from serum using one reagent. Salt‐assisted acetonitrile extraction and HPLC with quadrupole time of flight MS/MS were used to quantitate 34 pesticides classified in nine groups of chemicals in human serum...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
In natural environments, the production of neurotoxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg) is mediated by microorganisms carrying the genes hgcA and hgcB. However, the contribution of these microorganisms to mercury (Hg) methylation or MeHg accumulation in the ocean is poorly understood. Here we determined the total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations in seawater samples and conducted a...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 10:02
According to the World Health Organization, arsenic is the water contaminant that affects the largest number of people worldwide. To limit its impact on the population, inexpensive, quick, and easy-to-use systems of detection are required. One promising solution could be the use of whole-cell biosensors, which have been extensively studied and could meet all these criteria even though they often...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Y. Ma, Y.Z. Shi, Q.J. Wu, Y.Q. Wang, J.P. Wang, Z.H. Liu In this study, we explored the effect of dietary lead nitrate on the zootechnical performance, egg quality, accumulation of ovarian plumbum (Pb), follicular atresia rate and ovarian oxidative stress in laying hens. Furthermore, the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling molecule was studied to reveal the...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 02:02
Summarized the heavy metal pollution caused by natural and human activities. The natural causes include the migration and redistribution of soil debris and the hydraulic migration of soil parent rock with high background value under the action of wind; human factors include mining, abandoned mining areas, fertilizer and pesticide application, and sewage irrigation. By examining the sources of...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 08:02
Hydrogen gas (H2) has a possible signaling role in many developmental and adaptive plant responses, including mitigating the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd) uptake from soil. We used electrophysiological and molecular approaches to understand how H2 ameliorates Cd toxicity in pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Exposure of pak choi roots to Cd resulted in a rapid increase in the...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 08:02
The elements Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) have similar chemical and physical properties, but contrasting physiological effects in higher organisms. In plants, Zn/Cd transport is mediated by various transporter proteins belonging to different families. In this study, we functionally characterized two Zn transporter genes in rice (Oryza sativa), ZINC TRANSPORTER5 (OsZIP5) and ZINC TRANSPORTER9 (...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Sinosh Skariyachan, Roshini Ravishankar, Dharshini Gopal, Aditi G. Muddebihalkar, Akshay Uttarkar, Prinith Kaveramma Uluvangada Praveen, Vidya Niranjan Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a global concern due to its extreme resistance to most of the last resort antibiotics. Present study focuses on the screening of potential molecular targets involved in regulation of biofilm formation...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Ching-Huang Lai, Chia-Chi Chou, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Gu-Jiun Lin, Chih-Hong Pan, Wei-Liang Chen Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) have been found to be pivotal biomarkers to predict the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress. Limited evidence focuses on the influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal fumes on...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Luca Maria Chiesa, Lucia DeCastelli, Maria Nobile, Francesca Martucci, Giacomo Mosconi, Mauro Fontana, Marta Castrica, Francesco Arioli, Sara Panseri Antibiotics are widely used in livestock production as disease treatment, prevention and improve feeding efficiency. In this study three screenings and a multiclass method by Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass High Resolution Spectrometry...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
In this study, the inhibitory potential of 3-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives was evaluated against a panel of bacteria, as well as mammalian cell lines to determine their therapeutic index. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of antibiotic action of the derivatives to identify their therapeutic target. We discovered compound 2 to be an extremely potent inhibitor of...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:16
Yellow corn kernels were subjected to gamma (γ) irradiation (1.0–10.0 kGy), post packaging in polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminium foil trilamellate. These packaged‐irradiated corn grits were stored under ambient conditions (23 ± 2°C, 80% R.H.) and their shelf lives were ascertained chiefly w.r.t. lutein and aflatoxin contents. Among all samples investigated, 3 kGy‐irradiated...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:14
The development of sustainable agriculture and the increasing antibiotic resistance of human pathogens call for novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we describe the extraction and characterization of a class of cationic circular lipopeptides, for which we propose the name relacidines, from the soil bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus MG64. Relacidines are composed of a fatty acid side chain (4‐...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 08:02
by Michael G. Reuscher, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Paul A. Montagna The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout off the coast of Louisiana caused the largest marine oil spill on record. Samples were collected 2–3 months after the Macondo well was capped to assess damage to macrofauna and meiofauna communities. An earlier analysis of 58 stations demonstrated severe and moderate damage to an area of 148 km2. An...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:02
In this study, a combination of modified quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe extraction (QuEChERS) and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of multiclass pesticide residues from yogurt samples prior to their determination by fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Factors influencing DLLME efficiency, including type...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Aims Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX1) was reported to be induced by NaCl in plants and NaCl can alleviate the toxic effect in plants caused by cadmium (Cd). However, it is unknown whether the NHX1 gene is involved in Cd adaptation in plants. This study aimed to explore the relationship between Cd resistance and NHX1 in plants. Methods SseNHX1 gene obtained by shuffling using SsNHX1 from...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:17
Radar rainfall nowcasting, the process of statistically extrapolating the most recent rainfall observation, is increasingly used for very‐short‐range rainfall forecasting (less than six hours ahead). We performed a large‐sample analysis of 1533 events, systematically selected for four event durations and twelve lowland catchments (6.5—957 km2), to determine the predictive skill of nowcasting....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Recent in vitro studies reported the exceptional ability of some bacterial species to form biofilm-like aggregates in human and animal synovial fluids (SF), but evidences from infected clinical samples are still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether this bacterial phenotype was present in infected SFs collected from joint infections and if it was maintained in in vitro settings. SFs...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Misuse of antibiotics in veterinary medicine has the potential to generate residues in animal derived products, which could contributing to the development of an important health risk either through the exposu...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 14:06
Investigation of suspect surface contamination in a building may require comparative sampling across different zones to provide meaningful information with regard to contaminant sources, pathways and/or extent of dispersal. However, evaluation of the data using traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) based upon the mean may result in misleading inference when encountering erratic...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) undergo conformational changes upon interaction of the gp120 exterior glycoprotein with the CD4 receptor. The gp120 inner domain topological layers facilitate the transition of Env to the CD4-bound conformation. CD4 engages gp120 by introducing its phenylalanine 43 (Phe43) in a cavity ("the Phe43 cavity") located at the interface between the inner...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major public health threat in part due to the spread of antibiotic resistance and repeated failures to develop a protective vaccine. Infection is associated with production of virulence factors that include exotoxins that attack host barriers and cellular defenses, such as the leukocidin (Luk) family of bicomponent pore-forming toxins. To investigate...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT We propose the concept that administration of an unrelated live attenuated vaccine, such as MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), could serve as a preventive measure against the worst sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is mounting evidence that live attenuated vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of the vaccine by...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Resistance or tolerance to traditional antibiotics is a challenging issue in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Moreover, traditional bactericidal antibiotics kill only actively growing bacterial cells, whereas nongrowing metabolically inactive cells are tolerant to and therefore "persist" in the presence of legacy antibiotics. Here, we report that the diarylurea derivative PQ401, previously...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS) needle comprised of multiple PscF subunits is essential for the translocation of effector toxins into human cells, facilitating the establishment and dissemination of infection. Mutations in the pscF gene provide resistance to the phenoxyacetamide (PhA) series of T3SS inhibitory chemical probes. To better understand PscF functions and...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Leishmaniasis (Leishmania species), sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) are devastating and globally spread diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites. At present, drugs for treating trypanosomatid diseases are far from ideal due to host toxicity, elevated cost, limited access, and increasing rates of drug resistance. Technological advances in...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
In Sudanese traditional medicine, decoctions of the stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpa are used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, this plant has not been investigated before for its antimycobacterial effects. Our screening results show, for the first time, that many extracts of various parts of A. leiocarpa exhibit growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Minimum...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 22:15
PC12 cells were treated with acrylamide (AA) in the absence or presence of P‐CS, and cell apoptosis was analyzed. Interestingly, P‐CS pretreatment of the cells could significantly prevent AA‐induced cell death, glutathione (GSH) contents decrease, and ROS overproduction. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of P‐CS on cell apoptosis revealed that P‐CS was able to...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Julieta Griboff, Juan Cruz Carrizo, Rocío Inés Bonansea, María Eugenia Valdés, Daniel Alberto Wunderlin, María Valeria Amé The occurrence of 46 antibiotics (amphenicols, cephalosporins, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluroquinolones, macrolides, nitrofurans, penicillins, quinolones, sulfamides and tetracyclines) in Argentinean market fish were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS....
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Yiming Zhang, Qingqing Liu, Hang Yin, Shu Li Cadmium (Cd) is a type of toxic metal, in most cases, coming from fuel burning and aquatic plants. The cells of organisms can be caused serious damage, including pyroptosis, exposure to low concentrations of Cd in long-term. Pyroptosis is a recently discovered Caspase-1-mediated cell death. In this study, lymphocytes were extracted from the...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Heelak Choi, Sung-Jin Han, Jong-In Won Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are stimulus–responsive protein-based biopolymers that exhibit phase transition behavior. By joining them to synthetic phytochelatin (EC), EC–ELP fusion proteins with temperature sensitivity and metal-binding functionality were generated to remove heavy metal ions biologically. Three different EC domains (EC10,...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 04:03
A series of novel α-ketoamide derivatives bearing a vanillin skeleton were designed and synthesized. Bioactivity tests on virus and bacteria were performed. The results indicated that some compounds exhibited excellent antitobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities, such as compound 34 exhibited an inactivation activity of 90.1% and curative activity of 51.8% and compound 28 exhibited a curative...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 18:02
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a ubiquitous group of anthropogenic air pollutants that are generated through incomplete carbon combustion. Although the immunotoxic nature of PAHs has been previously reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the mitochondrial-mediated epigenetic regulation of 2...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 16:00
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of environmental and public health concerns and contribute to adverse skin attributes such as premature skin aging and pigmentary disorder. However, little informati...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 08:02
by Jiwon Seo, Dae-Young Kim, Iksung Cho, Geu-Ru Hong, Jong-Won Ha, Chi Young Shim This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of lead-related tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with permanent pacemaker (PM). A total of 2,533 patients who underwent permanent PM implantation between January 2008 and December 2017 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed....
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
The high background value of cadmium (Cd) in the Panax notoginseng planting soil is the main reason for the Cd content in P. notoginseng exceeding the limit standards. The main goal of this study was to reveal the mechanism by which potassium (K) reduces Cd accumulation in P. notoginseng from the perspective of the influences of soil microbial communities on soil pH, total organic matter (TOM)...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 14:05
The methods conventionally used for the extraction of organic pollutants in different environmental matrices are not suitable for measuring low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioaccumulated in terrestrial snails that are both indicator of soil quality and a food item of various consumers including human being. A protocol, adapted from the QuEChERS method, originally designed...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 08:02
by Mohd W. Azam, Amit Kumar, Asad U. Khan Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a growing health problem, which has become a challenge for the physicians to control infection and also an economic burden on the healthcare. This increase in resistance to the present antimicrobial agents led the researchers to find some alternative and more efficient drugs which can fight with the resistant...

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