Chemical contaminants

Sat, 09/19/2020 - 08:04
by Naw May Pearl Cartee, Michael M. Wang Omeprazole is the most commonly used proton pump inhibitor (PPI), a class of medications whose therapeutic mechanism of action involves formation of a disulfide linkage to cysteine residues in the H+/K+ ATPase pump on gastric secretory cells. Covalent linkage between the sole sulfur group of omeprazole and selected cysteine residues of the pump protein...
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 00:00
The reassessment of known but neglected natural compounds is a vital strategy for providing novel lead structures urgently needed to overcome antimicrobial resistance. Scaffolds with resistance-breaking properties represent the most promising candidates for a successful translation into future therapeutics. Our study focuses on chelocardin, a member of the atypical tetracyclines, and its...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 16:00
Petroleum is a very complex and diverse organic mixture. Its composition depends on reservoir location and in situ conditions and changes once crude oil is spilled into the environment, making the characteristics associated with every spill unique. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common components of the crude oil and constitute a group of persistent organic pollutants. Due to their...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
Ergot alkaloids are important specialized fungal metabolites that are used to make potent pharmaceuticals for neurological diseases and disorders. Lysergic acid (LA) and dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA) are desirable lead compounds for pharmaceutical semisynthesis but are typically transient intermediates in the ergot alkaloid and dihydroergot alkaloid pathways. Previous work with Neosartorya fumigata...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
Biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO), which is a Rieske-type oxygenase (RO), catalyzes the initial dioxygenation of biphenyl and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In order to enhance the degradation ability of BPDO in terms of a broader substrate range, the BphAES283M, BphAEp4-S283M, and BphAERR41-S283M variants were created from the parent enzymes BphAELB400, BphAEp4, and BphAERR41, respectively, by...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Vijakhana Pilaisangsuree, Piyanuch Anuwan, Kanitha Supdensong, Pimpimon Lumpa, Anupan Kongbangkerd, Apinun Limmongkon Plants counteract Cd toxicity by activating cellular stress responses. The simultaneous exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD) before Cd exposure improved the response of Arachis hypogaea hairy root culture to the unfavourable...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Antonio León-Vaz, Luis C. Romero, Cecilia Gotor, Rosa León, Javier Vigara Cadmium is one of the most common heavy metals in contaminated aquatic environments and one of the most toxic contaminants for phytoplankton. Nevertheless, there are not enough studies focused on the effect of this metal in algae. Through a proteomic approach, this work shows how Cd can alter the growth, cell...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Pengwei Yao, Hanjun Zhou, Xueli Li, Lin Wei, Jing Wang, Sheng Zhang, Xiefeng Ye Cadmium (Cd) easily accumulates in tobacco, which endangers public health through Cd exposure from smoking. However, its uptake, translocation, and distribution in tobacco plants during plant development or its response to biochar application are poorly understood. A pot experiment was conducted with...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 22:20
In this study, total RNA was extracted from young leaves of maize. Reverse transcription‐PCR (RT‐PCR) method was used to obtain full‐length TGase gene. The amplified fragment was sequenced to have 1,605 bp. The gene consisted of 535 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 60.9 kD. It was identical to the published TGase gene (GenBank NO.AJ421525). The TGase fragment was cloned...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 22:17
Cadmium (Cd) is a common toxic heavy metal in the environment, and bacteria have evolved different strategies against Cd‐toxicity. Here we found that marine bacterium Bacillus sp. 98 could significantly alleviate Cd‐toxicity by recruiting calcium (Ca) for reducing excessive intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and enhancing iron acquisition. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, mass spectrometry‐...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 18:03
Bisphenol A (BPA), an imperative environmental contaminant used in polycarbonate plastics. Due to limited information concerning the effect of BPA on lungs, this study design to assess whether BPA cause alterations in histopathology and trace metal content in lungs of rats. They were divided into five groups with five rats per group. Group I was named as control group. Group L6 and L12 were...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 16:00
Fungi have increased tolerance to environmental stress (also related to the access of pollutants, e.g., trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the mycobiome and functional diversity of fungi in long-term crude-oil contaminated soils as the potential bioremediators of oil contaminated sites. Samples were taken from three historical oil wells...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 16:00
Salicornia ramosissima is a C3 halophyte that grows naturally in South Western Spain salt marshes, under soil salinity and heavy metal pollution (mostly Cu, Zn, As, and Pb) caused by both natural and anthropogenic pressure. However, very few works have reported the phytoremediation potential of S. ramosissima. In this work, we studied a microbe-assisted phytoremediation strategy under greenhouse...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 06:21
Author(s): Xiao-long Hou, Hang Han, Mulualem Tigabu, Qi-yan Li, Zong-xun Li, Chen-lu Zhu, Si-qi Huang, Li-ping Cai, Ai-qin Liu Pogonatherum crinitum is a promising lead (Pb) hyperaccumulator; however, the effects of Pb contamination on P. crinitum rhizosphere soil enzymatic activities and microbial composition remain largely unexplored. Thus, an indoor experiment was conducted by cultivating P....
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 04:02
The distribution and composition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within soil–plant systems around a notorious e-waste recycling site were investigated. The average total PCB concentrations in rhizospheric soils (RSs) and nonrhizospheric soils (NRSs) were 2160 and 1270 pg g–1 dry weight (DW), respectively. PCBs were more enriched in RS than NRS for most vegetable species. PCB accumulation in...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 04:02
Contamination of food and feed items with mycotoxins causes extensive economic damage. It is therefore important to explore environmentally friendly approaches to manage these toxins with less drawbacks. Phytochemicals can provide a safe alternative to synthetic chemicals. This study was designed to investigate the detoxification potential of water-based extracts of Acacia nilotica against...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 02:04
Pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food and environment pose a threat to human health, and a rapid, super-sensitive, accurate and cost-effective analysis technique is therefore highly required to overcome the disadvantages of conventional techniques based on mass spectrometry. Recently, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique emerges as a potential promising analytical...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 00:00
The mechanism of aluminum toxicity was studied in the model cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell growth of yeast was inhibited by aluminum. The spot assay showed that the mechanism of aluminum detoxification in yeast cells was different from that of heavy metal cadmium. After treatment with aluminum, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl, and thiobarbituric acid...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
Lentinula edodes, also known as Xiang’gu, is commonly eaten in cultures around the world. However, L. edodes is particularly susceptible to enrichment with heavy metals, particularly cadmium (Cd), which is toxic to human health. Understanding the molecular mechanism and mining key genes involved in Cd enrichment will facilitate genetic modification of L. edodes strains. Two L. edodes genotypes,...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 16:00
Apilactobacillus kunkeei FF30-6 isolated from healthy honey bees synthesizes the bacteriocin, which exhibits antimicrobial activity against Melissococcus plutonius. The bacteriocin, kunkecin A, was purified through three-step chromatography, and mass spectrometry revealed that its relative molecular mass was 4218.3. Edman degradation of purified kunkecin A showed only the N-terminal residue,...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a recognized environment-related factor for bladder cancer (BCa). Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene might influence BCa by regulating iAs metabolism. The aim of the present study was to explore whether AS3MT polymorphisms could affect BCa susceptibility. We systematically reviewed eligible case-control studies about AS3MT polymorphisms and BCa...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously detected and have been linked to metabolic diseases. Gut microbiome is recognized as a critical regulator of disease susceptibility; however, little is known how PCBs and gut microbiome interact to modulate hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism. We hypothesized the gut microbiome regulates PCB-mediated changes in the metabolic...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Drug-induced liver injury is a major reason for drug candidate attrition from development, denied commercialization, market withdrawal, and restricted prescribing of pharmaceuticals. The metabolic bioactivation of drugs to chemically reactive metabolites (CRMs) contribute to liver-associated adverse drug reactions in humans that often goes undetected in conventional animal toxicology studies. A...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:01
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and an environmental pollutant. However, the full spectrum of its neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that Cd exposure impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. This study aims to determine if these adverse effects of Cd exposure can be mitigated by...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 00:01
Heavy metals are typical cumulative pollutants that can enter and poison the human body through the food chain. However, the molecular mechanism of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress is unclear. In this study, we characterize PvKelch-like-1 from P. vannamei and explore its antioxidant roles in immune regulation of crustaceans. PvKelch-like-1 full length contains 2107 nucleotides, consists of a...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 16:01
Lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) mine tailings pose a great risk to the natural environment and human health because of their high toxicity. In this study, the responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme of Melia azedarach and Ligustrum lucidum in the soil contaminated by Pb–Zn mine tailings were investigated. Results showed that Pb–Zn mine tailings significantly reduced net...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 16:01
In this work, we report the isolation and detailed functional characterization for the new non-ribosomally synthesized antibiotic 5812-A/C, which was derived from metabolites of Streptomyces roseoflavus INA-Ac-5812. According to its chemical structure, the studied 5812-A/C preliminary is composed of a cyclic peptide part covalently bounded with an arabinose residue. N-terminal amino acid...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 08:04
by Hyunhee Park, Eunsong Hwang, Miyeon Jang, Chungsik Yoon Enclosed underground excavation worksite has an environment with poor ventilation and exposure to hazardous substances from diesel engine exhaust and construction materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure level of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 08:04
by Rory F. Little, Markiyan Samborskyy, Peter F. Leadlay The type I polyketide SF2487/A80577 (herein referred to as tetromadurin) is a polyether tetronate ionophore antibiotic produced by the terrestrial Gram-positive bacterium Actinomadura verrucosospora. Tetromadurin is closely related to the polyether tetronates tetronasin (M139603) and tetronomycin, all of which are characterised by...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 02:03
Abstract Aims This research aimed to establish how Hordeum vulgare responds to abiotic and biotic stress affecting in tandem. Methods Plants were inoculated with Heterodera filipjevi and treated with cadmium (Cd) concentration (5 μM) that can occur in the cultivated soil. To verify the hypothesis about participation of increased antioxidative defence in H. vulgare under stress, biochemical and...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 00:00
Bitis arietans is a snake of medical importance, as it is responsible for more accidents in humans and domestic animals than all other African snakes put together. The accidents are characterized by local and systemic alterations, such as inflammation, cardiovascular and hemostatic disturbances, which can lead victims to death or permanent disability. However, little is known about the...
Sun, 09/13/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Congcong Wang, Jiaying He, Tongfei Xu, Hongyu Han, Zhimin Zhu, Lingxue Meng, Qihua Pang, Ruifang Fan The analogues of biphenol A (BPA), including bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol B (BPB), are commonly used to replace the application of BPA in containers and wrappers of daily life. However, their safeties are questioned due to their similar chemical structure and possible physiological...
Sun, 09/13/2020 - 02:03
The use of antimicrobial agents in livestock breeding is inevitable for prophylactic and treatment purposes, in order to maintain health and improve production of food products. However, this practice resulted in development of community resistance to antimicrobials due to residues found in livestock products. Milk is a key nutritional product that’s widely consumed for its high nutritional value...
Sun, 09/13/2020 - 02:03
Snack samples like potato crisp, fried potato, popcorn, and Cheetos have been known as carbohydrate- and protein-rich food. These tasty foods have high potential to contain acrylamide. Genotoxic and carcinogenic effect of acrylamide on human health cause to specific focus for measuring of acrylamide in food samples (Esposito et al. Food Chem Toxicol 108:249–256, 2017). In the present research,...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 08:04
by Taylor R. Nicholas, Jingwei Meng, Benjamin M. Greulich, Teresa Stevie Morris, Peter C. Hollenhorst Aberrant expression of the transcription factor ERG is a key driving event in approximately one-half of all of prostate cancers. Lacking an enzymatic pocket and mainly disordered, the structure of ERG is difficult to exploit for therapeutic design. We recently identified EWS as a specific...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:20
Author(s): Guobing Wang, Qingquan Zhang, Wenchao Du, Renzhang Lin, Jiahua Li, Fuxun Ai, Ying Yin, Rong Ji, Xiaorong Wang, Hongyan Guo In-situ immobilization is an effective and economically viable strategy for remediation of soil extensively polluted with heavy metals. The long-term sustainability is critical for the remediation practice. In the present study, a ten-year experiment was performed...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:20
Author(s): Roxana Quiroga-Flores, Stéphane Guédron, Dario Achá Anthropogenic pressure in the high altitude lakes such as Titicaca and Uru (Bolivia) may favor the production of methylmercury (MeHg) known to accumulate in trophic chains. Periphyton associated with emerged aquatic plants (totoras) from the lake shores accumulates and demethylates MeHg providing a potential cost-effective water...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 02:03
A double signal enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system was developed, which involved graphene-based magnetic dispersion solid-phase extraction (MDSPE) and carboxylated graphene oxide (GO-COOH) materials as amplifying elements in order to achieve real-time determinations of estradiol (E2), diethylstilboestrol (DES), and bisphenol A (BPA) via an indirect competition method. In...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 22:21
Priority pollutants chlorophenols are broadly used chemicals that are persistent in the environment and causing serious human health hazards. The current study introduces a novel adsorbent for the extraction of chlorophenols from river water, surface water, and milk by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with GC. The adsorbent composite was prepared by blending polycaprolactam (nylon‐6...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 18:03
Some snails (Achatina spp) can be used as a biosensor of heavy metal poisoning. This study thus estimated some heavy metal levels, antioxidant markers, and lipid profiles of snails handpicked around cement factory vicinities in Ogun State, Nigeria. Snails and soil samples were collected from Oke, Ewekoro, Papalanto, and Mowodani Imeko-Afon (control site). Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 18:03
Aim:Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting compound and may exacerbate or induce allergic diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there is little evidence regarding the effects of BPA exposure on allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. In the present study, we sought to examine whether exposure to BPA in children is associated with AR.Methods:This study was designed as a case controlled...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 14:07
An immunobiosensor assay was developed for multi-residue screening in bovine milk of the parent amphenicols, thiamphenicol and florfenicol, along with the metabolite florfenicol amine. A polyclonal antibody raised in a rabbit after immunisation with a florfenicol amine-protein conjugate was employed in the assay. Milk samples were subjected to acetonitrile extraction, reconstituted in buffer and...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 08:03
Predictions of drug residues in milk are critical in food protection and are a major consideration in the economics of treatment of mastitis in dairy cows. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NLME) has been advocated as a suitable pharmaco-statistical method for the study of drug residues in milk. Recent developments in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of intramammary drugs...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 04:02
To reduce the use of conventional chemical pesticides, naturally occurring biopesticides such as bacteriophages have emerged as a promising solution, but effectiveness of these biopesticides can be limited because of their UV and desiccation instability. This study developed a biopolymer formulation to improve the phage stability, enhance the antimicrobial activity of phages, and prevent...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 22:23
Background and Aims Ozonated water has been used in vineyards to reduce the use of pesticides because of its presumed efficacy in the control of fungal diseases and the absence of residues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ozonated water treatments on the composition of grapes. Methods and Results Ozonated water was applied to grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 22:19
Variation in inter‐human attractiveness to mosquitoes, and the preference of mosquitoes to bite certain regions on the human host, are possible avenues for identifying lead compounds as potential mosquito attractants or repellents. We report a practical, non‐invasive method for the separation and detection of skin surface chemical compounds and comparison of skin chemical profiles between the...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 22:14
BACKGROUND The contamination of milk by antibiotic residues represents risks to the health of the consumers, therefore they should be monitored. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for the determination of Tylosin residues directly in fluid milk based on mid‐infrared spectroscopy associated to chemometrics, using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR‐...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): Xianlei Jiang, Xupeng Xing, Yingbing Zhang, Chengtu Zhang, Ying Wu, Yongzhong Chen, Ru Meng, Huiqun Jia, Yuyao Cheng, Yong Zhang, Jianmin Su Lead, a common metallic contaminant, is widespread in the living environment, and has deleterious effects on the reproductive systems of humans and animals. Although numerous toxic effects of lead have been reported, the effects and underlying...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 14:06
A QuEChERS multi-residue GC-MS/MS method was developed for determining 160 pesticides in fresh edible snails. The method was validated according to the EU guidance SANTE/12682/2019. Twenty-seven different pesticides were quantified in the 824 samples analysed. Of these, 22.09% contained pesticide residues; in one case six different pesticides. The most frequently quantified pesticides were...

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