Antibiotic residues

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Tue, 08/11/2020 - 16:00
American foulbrood is one of the most serious and yet unsolved problems of beekeeping around the world, because it causes a disease leading to the weakening of the vitality of honey bee populations and huge economic losses both in agriculture and horticulture. The etiological agent of this dangerous disease is an extremely pathogenic spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae, which makes...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 14:07
The antibiotic residues were investigated in raw and pasteurized milk produced in Neyshabur region, Iran. To this end, 82 milk samples, including raw and pasteurized milk of different brands and local raw milk samples of collection centers, were collected from Neyshabur region in two seasons during 2016. The antibiotic four-plate test (FPT) was performed to examine the presence of tetracycline,...
Sat, 08/08/2020 - 04:02
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates for new therapeutics to combat the emergence of an increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, a major obstacle to the systemic application of AMPs is their possible toxicity. In this study, we improved the therapeutic index of the typical AMP F5W-magainin 2 by simultaneously introducing positive charges (+9–+10) and Pro...
Fri, 08/07/2020 - 00:01
Several analgesic &alpha;-conotoxins have been isolated from marine cone snails. Structural modification of native peptides has provided potent and selective analogues for two of its known biological targets&mdash;nicotinic acetylcholine and &gamma;-aminobutyric acid (GABA) G protein-coupled (GABAB) receptors. Both of these molecular targets are implicated in pain pathways. Despite...
Tue, 08/04/2020 - 14:06
The presence of antibiotic residues in foodstuff has been of growing concern in recent years. They are associated with several adverse effects on human health such as the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the contaminated food, weakness of the immune system, allergic or toxic reactions and imbalance of the gut microbiota. Therefore, monitoring of the levels of...
Tue, 08/04/2020 - 02:03
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala-azar) is a vector borne disease caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. To overcome the limitations of currently available drugs for VL, molecular target-based study is a promising tool to develop new drugs to treat this neglected tropical disease. One such target we recently identified from L. donovani (Ld) genome (...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 22:14
Peptide sequencing is critical to the quality control of peptide drugs and functional studies of active peptides. A combination of peptidase digestion and mass spectrometry technology is common for peptide sequencing. However, such methods often cannot obtain the complete sequence of a peptide due to insufficient amino acid sequence information. Here, we developed a method of generating full...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 04:02
Cholesterol is a major carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during infection, and cholesterol utilization plays a significant role in persistence and virulence within host macrophages. Elucidating the mechanism by which cholesterol is degraded may permit the identification of new therapeutic targets. Here, we characterized EchA19 (Rv3516), an enoyl-CoA hydratase involved in...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:19
Babesia ovis is a tick‐transmitted protozoan haemoparasite causing ovine babesiosis in sheep and goats leading to considerable economic loss in Turkey and neighbouring countries. There are no vaccines available, therapeutic drugs leave toxic residues in meat and milk, and tick vector control entails environmental risks. A panel of eight mini‐ and micro‐satellite marker loci was developed and...
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 14:06
Herein, we have successfully established a novel, rapid, and simple lateral-flow immunoassay based on time-resolved fluorescence and biotin-streptavidin to detect the residues of various antibiotics in milk. The fluorescence signal and sensitivity of immunochromatography were enhanced through biotinylated antibody coupled with streptavidin europium microspheres. Moreover, due to the use of a QR...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 22:11
BACKGROUND Sulfamethazine (SMZ), a veterinary drug widely used in animal husbandry, is harmful to human health when excess residues are present in food. In this study, a fast, reliable, and sensitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was developed on the basis of the competitive format by using time‐resolved fluorescent nanobeads (TRFN) as label for the detection of SMZ in egg, honey, and pork...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 04:02
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is an offensive phytopathogen that can invade a wide range of plant hosts to develop bacterial diseases, including the well-known rice bacterial leaf blight. However, few agrochemicals have been identified to effectively prevent and eliminate Xoo-induced diseases. Thus, designing novel antibacterial compounds on the basis of the potential targets from Xoo may...
Sat, 07/25/2020 - 04:02
Amphotericin B (AmB, 1) is the drug of choice for treating the most serious systemic fungal or protozoan infections. Nevertheless, its application is limited by low solubility in aqueous media and serious side effects such as infusion-related reactions, hemolytic toxicity, and nephrotoxicity. Owing to these limitations, it is essential to search for the polyene derivatives with better...
Fri, 07/24/2020 - 08:02
Antibiotic residues are major contaminants in milk because of their frequent use in agriculture and animal husbandry. In particular, streptomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is a potential risk to consumers because of its ototoxicity, anaphylaxis, and growth inhibition. Herein, monoclonal antibodies for streptomycin were conjugated with europium microspheres to serve as detection probes for...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Elisabetta Bonerba, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli, Maria Nobile, Valentina Terio, Federica Di Cesare, Giuseppina Tantillo, Luca Maria Chiesa Honey contaminations could derive from intensive agriculture and industrial activities, but also from beekeeper treatments. In EU no MRLs for antibiotics in honey are set, only a minimum required performance limit for chloramphenicol of 0.3 μg kg...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 02:02
Biochars from Chinese medicine material residues and furfural residues at 300–600 °C (MBC300–MBC600 and FBC300–FBC600) were used as adsorbents for removing tetracycline (TC) from water. The influence of pH and co-existing of cations or low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) was investigated on TC adsorption. Further, the bulk biochars were treated by ball milling into sub-micron particles,...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Even though silver and silver nanoparticles at low concentrations are considered safe for human health, their steadily increasing use and associated release in nature is not without risk since it may result in the selection of silver-resistant microorganisms, thus impeding the utilization of silver as antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, increased resistance to metals may be accompanied by increased...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 08:02
Marbofloxacin (MBF) is a key class of synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is commonly used as a veterinary drug. However, excess residue of MBF in animal-derived food samples, such as milk, is harmful to consumers. In this study, 4 mAb against MBF, namely, M4E3, M7A6, M3C7, and M5C6, were produced. Indirect competitive (ic) ELISA revealed that the M4E3 exhibited the highest sensitivity with...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 00:00
Corynebacterium urealyticum is a non-diphtherial urease-producing clinically relevant corynebacterial, most frequently involved in urinary tract infections. Most of the C. urealyticum clinical isolates are frequently resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 40 C. urealyticum isolated in our institution during the period 2005&ndash;2017 to eight compounds...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 22:12
Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) are hypothesized to exert their toxic effects in wildlife and humans via endocrine disruption. However, very scanty information is available on the underlying molecular interactions that trigger this disruption. In this study, molecular docking simulation was used to predict the susceptibility of 12 nuclear receptors to disruption via PCDD bindings....
Fri, 07/10/2020 - 22:17
In recent years, to increase growth rate and prevent infectious diseases, an excessive use of antibiotics in livestock breeding processes has resulted in the presence of antibiotic residues in animal foods. In this experiment, a new kind of electrochemical sensor is prepared based on magnetic mesoporous hollow carbon microspheres (MHM) as a penicillinase (Pen X) adsorption carrier to rapidly...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 02:04
Larvae of Hermetia illucens, commonly known as black soldier fly, efficiently convert organic waste into nutrient-rich supplements for different applications. Here we performed a preliminary experiment to investigate the dynamics of the H. illucens gut microbiota and changes in the composition of the bacterial community in the residue of the larval feed during rearing. We furthermore quantified...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 22:16
High levels of p‐Coumaric acid was first isolated and identified from Spirulina. Inhibitory kinetics and mechanism of p‐Coumaric acid on two enzymes were studied. Molecular modeling revealed the Spirulina p‐Coumaric acid binding mode. Abstract Spirulina species are edible with high nutritional as well as potential therapeutic values. In this work, we show that phenolic extracts from Spirulina (p‐...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 00:00
Overwhelming empirical evidence has highlighted the contribution of indiscriminate antibiotic usage (ABU) in food animals to the overall burden of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in humans, thus making antibiotic use the main selective pressure driving antibiotic resistance. The social and behavioral perspective on antibiotic use and resistance in poultry is limited. Our study therefore aimed at...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Luca Maria Chiesa, Lucia DeCastelli, Maria Nobile, Francesca Martucci, Giacomo Mosconi, Mauro Fontana, Marta Castrica, Francesco Arioli, Sara Panseri Antibiotics are widely used in livestock production as disease treatment, prevention and improve feeding efficiency. In this study three screenings and a multiclass method by Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass High Resolution Spectrometry...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:14
The development of sustainable agriculture and the increasing antibiotic resistance of human pathogens call for novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we describe the extraction and characterization of a class of cationic circular lipopeptides, for which we propose the name relacidines, from the soil bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus MG64. Relacidines are composed of a fatty acid side chain (4‐...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Misuse of antibiotics in veterinary medicine has the potential to generate residues in animal derived products, which could contributing to the development of an important health risk either through the exposu...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) undergo conformational changes upon interaction of the gp120 exterior glycoprotein with the CD4 receptor. The gp120 inner domain topological layers facilitate the transition of Env to the CD4-bound conformation. CD4 engages gp120 by introducing its phenylalanine 43 (Phe43) in a cavity ("the Phe43 cavity") located at the interface between the inner...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major public health threat in part due to the spread of antibiotic resistance and repeated failures to develop a protective vaccine. Infection is associated with production of virulence factors that include exotoxins that attack host barriers and cellular defenses, such as the leukocidin (Luk) family of bicomponent pore-forming toxins. To investigate...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS) needle comprised of multiple PscF subunits is essential for the translocation of effector toxins into human cells, facilitating the establishment and dissemination of infection. Mutations in the pscF gene provide resistance to the phenoxyacetamide (PhA) series of T3SS inhibitory chemical probes. To better understand PscF functions and...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Julieta Griboff, Juan Cruz Carrizo, Rocío Inés Bonansea, María Eugenia Valdés, Daniel Alberto Wunderlin, María Valeria Amé The occurrence of 46 antibiotics (amphenicols, cephalosporins, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluroquinolones, macrolides, nitrofurans, penicillins, quinolones, sulfamides and tetracyclines) in Argentinean market fish were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS....
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Rifampin is the first-line antituberculosis drug, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase as the molecular target. Unfortunately, M. tuberculosis strains that are resistant to rifampin have been identified in clinical settings, which limits its therapeutic effects. In clinical isolates, S531L and D516V (in Escherichia coli) are two common mutated codons in the gene rpoB, corresponding to...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Ceftazidime-avibactam and cefiderocol are two of the latest generation β-lactam agents that possess expanded activity against highly drug-resistant bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Here, we show that structural changes in AmpC β-lactamases can confer reduced susceptibility to both agents. A multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (Ent385) was...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 04:04
An analytical program for multiclass, multiresidue residue analysis to qualitatively and quantitatively determine veterinary drug compounds in game meats by LC-MS/MS has been developed and validated. The method was validated for the analysis of muscle from bison, deer, elk, and rabbit to test for 112 veterinary drug residues from the following drug classes: β-agonists, anthelmintics, anti-...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 08:02
by Vaithish Velazhahan, Przemyslaw Glaza, Alvaro I. Herrera, Om Prakash, Michal Zolkiewski, Brian V. Geisbrecht, Kathrin Schrick Flavonoids are plant-derived compounds that occur abundantly in fruits and vegetables and have been shown to possess potent anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their direct targets and molecular mechanism of action are not well...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 04:02
Antibiotic residues in consumer foods pose a threat to human health and contribute to increasing antimicrobial resistance. The study was conducted from January to July 2019 in six provinces in Viet Nam. In total, 360 pork samples and 360 chicken meat samples were collected for analysis. The samples were first screened with an ELISA test kit for residues in the beta-lactam, tetracycline and...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 14:05
A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed and validated for the determination of residual peptide antibiotics (bacitracin A, colistin A and B, enramycin A and B, virginiamycin M1 and S1) in bovine milk. LC-HRMS accurate mass data provided the necessary selectivity and sensitivity to quantitate and identify these important antibiotics in milk at...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 14:05
A large number of pesticides used in agricultural practice has been characterized or suspected to be Endocrine Disruptors, with dietary intake to be the major route of consumer’s exposure. In the present study the safety to consumer after the consumption of pome fruits and fruiting vegetables originated from the area of Thessaly, Central Greece was assessed. Objective samplings of 110 samples...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Viridicatumtoxins are a rare class of tetracycline-like antibiotics that strongly inhibit drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Although reported to exhibit in vitro inhibition activity to undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall synthesis, the biological targets and mechanism of action of viridicatumtoxins, especially the drug–target interactions,...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:15
Infant formulas are manufactured products to meet specific nutritional requirements for infants. However, infant formulas can contain harmful substances, such as chemical contaminants and residues, normally due to possible contamination of the raw material or from the production chain. Some studies have demonstrated that veterinary drugs, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, packaging materials...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
Fluralaner, a veterinary drug, is a potential chiral isoxazoline insecticide possessing high insecticidal and acaricidal activity. However, there is little information regarding the enantioselective effect of fluralaner. In this work, a promising chiral detection method was established with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in agricultural products and animal organs to investigate...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
Cytochrome bd (cyt-bd) oxygen reductases have a high affinity to oxygen and use the two electrons provided by ubiquinol or menaquinol, like in mycobacteria, to reduce oxygen to water. Although they do not pump protons from the cytoplasmic to the periplasmic side, they generate a proton motive force due to the release of protons after quinol oxidation. Here, we show that the mycobacterial cyt-bd...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 08:02
by Awwad Radwan, Gamal M. Mahrous Bacterial histidine kinases (HKs) are considered attractive drug targets because of their ability to govern adaptive responses coupled with their ubiquity. There are several classes of HK inhibitors; however, they suffer from drug resistance, poor bioavailability, and a lack of selectivity. The 3D structure of Staphylococcus aureus HK was not isolated in high-...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:39
Many bisphenol A (BPA) analogs have been commercially used recently, such as 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4′-ethylidenebisphenol, 4,4′-methylenediphenol (BPF), 4,4′-(1,4-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol (BPP), 4,4′-dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone (BPS), 4,4′-cyclohexylidenebisphenol (BPZ), 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol (BPAF), 4,4′-(1-phenylethylidene)bisphenol (BPAP), and 2,2-...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:52
by Saki Sultana, Jacklyn Stewart, Aarnoud C. van der Spoel The enzyme β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) is clinically relevant because it is targeted by the drug miglustat (Zavesca®) and because it is involved in inherited diseases. Mutations in the GBA2 gene are associated with two neurological diseases on the ataxia-spasticity spectrum, hereditary spastic paraplegia 46 (SPG46) and Marinesco-Sjögren-like...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:38
The fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. This fungus is considered a facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside macrophages. The survival of the fungus during infection depends on its adaptability to various conditions, such as...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:51
by Kelsey Brown, Maina Mugoh, Douglas R. Call, Sylvia Omulo The use of veterinary antibiotics is largely unregulated in low-income countries. Consequently, food producers rarely observe drug withdrawal periods, contributing to drug residues in food products. Drug residues in milk can cause immunogenic reactions in people, and selectively favor antibiotic-resistant bacteria in unpasteurized...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:38
Multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) were previously believed to drive the extrusion of multiple antimicrobial drugs through the coupling to proton translocation. Here, we present the identification of the first Na+-coupled MFS-MDR transporter, MdrP, which also can achieve H+-coupled drug efflux independently of Na+. Importantly, we propose that MdrP...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:52
Author(s): Sihui Liang, Ningge Jian, Jiankun Cao, Huayin Zhang, Jian Li, Qian Xu, Chunmin Wang In this study, polyaniline modified polyacrylonitrile nanofibers mat (PANI NFsM) was prepared as a novel adsorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug residues in meat or egg samples. The solvent extracts of samples were simply diluted with water to perform the...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:51
Author(s): Elena Bartkiene, Modestas Ruzauskas, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Vytaute Starkute, Egle Zokaityte, Vita Lele, Agila Dauksiene, Michael Grashorn, Ludwig E. Hoelzle, Anara Mendybayeva, Raushan Ryshyanova, Romas Gruzauskas In this study, the presence of antibiotics (ANB) residues was evaluated in poultry meat purchased from German and Lithuanian markets....

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