Chemical contaminants

Tue, 06/16/2020 - 18:02
The aim of this research was to determine concentration, spatial distribution and human health risks of four trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in particulate matter PM10 in the mining and smelting basin, Bor, in Serbia. Based on the results, it was concluded that the air in the Bor Basin does not contain significant trace element concentrations despite mining...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 08:02
The uncontrolled use of pesticides on leafy vegetables has been frequently reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH, total acidity and various technological processes for the preparation of babenda on pesticide residues contained in leafy vegetable. The "babenda" is a Burkinabè dish consisting mainly of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Amaranthus hybridus and Cleome...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Su Lee Kuek, Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi, Raznim Arni Abd Razak, Selamat Jinap, Norliza Saparin, Maimunah Sanny This study aims to investigate the influence of lipid towards acrylamide formation during intermittent frying of French fries. A total of 80 frying cycles were performed on par-fried potato strips in different vegetable oils namely as red palm olein, palm olein, sunflower oil...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Sanjay Saini, Lavi Rani, Neha Shukla, Monisha Banerjee, Debapratim Kar Chowdhuri, Naveen Kumar Gautam Xenobiotic mediated renal toxicity is one of the major health concerns to the organisms, including humans. New chemicals with nephrotoxic potential are continuously being added to the list of existing nephrotoxicants. To predict the nephrotoxicity of these new chemicals, reliable and...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Marco Aurelio M. Freire, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Priscila Cunha Nascimento, Walace Gomes-Leal, Antonio Pereira Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that poses great risk to human health. However, it is still widely used in artisanal gold-mining enterprises around the world, especially in developing countries. Methylmercury (MeHg) is produced environmentally by biomethylation of...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 02:03
It is known that the current treatment for toxoplasmosis causes side effects. Thus, it is essential to develop new therapies with reduced adverse effects while concurrently maintaining broad coverage and prophylactic therapy. Melatonin is a hormone that participates in the circadian cycle in vertebrates and has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral functions. In addition, it has been...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Yanan Yuan, Yehong Han, Dandan Han, Chunliu Yang, Hongyuan Yan Due to the excessive use of pesticides, which presents a threat to public health, large quantities of vegetables and fruits need to be analyzed. Herein, a rapid, low-cost, miniaturized ultrasound-assisted dispersive-filter extraction (UADFE), coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Kristi Tatsi, Thomas H. Hutchinson, Richard D. Handy The bioaccumulation potential and toxic effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to earthworms are poorly understood. Two studies were conducted following OECD TG 222 on Eisenia fetida to assess the effects of CdTe QDs with different coatings and soil ageing respectively. Earthworms were exposed to carboxylate (COOH), ammonium (NH4...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Qingtie Xiao, Yujie Wang, Qixin Lü, Huanhuan Wen, Bolun Han, Shen Chen, Xinyu Zheng, Ruiyu Lin Screening new accumulators of heavy metal and identifying their tolerance, enrichment capacity of heavy metals are currently hot issues in phytoremediation research. A series of hydroponic experiments were conducted to analyze the effects of glutathione and phytochelatins in roots, stems, and...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Alina Wiszniewska, Iwona Kamińska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Elwira Sliwinska, Aleksandra Koźmińska This study compared co-tolerance to salinity and cadmium and investigated its mechanisms in a facultative metallophyte Silene vulgaris originating from distinct habitats. Shoots of calamine (Cal) and non-metallicolous (N-Cal) ecotypes grown in vitro were exposed to 10 and 100 mM NaCl, 5 μM...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 00:00
The discovery of antibiotics has revolutionized the medicine and treatment of microbial infections. However, the current scenario has highlighted the difficulties in marketing new antibiotics and an exponential increase in the appearance of resistant strains. On the other hand, research in the field of drug-discovery has revaluated the potential of natural products as a unique source for new...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 14:05
Starting from the suspicion that the medicinal herbs may contain traces of pesticides and taking into account the risks of patients being exposed to contaminated products, the aim of this research was to evaluate the pesticide residues and the degree of their transfer (%) in three types of preparations (infusion, decoctionand cold maceration), for four medicinal plant species very often used in...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 14:05
In the present study, tea variety and proportions and tea nang production conditions were optimised to improve tea nang flavour, and dynamic changes in polyphenols and acrylamide content were determined. Orthogonal experimental design was adopted to optimise processing of low-acrylamide tea nang through a multi-index integrated evaluation method (MIEM) and a single-index balanced evaluation...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 08:02
by Tugce Olgun, Sydney E. Everhart, Troy Anderson, Judy Wu-Smart Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and wild bees provide critical ecological services that shape and sustain natural, agricultural, and urban landscapes. In recent years, declines in bee populations have highlighted the importance of the pollination services they provide and the need for more research into the reasons for global...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 08:02
by Vaithish Velazhahan, Przemyslaw Glaza, Alvaro I. Herrera, Om Prakash, Michal Zolkiewski, Brian V. Geisbrecht, Kathrin Schrick Flavonoids are plant-derived compounds that occur abundantly in fruits and vegetables and have been shown to possess potent anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their direct targets and molecular mechanism of action are not well...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Huihuang Xiong, Lan Guo, Xuejin Mao, Ting Tan, Hao Wan, Yiqun Wan A magnetic hydrophilic molecularly imprinted material (MIM) with multiple stimuli-responses was prepared for efficient recognition of bisphenol A (BPA). MIM consisted of a magnetic core, an inner silica dioxide shell and an outer hydrophilic polymer shell, responsive for rapid magnetic separation, protection of the...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 02:02
A combined process comprised of electro-Fenton and bioslurry (EF–bioslurry) was developed at lab scale for remediating a real coking plant soil with an initial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of 3605 mg/kg. Sodium citrate was used as a complexant to keep the iron in solution at near-neutral pH conditions for increasing the reaction rate. The appropriate order of application was to...
Sat, 06/13/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Aims The study aimed at characterizing the patterns of natural variation in the tolerance and accumulation capacities for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni) between and within edaphic ecotypes of the Zn/Cd/Ni hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens. Methods Tolerance was assessed in a hydroponic ‘sequential exposure’ test, using the lowest concentration that completely arrested...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most economically important fruits of the Cucurbitaceae family, therefore consideration of potential pesticide residues in the fruit in the context of cucumber breeding and production programs is important. Propamocarb (a pesticide commonly used to prevent downy mildew) is widely used in cucumber cultivation, but the molecular mechanism underlying the...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Increasing food demand under climate change constraints may challenge and strain agricultural systems. The use of crop models to assess genotypes performance across diverse target environments and management practices, i.e., the genetic × environment × management interaction (GEMI), can help understand suitability of genotype and agronomic practices, and possibly accelerate turnaround in plant...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 08:02
Soil cadmium (Cd) pollution threatens food safety. This study aimed to identify genes related to Cd accumulation in rice. Low- (Shennong 315, short for S315) and high- (Shendao 47, short for S47) Cd-accumulative rice cultivars were incubated with CdCl2·2.5H2O. RNA-seq and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were performed to identify the modules and genes associated with Cd-...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 04:03
Plant fungal diseases have caused great decreases in crop quality and yield. As one of the considerable agricultural diseases, cucumber downy mildew (CDM) caused by pseudoperonospora cubensis seriously influences the production of cucumber. Amisulbrom is a commercial agricultural fungicide developed by Nissan Chemical, Ltd., for the control of oomycetes diseases that is highly effective against...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 04:02
Antibiotic residues in consumer foods pose a threat to human health and contribute to increasing antimicrobial resistance. The study was conducted from January to July 2019 in six provinces in Viet Nam. In total, 360 pork samples and 360 chicken meat samples were collected for analysis. The samples were first screened with an ELISA test kit for residues in the beta-lactam, tetracycline and...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 14:05
A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed and validated for the determination of residual peptide antibiotics (bacitracin A, colistin A and B, enramycin A and B, virginiamycin M1 and S1) in bovine milk. LC-HRMS accurate mass data provided the necessary selectivity and sensitivity to quantitate and identify these important antibiotics in milk at...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Ling Zhao, Yan Li, Wenjie Ren, Yang Huang, Xiaomi Wang, Zhaocong Fu, Wenting Ma, Ying Teng, Yongming Luo In this study, 73 samples from soils planted with Panax notoginseng and six P. notoginseng samples were collected in Yunnan Province to investigate the residual levels of six pesticides and their relationships with P. notoginseng and soil. All six pesticides were detected in the...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:17
Two medicinal plants, African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) and Lonicera japonica, traditionally used in West Africa and China were investigated against four spoilage microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Pantoea agglomerans, and Bacillus sp., isolated from mulberry fruit. The aqueous extract of the P. biglobosa (ALB) was potent with average inhibitory zones against four...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:16
In this work, a simple, fast, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method was developed for preconcentration and quantitative measurement of bisphenol A in water samples using GC‐MS instrument. The preconcentration approach, namely biosorption‐based dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction with extractant removal by magnetic nanoparticles was performed based on the formation of microdroplet of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:13
Background Pyraclostrobin and picoxystrobin are two representative pesticides of strobilurins used to treat cucumber downy mildew, which have raised issues of food safety and human health. A new formulation containing these two compounds is being prepared for marketing in China. Results The dissipation and residual levels of pyraclostrobin and picoxystrobin in cucumbers under field conditions...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 18:02
Separation of arsenic and valuable metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sn, In, Ag, Sb, etc.) is a core problem for effective utilization of high arsenic-containing copper smelting ashes (HACSA). This study developed an effective separation process of arsenic, lead, and zinc from HACSA via alkali leaching followed by sulfide precipitation. The separation behaviors and optimum conditions for alkali leaching of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 16:00
The majority of environmental microbiomes are not amenable to cultivation under standard laboratory growth conditions and hence remain uncharacterized. For environmental applications, such as bioremediation, it is necessary to isolate microbes performing the desired function, which may not necessarily be the fast growing or the copiotroph microbiota. Toward this end, cultivation and isolation of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 14:05
A large number of pesticides used in agricultural practice has been characterized or suspected to be Endocrine Disruptors, with dietary intake to be the major route of consumer’s exposure. In the present study the safety to consumer after the consumption of pome fruits and fruiting vegetables originated from the area of Thessaly, Central Greece was assessed. Objective samplings of 110 samples...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 02:03
l-asparaginase (E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important enzyme that has been purified and characterized for over decades to study and evaluate its anti-carcinogenic activity against different lymphoproliferative disorders such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The ability of the enzyme to convert l-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia is the reason behind its anti-cancerous...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 02:02
In this study, groundwater of 10 union councils of Larkana city was assessed by using atomic absorption spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. A total of 110 groundwater samples were collected by using a Global Positioning System. The results revealed that iron, zinc, nickel, copper, and lead present in the groundwater of Larkana city were within the level of 0.002–0.6 mg/L, 0.02–0....
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Gluten‐free quinoa flour (QF) with high protein, low asparagine level, and reducing‐sugars as acrylamide producing agents, is a substitute for wheat flour (WF). This study aims to optimize the biscuit formulation by soft, white WF substitution with QF at five levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), sodium‐bicarbonate at three levels (0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% based on the final dough weight), and...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Praying mantis egg case powder inhibits the accumulation of Cd concentration in catfish bone and muscle tissues and increases its dietary protein content. It also up‐regulated serum NO level in catfish to initiate vasodilatation of bones and muscles for proper blood flow. Finally, it augments the dwindling of myeloperoxidase activity caused by Cd exposure, which has the potential to kills...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Zingerone restored anti‐oxidant enzyme activity (CAT, SOD, GPx, and GR), normalized lipid profile, improved organ function, and prevented tissue injury in kidney and liver. Abstract Among the heavy metal poisonings, lead is considered as a major toxic metal causing hematological, neurological, immunological, hepatic, and renal dysfunctions. Lead causes inhibition of ALAD leading to the ALA...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:15
SUMMARY Glyphosate is a popular, systemic, broad‐spectrum herbicide used in modern agriculture. Being a structural analog of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), it inhibits 5‐enolpyruvylshikimate 3‐phosphate synthase (EPSPS) which is responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and various aromatic secondary metabolites. Taking a lead from glyphosate‐resistant weeds, two mutant variants of the...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Relative to other cytochrome b inhibitors, JAG21 has improved solubility and ADMET properties, without need for pro-drug....
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 04:05
In this work, a new mega-method of sample preparation called “QuEChERSER” (more than QuEChERS) is being presented for the first time. Fast, efficient, and cost-effective analysis of chemical contaminants in meat is useful for international trade, domestic monitoring, risk assessment, and other purposes. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a simple high-throughput mega-method for...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 04:05
The goal of this study was to develop and validate a new method for simultaneous determination of 106 veterinary drugs and 227 pesticides and their metabolites plus 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at and below their regulatory levels established for catfish muscle in the European Union and U.S.A. To do this, two different QuEChERS-based methods for veterinary drugs and pesticides and PCBs...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 04:05
Ricin toxin A subunit (RTA) removes an adenine from the universally conserved sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) on eukaryotic ribosomes, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. No high affinity and selective small molecule therapeutic antidotes have been reported against ricin toxicity. RTA binds to the ribosomal P stalk to access the SRL. The interaction anchors RTA to the P protein C-termini at a well-...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Wei Liu, Chung Chi Le, Dong Wang, Di Ran, Yi Wang, Hongyan Zhao, Jianhong Gu, Hui Zou, Yan Yuan, Jianchun Bian, Zongping Liu Environmental cadmium (Cd) pollution can ultimately lead to chronic toxicity via food consumption. Previous studies have demonstrated that long-term low-dose Cd exposure decreases bone mineral density and bone mineralization. Cd may increase receptor activator of...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Insect growth regulators (IGRs) can cause abnormal growth and development in insects, resulting in incomplete metamorphosis or even death of the larvae. Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and chitinase in insects play indispensable roles in the molting process. Ecdysone analogues and chitinase inhibitors are considered as potential IGRs. In order to find new and highly effective IGR candidates, based on the...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Chemistry campaigns identified amphiphilic indolyl Mannich bases as novel membrane-permeabilizing antimycobacterials. Spiroketal analogs of this series showed increased potency, and the lead compound 1 displayed efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Yet the mechanism by which the spiroketal moiety accomplished the potency “jump” remained unknown. Consistent with its membrane-permeabilizing...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Viridicatumtoxins are a rare class of tetracycline-like antibiotics that strongly inhibit drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Although reported to exhibit in vitro inhibition activity to undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall synthesis, the biological targets and mechanism of action of viridicatumtoxins, especially the drug–target interactions,...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:15
A mesoporous silica was functionalized by carbon nanotubes to enhance the extraction performance. The mesoporous material was coated on stainless steel wires, and three wires were inserted inside of a polyetheretherketone tube for in‐tube solid‐phase microextraction. The tube was coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to obtain online analytical system, then...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:15
Infant formulas are manufactured products to meet specific nutritional requirements for infants. However, infant formulas can contain harmful substances, such as chemical contaminants and residues, normally due to possible contamination of the raw material or from the production chain. Some studies have demonstrated that veterinary drugs, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, packaging materials...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:14
Background Childhood asthma is a multifactorial inflammatory condition of the airways, associated with specific changes in respiratory microbiome and circulating metabolome. Methods To explore the functional capacity of asthmatic microbiome and its intricate connection with the host, we performed shotgun sequencing of airway microbiome and untargeted metabolomics profiling of serum samples in a...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Yingnyu Gao, Ying Wang, Jiang Qian, Wenshuai Si, Qi Tan, Jiyang Xu, Yucheng Zhao Many wild mushroom species are known to immune heavy metals. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains largely unsolved. Melatonin (MT) has been proven to play an important defensive role against various abiotic stresses in plants and animals. This study reports on the presence of MT in edible...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Szu-Chieh Chen, Hsing-Chieh Lin, Wei-Yu Chen We aim to assess the risks of renal dysfunction and osteoporosis that is attributed to the seawater acidification caused cadmium (Cd) level increase in human consumed shellfish. A physiology-based pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate Cd concentrations in urine and blood among shellfish-only consumers and among the general population....

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