Chemical contaminants

Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
Fluralaner, a veterinary drug, is a potential chiral isoxazoline insecticide possessing high insecticidal and acaricidal activity. However, there is little information regarding the enantioselective effect of fluralaner. In this work, a promising chiral detection method was established with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in agricultural products and animal organs to investigate...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
The current study developed an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to simultaneously analyze cascade metabolites of acrylamide in urine of rats and humans, including acrylamide, glycidamide, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteine (AAMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteine-sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-l-cysteine, and N-acetyl-S...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
Cytochrome bd (cyt-bd) oxygen reductases have a high affinity to oxygen and use the two electrons provided by ubiquinol or menaquinol, like in mycobacteria, to reduce oxygen to water. Although they do not pump protons from the cytoplasmic to the periplasmic side, they generate a proton motive force due to the release of protons after quinol oxidation. Here, we show that the mycobacterial cyt-bd...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 02:02
Soil is the support medium for the development of several activities; however, improperly used soils can become a serious environmental issue. The aim of the current study is to determine the concentration of chemical elements in soil used as landfill in Southern Brazil. Samples were collected in different soil profiles and depths and analyzed based on the X-ray fluorescence technique. Results...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 08:02
by Awwad Radwan, Gamal M. Mahrous Bacterial histidine kinases (HKs) are considered attractive drug targets because of their ability to govern adaptive responses coupled with their ubiquity. There are several classes of HK inhibitors; however, they suffer from drug resistance, poor bioavailability, and a lack of selectivity. The 3D structure of Staphylococcus aureus HK was not isolated in high-...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:03
Novel pyrimidine sulfide derivatives containing a dithioacetal and strobilurin moiety were designed and synthesized. Their antiviral activities against tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) were investigated through the tomato chlorosis virus coat protein (ToCVCP)-oriented screening method. Microscale thermophoresis was used to study the interaction between the compound and the ToCVCP. Compounds B13 and...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 02:04
Impact of spraying 50 µM salicylic acid (SA), lead nitrate soil treatments [1 and 2 mM Pb (NO3)2] and their combinations on parsley leaves (Petroselinum crispum L.) for 3 weeks was studied to evaluate leaf symptoms, photosynthetic pigments, anthocyanin, ultrastructure, malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble proteins, phenolic compounds, and guaiacol peroxidase activity (GPOX). Under Pb effect, parsley...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 02:03
This paper investigates the concentrations of PCBs in the water and sediment media and its bio-concentration in the fish host-parasite bentho-pelagic food chain in Epe lagoon. Samples of water, sediment, plankton, mollusks, fish and intestinal helminth parasites were collected from three stations (Oriba, Imode and Ikosi) in Epe Lagoon. Concentration of total PCBs in the surface water and sediment...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:17
In this review and synthesis, we explore how global change can cause populations to become maladapted and how populations, in turn, exhibit adaptive or maladaptive responses to global change. We use the metaphor of a “double‐edged sword” to explore these evolutionary responses to global change. As the double‐edged sword has both beneficial and detrimental effects, evolutionary responses to global...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:11
ABSTRACT Background Fluopyram is a pesticide widely used in tomato and cucumber crops cultivation to control fungal diseases that develop especially in environments with moderate temperatures and high humidity, such as in a greenhouse. The pathway of fluopyram dissipation has been monitored in cucumber and cherry tomato under greenhouse conditions. Results In the greenhouse trials, cherry tomato...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 16:00
Pseudomonas microorganisms are used for bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The overall remediation efficiency is largely dependent on the presence of macro- and micronutrients. Widely varying concentrations of available nitrogen and iron (Fe) in soils were shown to affect residual hydrocarbons in the course of biodegradation. The regulatory mechanisms of expression...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 14:06
An LC-MS/MS multi-residue method was validated for the determination of 59 pesticide residue levels in a chicken egg by using QuEChERS extraction method. The validation parameters used were taken from the SANTE/11813/2017 guideline. The calibration curves for each target pesticide had a good linearity in a range of 1.0 or 2.5 to 100.0 µg kg−1 (r2 ≥ 0.995). Ten per cent of the total pesticides had...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:51
by Shuping Wang, Zhenguang Yan, Pengyuan Wang, Xin Zheng, Juntao Fan Qinhuangdao coastal area is an important mariculture area in North China. Microbial communities play an important role in driving biogeochemical cycle and energy flow. It is necessary to identify the microbial communities and their functions in the coastal mariculture area of Qinhuangdao. In this study, the microbial community...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:51
by Alexandra M. Ward, Rola Yaman, Jon O. Ebbert Background Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; e-cigarettes), consisting of a battery, heating element and e-liquid, have evolved significantly with wide variation in design, components, operating powers, and chemical constituents. Generated aerosols have been reported to contain potentially toxic substances. We conducted a systematic review...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:48
Author(s): Omolola A. Adesanoye, Amos O. Abolaji, Tolulope R. Faloye, Hannah O. Olaoye, Adeola O. Adedara Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used in the production of various plastic materials. It is associated with reproductive, immunological and neurological disorders. Luteolin, a flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and free radical...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:39
Many bisphenol A (BPA) analogs have been commercially used recently, such as 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4′-ethylidenebisphenol, 4,4′-methylenediphenol (BPF), 4,4′-(1,4-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol (BPP), 4,4′-dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone (BPS), 4,4′-cyclohexylidenebisphenol (BPZ), 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol (BPAF), 4,4′-(1-phenylethylidene)bisphenol (BPAP), and 2,2-...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:39
Lead is a nonessential metal which enters the body through various means and is considered as one of the most common health toxins. Several cases of lead poisoning are reported as a result of inhalation or ingestion of lead in employees working as painters, smelters, electric accumulator manufacturers, compositors, auto mechanics, and miners. In addition to occupational lead exposure, several...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:38
Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide widely used for agricultural crops and for vector control of Aedes aegypti. Humans are exposed to this environmental contaminant by ingesting contaminated food. The juvenile and peripubertal periods are critical for the postnatal development of the epididymis and are when animals are most vulnerable to toxic agents. Since juveniles and adolescents are...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:52
by Saki Sultana, Jacklyn Stewart, Aarnoud C. van der Spoel The enzyme β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) is clinically relevant because it is targeted by the drug miglustat (Zavesca®) and because it is involved in inherited diseases. Mutations in the GBA2 gene are associated with two neurological diseases on the ataxia-spasticity spectrum, hereditary spastic paraplegia 46 (SPG46) and Marinesco-Sjögren-like...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:40
Metal based packaging materials provide excellent barrier properties and hence, being used widely in food packaging applications. They are used in different package forms and also as closures such as for glass bottles and composite cans. Major health and product safety concerns of metal packaging comprise migration of bisphenol A, lead, cadmium, mercury, aluminium, iron, nickel, bulging of cans,...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:38
The fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. This fungus is considered a facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside macrophages. The survival of the fungus during infection depends on its adaptability to various conditions, such as...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:52
Carboxylesterase PytH, isolated from the pyrethroid-degrading bacterium Sphingobium faniae JZ-2, could rapidly hydrolyze the ester bond of a wide range of pyrethroid pesticides, including permethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, cyhalothrin, and bifenthrin. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of PytH, we report here the crystal structures of PytH with bifenthrin (BIF)...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:51
Author(s): Marcella Malavolti, Susan J. Fairweather-Tait, Carlotta Malagoli, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal released into the environment after natural and anthropogenic activities. Excluding populations in occupations where there is possible lead contamination, food is the major source of human exposure. In this study, we determined lead...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:50
Author(s): Lijin Huang, Wan Huang, Rujia Shen, Qin Shuai In this work, a facile solid phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the analysis of trace Pb2+ and Cd2+ by using chitosan/thiol modified metal-organic frameworks (CS/MOF-SH) composite as adsorbent followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS) detection. The potential influencing factors, such as solution pH,...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Yin-Han Wang, Chia-Fang Wu, Chia-Chu Liu, Tusty-Jiuan Hsieh, Yi-Chun Tsai, Ming-Tsang Wu, Chu-Chih Chen Environmental exposure to melamine has been associated with early renal injury in urolithiasis patients even when urinary concentrations of melamine are low. The aim of this study was to derive a benchmark dose (BMD) for melamine for urolithiasis patients. To do this, one-spot urine...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Jin Liu, Lingfeng Zeng, Siqi Zhuang, Chenyun Zhang, Yuchen Li, Jianlin Zhu, Wenchang Zhang Exposure to the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) in the environment is linked to adverse health. To fully understand the adverse effects of this important endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) requires studies that address multigenerational effects and epigenetic mechanisms. The present study orally dosed...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:41
BACKGROUND Pesticides are widely utilized worldwide to control undesirable life forms during the planting procedure in agriculture. But they can pollute the nature and jeopardize human wellbeing. Additionally, on account of high resistance and biological activity; pesticides are able to accumulate in living organs and lead to acute and long‐term negative effects along with toxicity. Milk and...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:41
European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is the major species of interest for nutritional uses within the Betulaceae family and its nuts are widely used throughout the world in the chocolate, confectionery and bakery industries. Recently his cultivation has been expanded in traditional producer countries as well as established in new places in the Southern Hemisphere, including Chile, South Africa...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:40
Biochar was for the first time produced from Suaeda glauca. The immobilization of Pb and Cd by this biochar and pig manure biochar was examined in two types of soils by diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction. Addition of biochars decreased DTPA extractable Pb and Cd in Fluvo-aquic soil with reduction rates being 11.3%–48.4% and 0.74%–64.9% compared with the control treatment. The...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:40
Fourteen pesticides were screened and determined through quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction process combined with GC-MS/MS in arid agriculture soil. The aims of the current investigation were to account the occurrence of organochlorine (OCP) and organophosphates (OPP) pesticide residues as well as other groups of pyrethroids (PYRs), carbamates, and biopesticides...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread pollutant that is toxic to living organisms. Previous studies have identified certain WRKY transcription factors, which confer Cd tolerance in different plant species. In the present study, we have identified 29 Cd-responsive WRKY genes in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and confirmed that 26 of those GmWRKY genes were up-regulated, while 3 were down-regulated. We...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
A number of metal hyperaccumulator plants, including nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulators, have been identified in the genus Noccaea. The ability to accumulate Ni in shoots varies widely among species and ecotypes in this genus; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this intra- and inter-specific variation. Here, in hydroponic culture, we compared Ni accumulation patterns...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Rhizosphere microbiome significantly influences plant growth and productivity. Legume crops such as pea have often been used as a rotation crop along with rice cultivation in long-term conservation agriculture experiments in the acidic soils of the northeast region of India. It is essential to understand how the pea plant influences the soil communities and shapes its rhizosphere microbiome. It...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Cadmium, although not redox active is highly toxic. Yet, the underlying mechanisms driving toxicity are still to be characterized. In this study, we took advantage of the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus strain with defective Cd2 +-efflux system to identify targets of this metal. Exposure of the ΔcadA strain to Cd2 + causes a decrease in the photosystem amount and in the activity of...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
Antibiotic resistance and viral diseases are rising around the world and are becoming major threats to global health, food security, and development. One measure that has been suggested to mitigate this crisis is the development of new antibiotics. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns...
Tue, 06/02/2020 - 03:42
Lead (Pb), a well‐known toxic metal, has a potential of adverse effects on human health. Selenium (Se) can reduce the toxicity caused by heavy metals. In this study, we investigated the protection mechanism of the purified Se‐enriched rice protein hydrolysates (SPHs‐2) on the Pb2+‐induced cytotoxicity. A Caco‐2 cell model was established to characterize the effect of SPHs‐2 on Pb2+ absorption in...
Mon, 06/01/2020 - 03:47
Author(s): Lingfei Ma, Yanfei Wang, Haipu Li, Fangyuan Peng, Bo Qiu, Zhaoguang Yang Monitoring neonicotinoid residues in grains is of significant interest for the proper assessment of pesticide exposure to human. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (QuEChERS-DLLME) was developed for extracting, purifying,...
Mon, 06/01/2020 - 03:39
BACKGROUND The use of pesticides during tea plant cultivation support agricultural production and prevents and controls pests, diseases, and weeds. It is of the utmost importance to balance pesticide application with tea quality, safety, and consumer health. The uptake of pesticides into plants may lead to the presence of residues that are hazardous to human health, especially for some foliar‐...
Mon, 06/01/2020 - 03:38
A soft coral-derived fungus Penicillium sp. among other isolates e high antibacterial, anti-yeast and cytotoxic activities. The fungus, Penicillium sp. MMA, isolated from Sarcphyton glaucoma, afforded nine diverse compounds (1–9). Their structures were identified by 1D and 2 D NMR and ESI–MS spectroscopic data as two alkaloids: veridicatol (1), aurantiomide C (2); one sesquiterpene, aspterric...
Sun, 05/31/2020 - 03:48
Author(s): Yuchen Zhu, Yinghua Luo, Guoyu Sun, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen The inhibition effects of glutathione (GSH) on acrylamide (AA) in the asparagine/glucose model systems and cookies were investigated. The formation of AA was significantly inhibited by GSH addition in the model systems. The decreasing levels of AA were in the range of 38-86%, 57-82%, and 3-41% at 120, 140, and 160...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:53
Author(s): Maria Alessia Schouten, Jessica Genovese, Silvia Tappi, Alessandra Di Francesco, Elena Baraldi, Manuela Cortese, Giovanni Caprioli, Simone Angeloni, Sauro Vittori, Pietro Rocculi, Santina Romani The aim of this research was to evaluate the reduction of acrylamide (AA) formation in potato chips applying innovative pre-treatments. Raw potato slices were subjected for 5 and 15 min to:...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:51
Author(s): Long Wu, Weimin Zhang, Chen Liu, Mohamed F. Foda, Yongheng Zhu In this work, based on the strawberry-like SiO2/Ag nanocomposites (SANC) immersed filter paper, a newly surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was constructed for the detection of acrylamide (AAm) in food products. To construct filter paper-based SANC (F-SANC) SERS substrates, SiO2 nanoparticles (SNP) were...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:45
Sediment samples were taken from sediment adjacent to an urban river in Sheffield in Northern England that had suffered heavy metal pollution due to previous activity of the steel industry (between the 17th and 19th centuries). The most abundant heavy metals found in the samples were lead, chromium, nickel, arsenic and cobalt, with maximum concentrations of 412.80 mg kg‐1 25.232 mg kg‐1, 25.196...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:51
by Kelsey Brown, Maina Mugoh, Douglas R. Call, Sylvia Omulo The use of veterinary antibiotics is largely unregulated in low-income countries. Consequently, food producers rarely observe drug withdrawal periods, contributing to drug residues in food products. Drug residues in milk can cause immunogenic reactions in people, and selectively favor antibiotic-resistant bacteria in unpasteurized...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:42
Lake and adjoining river ecosystems are ecologically and economically valuable and are heavily threatened by anthropogenic activities. Determining the inherent capacity of ecosystems for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation can help quantify environmental impacts on the functioning of ecosystems, especially on that of the microbial community. Here, PAH biodegradation potential was...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:41
Melanoidins, formed at the final stages of Maillard reaction (MR) present important physiological activities, but their structure and reaction pathways are largely unknown in real food systems. In the present work, these bioactive compounds derived from Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) with different roasting degrees were analyzed. Results showed that BSG could be considered a more important source of...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:40
A dozen or so chemicals modify both cholesterol and copper metabolism. Ascorbic acid and cadmium, etc., inhibit copper metabolism and raise cholesterol. Calcium and clofibrate, etc., enhance copper and lower cholesterol. Perhaps the doses of dietary cholesterol and fructose in this experiment were too severe to permit fenofibrate to lower cholesterol in a manner similar to clofibrate. © 2020...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:39
The effect of pulsed light (PL) on numerous important quality characteristics of pineapple juice was studied and compared with untreated and thermally pasteurised samples. The laboratory scale PL batch system used was operated with each three different voltages (1.8, 2.1, and 2.4 kV) and numbers of pulses (47, 94, and 187). Treatments with 2.4 kV and either 94 or 187 pulses (757/1479 J·cm−2)...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:39
ABSTRACT Our understanding of environmental factors controlling prokaryotic community is largely hampered by the large environmental variability across spatial scales (e.g. trace metal contamination, nutrient enrichment and physicochemical variations) and the broad diversity of bacterial pre-exposure to environmental factors. In this article, we investigated the specific influence of copper (Cu...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:38
This work examines polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in yard trash at various stages of the yard trash management cycle of collection, stockpiling, grinding and screening into mulch, and composting. Total extractable PAH concentrations were measured in yard trash at various management stages from 10 locations in Florida. The concentrations of 16 PAH compounds in processed yard...

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