Chemical contaminants

Sun, 07/19/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Zhi-Quan Liu, Hong-Li Li, Xian-Jie Zeng, Cheng Lu, Jing-Ying Fu, Li-Jun Guo, Kimani Wilson Mwangi, Hui-Li Yan, Zhen-Yan He, Huai-Qing Hao, Hai-Chun Jing With increasing environmental pressure and soil pollution, sustainable energy and food production for a steadily growing world population is a grand challenge. Globally, nearly 12 million hectares of croplands are contaminated by...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Elisabetta Bonerba, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli, Maria Nobile, Valentina Terio, Federica Di Cesare, Giuseppina Tantillo, Luca Maria Chiesa Honey contaminations could derive from intensive agriculture and industrial activities, but also from beekeeper treatments. In EU no MRLs for antibiotics in honey are set, only a minimum required performance limit for chloramphenicol of 0.3 μg kg...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Chow-Feng Chiang, Kuo-Chiang Hsu, Tseng-Yu Tsai, Chih-Yun Cho, Chuan-Hsiang Hsu, Deng-Jye Yang Optimal QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) conditions with good accuracy, repeatability and precision were established to rapidly extract the European Union (EU) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various food matrices (Category: Poultry and Meat,...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Hao Zhang, Lingyu Luan, Mengjiao Bi, Lining Zhao, Lin Yuan, Jia Feng, Rutao Liu Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) play vital roles in elimination of hydroperoxide and other reactive oxygen species through catalyzing reduced glutathione to protect from oxidative stress caused by heavy metals such as lead. Among the family of Gpxs, Gpx3 is the only extracellular enzyme synthesized in the...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 04:01
The clinical management of bacterial biofilm infections represents an enormous challenge in today’s healthcare setting. The NIH estimates that 65% of bacterial infections are biofilm-related, and therapeutic outcomes are positively correlated with early intervention. Currently, there is no reliable imaging technique to detect biofilm infections in vivo, and current clinical protocols for accurate...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 02:02
Biochars from Chinese medicine material residues and furfural residues at 300–600 °C (MBC300–MBC600 and FBC300–FBC600) were used as adsorbents for removing tetracycline (TC) from water. The influence of pH and co-existing of cations or low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) was investigated on TC adsorption. Further, the bulk biochars were treated by ball milling into sub-micron particles,...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 14:05
Festuca rubra L. plants are pseudometallophytes colonizing abandoned Pb/Zn mine areas, successfully employed in phytostabilization. To study the contribution of low-molecular weight organic acids to metal tolerance, F. rubra plants were grown for three months in hydroponics with Cd (1.8, 18 and 36 µmol L−1), Pb (50, 250 and 500 µmol L−1) and Zn (0.3, 3 and 6 mmol L−1), separately, and in ternary...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 08:02
by Weihao Hong, Wenzhao Cheng, Tingjin Zheng, Nan Jiang, Ruian Xu Establishing latent infection but retaining the capability to reactivate in certain circumstance is an ingenious tactic for retroviruses to persist in vivo while evading host immune surveillance. Many evidences indicate that Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is not completely silent in vivo. However, signals that trigger...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Aoi Takama, Hiroko Matsubara, Seon Hwa Lee, Tomoyuki Oe Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic industrial chemical but is also found in heated potato foods such as French fries due to the Maillard reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars. However, high-temperature cooking is often required for flavoring, browning, and sterilizing of raw ingredients. Imidazole dipeptides, such as carnosine...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Xuejing Wen, Yu Ding, Zilong Tan, Jingxin Wang, Daoyuan Zhang, Yucheng Wang Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious global environmental pollutants, which inhibits plant growth and interferes with their physiological processes. However, there have been few studies on the involvement of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in Cd tolerance. In the present study, we identified the lncRNAs from...
Sat, 07/18/2020 - 02:02
The results of the Multi-Purpose Geochemical Survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) show that the pollution is serious. In this study, the influence of geological genesis, soil-forming process, and human activities on soil quality in PRD is analyzed, and the influence factors, genesis and spatial distributional characteristics of cadmium (Cd) in different soil depths are studied by inverse...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Wheat productivity has been significantly improved worldwide through the incorporation of novel genes from various gene pools, not least from wild relatives of wheat, into the commonly cultivated bread and durum wheat. Here, we present and summarize results obtained from a diverse set of wheat-alien introgression lines with mainly introgressions of rye, but also of Leymus spp. and Thinopyrum...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Toxic heavy metals and metalloids in agricultural ecosystems are crucial factors that limit global crop productivity and food safety. Industrial toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium, lead, and arsenic have contaminated large areas of arable land in the world and their accumulation in the edible parts of crops is causing serious health risks to humans and animals. Plants have co-...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Even though silver and silver nanoparticles at low concentrations are considered safe for human health, their steadily increasing use and associated release in nature is not without risk since it may result in the selection of silver-resistant microorganisms, thus impeding the utilization of silver as antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, increased resistance to metals may be accompanied by increased...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 08:02
Marbofloxacin (MBF) is a key class of synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is commonly used as a veterinary drug. However, excess residue of MBF in animal-derived food samples, such as milk, is harmful to consumers. In this study, 4 mAb against MBF, namely, M4E3, M7A6, M3C7, and M5C6, were produced. Indirect competitive (ic) ELISA revealed that the M4E3 exhibited the highest sensitivity with...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Shuying Geng, Wei Cao, Jing Yuan, Yingying Wang, Yanqing Guo, Aizhong Ding, Yi Zhu, Junfeng Dou Numerous studies have enriched our knowledge of the microbial community composition and metabolic versatility of contaminated soil. However, there remains a substantial gap regarding the bioassembly patterns of the indigenous microbial community distribution in contaminated deep soils....
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Marziyeh Heidari, Kamal Ghanemi, Yadollah Nikpour In the present study, silver (Ag) atoms were chemically deposited on γ-alumina (Al2O3) nanospheres to be further functionalized with trithiocyanuric acid (TTC). The result was Al2O3@Ag@TTC composites, which were used for the selective extraction and preconcentration of Fe (III) and Pb (II) ions in seawater and river water samples. TTC...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Fang Huang, Hong Zhou, Jiaofeng Gu, Canyang Liu, Wenjun Yang, Bohan Liao, Hang Zhou Planting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) instead of rice in the area contaminated with heavy metals is one of the measures to ensure people's health and agricultural economy. Therefore, it is important to screen the low accumulation cultivars of sweet potato and to find out the concentration...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 02:02
Whey protein-based supplements are one of the most consumed products to improve performance, and they are, generally, recognized as being safe. However, recent studies indicated different types of adulterations in these products, including the presence of diuretics and stimulants, allowing the possibility of contamination by other substances with pharmacological activities, such as anabolic...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 02:02
For plant growth, cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and easily accumulated element but silicon (Si) is beneficial. To explore the alleviating effect of Si on Cd toxicity to plants in Cd-contaminated calcareous soil, the effect of Si on Cd absorption was investigated for cucumber organs in pot experiments. The Cd concentration of cucumber organs using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Si...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 02:02
The concentrations of heavy metal (copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) were measured in Acer(A.) pseudoplatanus tree bark to evaluate its suitability as a bioindicator of air pollution in downtown Toronto, Canada. The analysis of digested tree bark samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for Cu, Mn...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 18:02
Lead (Pb) is one of several environmental pollutants that adversely affect human health by producing toxicity at the tissue level. The aim of the study was to understand the effects of Pb on the metabolic profiles of liver and gastrocnemius muscle of mice in relation to carbohydrate and fat metabolisms. Swiss albino mice were chosen and divided into two groups, control and Pb-treated. The Pb-...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 08:02
by Jones A. Kapeleka, Elingarami Sauli, Omowunmi Sadik, Patrick A. Ndakidemi This study was carried out to investigate the risks of simultaneous exposure to pesticide residues and bacteria contaminants in locally produced fresh vegetables and vegetables in Tanzania. A total of 613 samples were analyzed for pesticide residues, out of which 250 were also analyzed for bacterial contamination....
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 02:02
Global pollution of mercury (Hg) threatens ecosystem and human health. We measured total Hg (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in filter-feeding blackfly (Simulium spp.) larvae in the inflows and the outflows of six boreal lakes with no Hg point source pollution. THg in the larvae ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 mg kg−1 dw and MMHg between 0.02 and 0.25 mg kg−1 dw. The proportion of MMHg...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 22:15
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most persistent xenobiotic compounds, with high toxicity effects. Mycoremediation with halophilic Aspergillus sydowii was used for their removal from a hypersaline medium (1 M NaCl). A. sydowii used PAHs as sole carbon sources, resulting in the removal of up to 90% for both PAHs (benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe)) after 10 days....
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 22:13
The relationship between urinary β2‐microglobulin (β2‐MG) and the risk of all‐cause mortality and cause‐specific mortality in a cadmium (Cd)‐polluted area was investigated in 3139 inhabitants (1404 men and 1735 women) of the Kakehashi River basin in Japan at 35‐year follow‐up. The subjects had been participants in the 1981–1982 health impact survey that assessed Cd‐induced renal dysfunction, as...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 16:00
Although most point sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are at lower latitudes, the Arctic region is contaminated. In particular, PAHs now dominate the POP body burden of the region’s marine biota at the lower trophic levels. Greenlandic Inuits have the most elevated levels of POPs in their blood compared to any other population, due...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 16:00
Biodegradation of phenol using bacteria is recognized as an efficient, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach for reducing phenol pollutants compared to the current conventional physicochemical processes adopted. A potential phenol degrading bacterial strain Glutamicibacter nicotianae MSSRFPD35 was isolated and identified from Canna indica rhizosphere grown in distillery effluent...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 08:02
Chronic stress has been widely proposed to increase systemic inflammation, a pathway that may link stress with a heightened risk for many diseases. The chronic stress–inflammation relationship has been challenging to study in humans, however, and family caregiving has been identified as one type of stressful situation that might lead...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 08:02
Toxicants such as organochlorine insecticides, lead ammunition, and veterinary drugs have caused severe wildlife poisoning, pushing the populations of several apex species to the edge of extinction. These prime cases epitomize the serious threat that wildlife poisoning poses to biodiversity. Much of the evidence on population effects of wildlife poisoning...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 08:02
This study investigates glass finds from the Iberian Peninsula as a proxy for identifying the mechanisms underlying technological transformations and innovation in the wake of the Arab conquest in the seventh and eighth centuries CE. High-resolution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data combined with lead isotope analyses of...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 08:02
Origins of lead glassmaking in Spain Aerial view of the excavation area of the Rabad of Šaqunda with the Aljama Mosque of Córdoba, Spain, in the background. Image credit: Municipal Planning Department of Córdoba—University of Córdoba. Before the eighth century, glassmaking centers on the Levantine coast and in Egypt supplied...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Yingfei Sun, Shaogang Hu, Pan Zhang, Khaled Elmaadawy, Yan Ke, Jiahao Li, Mingyang Li, Jingping Hu, Bingchuan Liu, Jiakuan Yang, Sha Liang, Keke Xiao, Huijie Hou Geopolymers have been introduced as a promising strategy for the solidification/stabilization (s/s) of heavy metals due to its sustainability and environmental friendliness. However, it usually takes a long curing time to...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Saud Alamri, Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha, Vijay Pratap Singh, Manzer H. Siddiqui In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to elucidate mechanism(s) that are associated with differential effects of low (5 μM) and high (25 μM) dose of cadmium (Cd) stress in tomato. Furthermore, emphasis has also been focused on any involvement of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in differential...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 04:02
A novel type of temperature and pH dual-stimuli-responsive microspheric soil conditioner was prepared for the controlled release of urea. First, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [P(NIPAM-co-MAA)] was synthesized, and the microspheric soil conditioner was prepared on the basis of chitosan-coated P(NIPAM-co-MAA) via the emulsion cross-linking method. The structure and morphology of...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 02:03
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that pose a threat to environment and human health. Aiming at predicting PCBs risk in actual soil ecosystem, this study was conducted by chemical and biological methods to assess the bioavailability of PCBs in spiked soil, and in field-contaminated soils before or after remediation. The three chemical methods were...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 02:02
The main objective of this research was to study the feasibility of using algal and algal-activated sludge systems in treating laundry wastewater. Three different types of systems—green microalgae (system A), diatoms + activated sludge (system B), and green microalgae + activated sludge (system C)—were studied at six different solid retention times (SRT)—6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 days—to evaluate...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 22:16
In order to enhance the extraction performance, a mesoporous silica was modified with ordered mesoporous carbon for solid‐phase microextraction. Three stainless steel wires coated with the mesoporous material were placed in a polyetheretherketone tube for getting an extraction tube. The tube was coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, and the online analysis...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 22:16
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key mechanism by which saturated fatty acids (SFA) result in the development and progression of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). SFA increases liver fat, decreases the efficiency of the respiratory transport chain and results in the production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmatic reticulum stress. SFA also affect the composition of mitochondrial...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 22:13
Bisphenol A (BPA), as a common industrial component, is generally consumed in the synthesis of polymeric materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the detrimental effects of BPA, BPA‐induced microRNA (miRNA) alterations were investigated. A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases to evoke relevant published data up to August 10, 2019. We identified...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 16:00
Gas gangrene, caused mainly by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), causes death within 48 h of onset. Limited therapeutic strategies are available, and it is associated with extremely high mortality. Both C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA) and perfringolysin O (PFO) are important virulence factors in the development of gas gangrene, suggesting that they are therapeutic...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 14:05
The current study was devoted to evaluate the concentration of acrylamide among different food products based on subgroups such as type of product, country, and analytical methods with the aid of a meta-analysis. Additionally, the impacts of the human development index (HDI) and gross domestic product (GDP) on acrylamide concentration were discussed using a meta-regression analysis. In this...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Jozef Kováčik, Giuseppe Micalizzi, Sławomir Dresler, Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior, Emanuela Ragosta, Luigi Mondello Responses of common medicinal herb Matricaria chamomilla to short-term cadmium (Cd) exposure (48 h) alone or in combination with nitric oxide (NO) scavenger (PTIO) or donor (SNP) were studied. Modulators revealed expected impact on NO formation (depletion under PTIO but...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 02:03
Molecular biomarkers play an increasing crucial role in evaluating and predicting toxicity of metals. Expressions patterns of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, immune and inflammation response in the Bufo gargarizans embryo exhibited a development dependent manner. The genes related to oxidative stress (HSP, GPx and SOD) are the first response in the development of embryo, followed by...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 02:03
Marigold (Calendula calypso) is a multipurpose ornamental plant, but its cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential is unknown. The proposed study was carried out to unravel Cd partitioning, physiological and oxidative stress responses of C. calypso grown under Cd stress. Plants were grown for four months in pots having different soil Cd levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg kg−1 soil....
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 00:00
Corynebacterium urealyticum is a non-diphtherial urease-producing clinically relevant corynebacterial, most frequently involved in urinary tract infections. Most of the C. urealyticum clinical isolates are frequently resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 40 C. urealyticum isolated in our institution during the period 2005–2017 to eight compounds...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 22:12
Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) are hypothesized to exert their toxic effects in wildlife and humans via endocrine disruption. However, very scanty information is available on the underlying molecular interactions that trigger this disruption. In this study, molecular docking simulation was used to predict the susceptibility of 12 nuclear receptors to disruption via PCDD bindings....
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 12:00
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates developmental toxicity of several xenobiotic classes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Using embryonic zebrafish, we previously identified 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that caused a novel phenotype among AHR ligands—growth of a lateral, duplicate caudal fin fold. The window of sensitivity to the most potent inducer of this phenotype,...
Mon, 07/13/2020 - 02:03
Abstract Insect and mite pests are damaging stressors that are threatening the cultivation of tea plants, which result in enormous crop loss. Over the years, the effectiveness of synthetic pesticides has allowed for its prominent application as a control strategy. However, the adverse effects of synthetic pesticides in terms of pesticide residue, environmental contamination and insect pest...
Sun, 07/12/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Weiming Chen, Fan Wang, Zhi Li, Qibin Li Fly ash is a hazardous material that is produced from municipal solid waste incineration. It contains heavy metals and should be properly treated to meet landfill entry requirements. In this study, under the precondition that the leachable concentration of lead (Pb) exceeded the limit value for landfill disposal, the effects of cement...

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