Chemical contaminants

Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Nathan C. Twaddle, Frederick A. Beland, Daniel R. DoergeAbstractArsenic is a common toxic contaminant in food and drinking water. Metabolic activation of arsenic species produces reactive trivalent intermediates that can disrupt cellular regulatory systems by covalent binding to thiol groups. Arsenic exposures have been associated with human diseases including cancer, diabetes, lung...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Chuang Ma, Fu-Yong Liu, Bin Hu, Ming-Bao Wei, Ji-Hong Zhao, Ke Zhang, Hong-Zhong ZhangAbstractA field experiment was conducted to assess the atmospheric deposition effects on lead (Pb) contamination in wheat by two contrasting treatments: wheat exposed or not to atmospheric deposition. Plants were housed in a shed during wheat greening for the non-exposed treatment. The Pb contents of...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:31
A multidisciplinary approach was carried out in order to study the biodeterioration and the associated microbiome of a XVIII Century wax seal coloured with minium. A small wax seal fragment was observed by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy in non‐destructive mode. The same object was analysed by Raman and Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy. The...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:32
Salmonella genomic island 3 (SGI3) was first described as a chromosomal island in Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:–, a monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The SGI3 DNA sequence detected from Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:– isolated in Japan was identical to that of a previously reported one across entire length of 81 kb. SGI3 consists of 86 open reading frames...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:32
In the quest for new antibacterial lead structures, activity screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis identified antitubercular effects of gallic acid derivatives isolated from the Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that 3-O-methyl-alkylgallates comprising aliphatic ester chains with four to eight carbon atoms showed the strongest growth...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Fabián Lorenzo-Diaz, Inmaculada Moreno-Córdoba, Manuel EspinosaAbstractStreptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic and opportunistic Gram-positive bacterium that is the leading cause of community-acquired respiratory diseases, varying from mild- to deathly- infections. The appearance of antibiotic-resistant isolates has prompted the search for novel strategies and targets to tackle the...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:22
Chimney sweeps have higher incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD), likely related to their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to identify underlying mechanisms of PAH-related CVD, we here investigated whether PAH exposure was associated with levels of putative CVD-related proteins in serum among currently working chimney sweeps. We enrolled 116 chimney...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Gomaa R.M. Ramadan, Samir A.M. Abdelgaleil, Mohamed S. Shawir, Ahmed S. El-bakary, Peter A. Edde, Thomas W. PhillipsAbstractEthanedinitrile (EDN) is used to fumigate logs and timber products, and it has the potential as an alternative fumigant for stored food products. Other work has demonstrated efficacy of EDN for controlling stored grain pests, but information on EDN residues in...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:25
Driven by the significant need for characterization of the chemical speciation of arsenic in food, this work developed a method for rapid determination of four common arsenic species, namely, arsenite, arsenate, monomethyl arsenic acid, and dimethyl arsenic acid, in vegetables using microwave‐assisted extraction, followed by detection with high‐performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:25
The aim of this work was to develop an efficient method for the selective extraction and analysis of fenoxycarb, a carbamate pesticide, in mussel samples using a molecularly imprinted solid‐phase extraction device. The optimization of molecularly imprinted polymer synthesis was performed using the experimental design under the response surface methodology approach. A fast rebinding study and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:24
2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) is a well‐known environmental contaminant that produces a wide variety of adverse effects in humans. Catalpol, a major bioactive compound enriched in the dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa, is a major iridoid glycoside that alleviates bone loss. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of catalpol remain unclear. The present study evaluated...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:24
BACKGROUND Grape is an important fruit consumed either fresh or processed, therefore, fungicide misuse of grape has become an issue of global food safety and human health. Pyraclostrobin, and cyazofamid have been applied to grape frequently. RESULTS Here a simple QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry technique has been developed and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Arthrobacter sp. are Gram-positive bacilli commonly obtained from soil and in the hospital environment. These species have been reported to cause several types of infection. Heavy metals are a threat to the ecological system due to their high-levels of toxicity and the fluoroquinolones are antimicrobials widely used for the treatment of different bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) specifically recognizes the 5′ mRNA cap, a rate-limiting step in the translation initiation process. Although the 7-methylguanosine cap (MMGcap) is the most common 5′ cap structure in eukaryotes, the trans-splicing process that occurs in several organism groups, including nematodes and flatworms, leads to the addition of a trimethylguanosine cap (TMGcap...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
In this study, the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the street soil of Ma’an City, Jordan. The probable sources of PAHs in the soils were estimated by using diagnostic ratios. PAHs were extracted from soil samples via the ultrasonic extraction method using three portions of 20 mL of n-hexane/acetone mixture. The most priority environmental protection agency 13...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Vieira River is the main recipient of domestic and industrial wastewater in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. Until 2010, domestic sewage was dumped in it without any kind of treatment. Concentrations of arsenic (As), chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in water and sediment samples in eight locations along the Vieira River during the dry season of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The occurrence and distribution of 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their degradation products as well as of 17 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were investigated for the first time in sediments of three (Lake Prošće, Lake Kozjak, Lake Kaluđerovac) out of 16 cascading karst lakes within the protected area of the Plitvice Lakes National Park in central Croatia. The 15-cm-long...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
One of the direct causes of biodiversity loss is environmental pollution resulting from the use of chemicals. Different kinds of chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants and some heavy metals, can be endocrine disruptors, which act at low doses over a long period of time and have a negative effect on the reproductive and thyroid system in vertebrates worldwide. Research on the effects of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Railway transport of coal poses an environmental risk, because coal dust contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury, and other trace metals. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, proposed infrastructure projects could result in an increase in coal transport by train through the Columbia River corridor. Baseline information is needed on current distributions, levels, and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Patterns of lead and other trace metals were examined in 122 Eurasian eagle owls Bubo bubo found dead in Sweden in the period 1978–2013. Environmental lead (Pb) has decreased over recent decades from reduced anthropogenic emissions but mortality by Pb poisoning is still frequently reported for avian raptors and scavengers exposed to Pb ammunition. One objective here was to determine if Pb...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Land application is suggested to be the most economical sludge disposal method but is also a potential source of bisphenol analogs (BPs) to the environment. In this study, BP concentrations in sewage sludge from Henan province ranged from 15.1 to 2237 ng g−1 dw. BPA was dominant with mean concentration of 140 ng g−1 dw, followed by BPS (mean 43.4 ng g−1 dw), BPF (mean 7.98 ng g−1 dw), BPAF (mean...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Lead is a widely used and toxic heavy metal that poses a serious hazard to wildlife species and their ecosystems. Lead is used for production of hunting ammunition. Via gunshot or rifle projectiles, it spreads in ecosystems and may end up in predators and scavengers feeding on wounded or dead animals shot with lead-based ammunition. To assess to what degree Danish raptors are subject to lead...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
In most laboratory studies with oral exposure of terrestrial invertebrates to metals an artificial food, which is easy to handle, is used. The bioavailability of metals from this artificial food may, however, be much higher than from more field relevant food sources. Such differences may affect toxicokinetic processes in different tissues. To test the effect of bioavailability of Cd in food on Cd...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The widespread use of bisphenol S (BPS) as a bisphenol A substitute increases its potential of release into the aquatic environments. However, the degradation of BPS in aquatic systems is largely unknown, which will dictate its fate and toxicity. In this study, a bacterial consortium was enriched from river sediments and the dynamic changes of community structure during bacterial acclimation were...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Systemic pesticides, such as the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, can be introduced into aquatic ecosystems through contaminated plant material, which is the basis for detrital (brown) aquatic food-webs. With the aim of exemplarily assessing for indirect effects on the level of predators, we first offered imidacloprid contaminated and uncontaminated alder leaves to the stonefly shredder Protonemura sp...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
This research presents the assessment of contamination status, congener profiles and ecological risk of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (S-EDCs) in surface water from KimNguu River, Hanoi. Selected EDCs compose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Water sampling and chemical analyses were carried out in collected water...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement aspects of conventional methods (petroleum-based solvent and Folch assay) by alternative methods (bio-based and biodegradable solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2)) for seed oil extraction from anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Results showed that the highest oil yield of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
The term ‘quality’ is a complex parameter in the field of potato production, and the desired quality traits depend on the intended use. Important internal quality traits for potatoes are tuber flesh discolouration, dry matter, and starch content. External quality traits include tuber size and shape as well as resistance against mechanical stress during and after harvest. These quality traits are...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
There is a significant increase in the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds in recent past to combat drug resistant pathogens. Members of the genus Bacillus and related genera have been screened extensively due to their ability to produce wide range of antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a new antimicrobial peptide from a marine bacterium identified as...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
This study aimed to estimate in laboratory the temporal production of methylmercury during the filling of reservoirs of hydropower plants and to correlate it to the ecosystem of different locations in northern Brazil: Jirau hydropower plant in the Madeira River in the state of Rondônia (white waters—under construction), Cana Brava hydropower plant in the Tocantins River in the state of Goiás (...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
Leaves of five selected plants Citrus limon (Rutaceae), Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea europaea (Oleaceae), Washingtonia filifera, and Myoporum (Myoporaceae) grown in Jordan were examined for removal of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) ions) for aqueous solutions. Cd and Pb were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. A pH S-2 acidometer was used for determining the acidity of leaves–...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation is associated with carcinogenicity of non-genotoxic AhR-activating carcinogens such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), and is often observed with drug candidate molecules in development and raises safety concerns. As downstream effectors of AhR signaling, the expression and activity of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 genes are commonly monitored as evidence...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced toxicity that can lead to chloracne in humans. A characteristic of chloracne, in contrast to acne vulgaris, is shrinkage or loss of sebaceous glands. Acne vulgaris, on the other hand, is often accompanied by excessive sebum production. Here, we examined the role of AHR in lipid synthesis in human...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:36
by Yasmin Chau, Fu-Shuang Li, Olesya Levsh, Jing-Ke Weng The natural product icariin inhibits human phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) and represents a unique pharmacophore for treating erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and other diseases. In this study, we explore the available icariin-derived chemical scaffolds through medicinal chemistry to develop novel icariin PDE5 inhibitors with...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:36
Bacteria have acquired multiple mechanisms to evade the lethal effects of current therapeutics, hindering treatment of bacterial infections, such as those caused by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is responsible for nosocomial and cystic fibrosis lung infections. One resistance mechanism involves membrane-embedded multidrug efflux pumps that can effectively extrude an array of...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Sandra Unsleber, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Evi StegmannAbstractPeptidoglycan (PG) is a bacteria specific cell surface layer that ensures the bacterial shape and integrity. The two actinomycetes Amycolatopsis balhimycina and Microbispora sp. PTA-5024 are producers of PG targeting antibiotics. To prevent the binding of their secreted product to their own PG, they developed specific self-...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Xiangsong Meng, Sultan Ahmed Khoso, Jianhua Kang, Jiangqiu Wu, Jiande Gao, Shangyong Lin, Meirong Wu, Wei Sun, Yuehua HuAbstractIn most of the mining industries, lime is widely used to settle flotation tailings pulp. However, this conventional method has some drawbacks, as it increases pH, organic matter content and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of tailings dam wastewater (TDW) and...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Xunzhang Pan, Hailin Wang, Ziwei Wang, Lu Lin, Qi Zhang, Xinzhu Zheng, Wenying ChenAbstract:Combating global climate change calls for all countries to accelerate emissions reductions, and equity is an important guiding principle. A new indicator – the carbon Palma ratio, extended from the income Palma ratio and defined as the ratio of the total emissions of the top 10% emitters to...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): L. Duedahl-Olesen, N.M. Iversen, C. Kelmo, L.K. JensenAbstractApplication of QuEChERS as a new quick and easy method for screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed, validated and used for quantification (GC-QTOF-MS) of 4 PAHs, namely benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene. A clean-up step using Zirconium based dispersive SPE was...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Wei Ma, Yuanyuan Tang, Pengfei Wu, Yunxue XiaAbstractHeavy metals such as lead, zinc, and copper always coexist in industrial wastes and tend to be released if the wastes are not treated properly. With abundant contents of aluminum, iron and silicon, sewage sludge incineration ash can provide a ceramic matrix for potential heavy metal stabilization. By using ceramic sintering, this...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Ruth Vanderschueren, Daniela Montalvo, Bart De Ketelaere, Jan A. Delcour, Erik SmoldersAbstractCommercially available single origin chocolates (n = 139) were analysed by ICP-MS to identify the potential of elemental fingerprinting for tracing cacao origin in chocolate and to compare chocolate composition relative to trace metal limits. Cadmium (Cd) concentrations exceeded the EU limit...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Krešimir Mastanjević, Brankica Kartalović, Jelena Petrović, Nikolina Novakov, Leona Puljić, Dragan Kovačević, Marko Jukić, Jasmina Lukinac, Kristina MastanjevićAbstractThe aim of this study was to determine the content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the traditional dry fermented sausage Slavonska kobasica. Smoking was conducted in a traditional smokehouse (two and...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Jiehong Zhou, Zhiying Yang, Kai Li, Xiaohua YuAbstractIn recent years, labor-intensive agricultural products from developing countries have exhibited inferior performance in international trade due to quality and safety incidents, among which pesticide residue is a major issue. Aiming to improve food quality and safety in the context of cooperatives, we introduced three categories of...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Melyssa Kmecick, Mariliza Cristine Vieira da Costa, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro, Claudia Feijó Ortolani-MachadoAbstractPerfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and cadmium (Cd) are persistent environmental pollutants, bioaccumulative, and capable of crossing the placental barrier. There is evidence of developmental toxicity induced by PFOA and Cd, but their effects on early development are...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Fereshteh Satarian, Taher Nejadsattari, Farzam Vaziri, Seyed Davar SiadatAbstractBackgroundPseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic mucosal human pathogen that naturally releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in different environments, as do other Gram-negative bacteria. The intestinal tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa increase the risk of respiratory...

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