Chemical contaminants

Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Yang Liu, Jun Ji, Wei Zhang, Yao Suo, Jiating Zhao, Xiaoying Lin, Liwei Cui, Bai Li, Huaiqiang Hu, Chunying Chen, Yu-Feng LiAbstractIntroductionSelenium plays important roles in antagonizing the toxicity of methylmercury. The underlying mechanism for the antagonism between Se and MeHg is still not fully understood.ObjectiveThe role of gut flora against the toxicity of environmental...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:31
BACKGROUND Several diseases and insects may cause potential damage to the normal growth of cucumber. Azoxystrobin and meptyldinocap are effective against pathogens which have developed reduced sensitivity to other fungicides because of their novel mode of action. Azoxystrobin is persistent in various crops and environment. However, there is a lack of research on dissipation of these two...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:40
Author(s): W. Schlörmann, S. Zetzmann, B. Wiege, N.U. Haase, A. Greiling, S. Lorkowski, C. Dawczynski, M. GleiAbstractDue to their high content of β-glucan, the consumption of oat products can contribute to a healthy diet. Roasting may improve sensory properties but could also affect the nutritional value of oat products. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:34
Honey, pineapple, chilli pepper, and onion extracts were investigated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in sweet potatoes. Honey had the highest inhibition (41.39%–48.0%), comparable with l‐ascorbic acid. Heated onion extract increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibition by 2.5‐fold when 4‐methylcatechol was used as substrate. However, percentage inhibition decreased drastically (7....
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:34
Heme iron overload has been implicated as the main cause of the increased risk of cancer due to the consumption of red meat. However, fish and shellfish, teas, and spices contain up to five times more iron than red meat. There is insufficient evidence that iron intake in dietary red meat is the primary causal factor for colorectal cancer. In addition, harmful substances produced during the...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:31
Acrylamide is formed during baking in some frequently consumed food products. It is proven to be carcinogenic in rodents and a probable human carcinogen. Thus, the food industry is working to find solutions to minimize its formation during processing. To better understand the sources of its formation, the present study is aimed at investigating how acrylamide concentration may be influenced by...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:40
Author(s): Giannis Katsaros, Daya Shankar Pandey, Alen Horvat, Guadalupe Aranda Almansa, Lydia E. Fryda, James J. Leahy, Savvas A. TassouAbstractPoultry litter (PL) gasification was experimentally investigated using a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor. Characterisation of the gasification process was performed in terms of yields and compositions of both gas and tar, lower calorific value (...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:39
Author(s): Gabriela M. Chiocchetti, Teresa Latorre, María Jesús Clemente, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Vicenta Devesa, Dinoraz VélezAbstractMushrooms can accumulate toxic trace elements. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic in dried mushrooms, to determine the effect of cooking on the contents of these elements, and to evaluate their...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): Jasim Khan, Shikha Salhotra, Poonam Goswami, Juheb Akhtar, Shagufta Jahan, Sakshi Gupta, Shikha Sharma, Basu Dev Banerjee, Suhel Parvez, Sarika Gupta, Sheikh RaisuddinAbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitously distributed endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Its exposure in humans has been of concern due to its increased application in the products of day to day use. BPA has been...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): M.S. Hossain, B.C. Sarkar, M.M. Hossain, M.Y. Mian, E.G. Rajotte, R. Muniappan, M.E. O'RourkeAbstractMango (Mangifera indica L.) is a major fruit crop throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world including Bangladesh. The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of mango causing both quantitative and qualitative losses as...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): Honest Machekano, Brighton M. Mvumi, Peter Chinwada, Susan J. Kageler, Richard RwafaAbstractReducing farm-level grain storage losses for small-scale rural farmers is important for sustainable household food security in Africa. Farmer-managed trials were conducted over two 32-week grain storage seasons in Zimbabwe to evaluate the effectiveness of diatomaceous earths (DEs); Protect-It®...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): R.R. Sharma, S.C. Datta, Eldho VargheseAbstractSeveral pests and diseases infest apple during production, potentially causing heavy losses. Numerous pesticides are used to control pests and diseases, sprays of which contaminate the environment and result in pesticide residues. Among Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs), particle film technology (PFT) is promising for organic fruit...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): Bulat Kuluev, Elena Mikhaylova, Alexander Ermoshin, Svetlana Veselova, Anastasia Tugbaeva, Gulnar Gumerova, Karina Gainullina, Evgenia ZaikinaAbstractA small family of ARGOS genes encodes transmembrane proteins that act as negative regulators of ethylene signaling. Recent studies show that ARGOS genes are involved in the regulation of plant growth under the influence of stress factors...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:30
Animal venoms are promising sources of novel drug leads, but their translational potential is hampered by the low success rate of earlier biodiscovery programs, in part reflecting the narrow selection of targets for investigation. To increase the number of lead candidates, here we discuss a phylogeny-guided approach for the rational selection of venomous taxa, using tarantulas (family...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
Common procedures for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extraction involve the use of large amount of solvents and a long extraction time. To address these difficulties, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction followed by microextraction by packed sorbent (UAE-MEPS) was investigated as a novel extraction procedure for the recovery of PAHs from apple, a model of solid...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
A novel multiresidue analytical method based on disposable pipette extraction (DPX) to determine the trace level of 28 pesticides in wine samples using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has been developed. The DPX method is used for both extraction and purification. After the optimization, targets were eluted with 1% HCl in acetonitrile and the eluent...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:15
Global climatic fluctuations and the increasing population have been responsible for the decline in the crop productivity. The chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and suitable genetic resources are commonly used for improving the crop yield. Magnetic field (MF) therapy for plants and animals has been found to be an effective and emerging tool to control diseases and increase tolerance against the...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a significant threat to public health, and a major resistance determinant that promotes this phenotype is the production of the OXA-48 carbapenemase. The activity of OXA-48 towards carbapenems is a puzzling phenotype as its hydrolytic activity against doripenem is non-detectable. To probe the mechanistic basis for this observation, we determined the 1.5...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
For the past few decades, there has been limited progress in the development of novel antibacterials. Previously, we postulated that the gut microbiota of animals residing in polluted environments are a forthcoming supply of antibacterials. Among various species, the water monitor lizard is an interesting species that feeds on organic waste and the carcass of wild animals. Gut microbiota of the...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Actinomycetes are remarkable producers of compounds essential for human and veterinary medicine as well as for agriculture. The genomes of those microorganisms possess several sets of genes (biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC)) encoding pathways for the production of the valuable secondary metabolites. A significant proportion of the identified BGCs in actinomycetes encode pathways for the...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:04
Author(s): Jie Zhang, Liang Li, Liping Huang, Manman Zhang, Ziyan Chen, Qingsong Zheng, Haiyan Zhao, Xi Chen, Mingyi Jiang, Mingpu TanAbstractThe plant-specific NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in various stress signaling. Alternative splicing is particularly prevalent in plants under stress. However, the investigation of cadmium (Cd) on the differential expression of the splice...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:03
Author(s): Xiang Wan, Alan D. Steinman, Xiubo Shu, Qing Cao, Lei Yao, Liqiang XieAbstractMicrocystins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons commonly co-exist in eutrophic freshwater environments. However, their combined toxicity remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined toxic effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenanthrene (Phe) on duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) during a...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:03
Author(s): Xu Yang, Rongkai Lin, Wenyuan Zhang, Yongkang Xu, Xin Wei, Chen Zhuo, Junhao Qin, Huashou LiAbstractSalt-tolerant rice cultivar (sea rice) is a research hotspot worldwide due to its high yield in high salinity soil. However, knowledge regarding the cadmium (Cd) effects on the growth of sea rice is limited. To determine the short-term and long-term impact of Cd stress, relatively low/...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:03
Author(s): Ke Yuan, Xin Chen, Ping Chen, Yongshun Huang, Jie Jiang, Tiangang Luan, Baowei Chen, Xiaowei WangAbstractMethylmercury (MeHg) is a toxicant that mainly originates from in situ microbial methylation of inorganic mercury (Hg) in the environment and poses a severe health risk to the public. However, the characteristics of the Hg-methylating microbial community and its relationship with...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 16:54
ABSTRACT The opportunistic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans can cause devastating infections in immunocompromised patients. Its ability to undergo a morphogenetic transition from yeast to filamentous forms allows it to penetrate tissues and damage tissues, and the expression of genes associated with a number of pathogenetic mechanisms is also coordinately regulated with the yeast-to-hypha...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 16:54
ABSTRACT Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (M1PDH) is a key enzyme in Staphylococcus aureus mannitol metabolism, but its roles in pathophysiological settings have not been established. We performed comprehensive structure-function analysis of M1PDH from S. aureus USA300, a strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus, to evaluate its roles in cell viability and virulence under...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 16:54
ABSTRACT The filoviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rate and risk of potential outbreak. Among members of this family, the Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and Marburg (MARV) viruses are considered the most pathogenic for humans. The ebolavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant protein in infected cells and is essential for viral...
Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:30
Author(s): Oisik Das, Nam Kyeun Kim, Mikael S. Hedenqvist, Debes Bhattacharyya, Eva Johansson, Qiang Xu, Shima HolderAbstractThe aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and...
Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Arthur Vinicius Sousa Silva, Lilian D. Moura Torquato, Glauber CruzAbstractThe replacement of fossil fuels by renewable sources has been discussed globally, because fossil fuels account for a large portion of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. Several cities along the Brazilian coast produce a variety of fish types, generating a large amount of waste, including viscera and...
Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Qianqian Lang, Bo Zhang, Yi Li, Zhengang Liu, Wentao JiaoAbstractThe effects of temperature and CaO introduction on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents, distribution patterns and toxicity of the products from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of swine manure (SM) were investigated in this study for the first time. The results indicated that increasing temperature decreased...
Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Kate A. Langdon, Anand Chandra, Karl Bowles, Andrew Symons, Fleur Pablo, Keith OsborneAbstractLand application of composted municipal solid waste (C-MSW) can divert waste from landfill but can also be a route of entry into the environment for contaminants. This study presents a preliminary human health and ecological risk assessment for organic contaminants in C-MSW generated in New...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:30
by Markus Rienth, Julien Crovadore, Sana Ghaffari, François Lefort The reduction of synthetic fungicides in agriculture is necessary to guarantee a sustainable production that protects the environment and consumers’ health. Downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola is the major pathogen in viticulture worldwide and responsible for up to 60% of pesticide treatments. Alternatives to...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): J. Ho, R. Prosser, M. Hasani, H. Chen, B. Skanes, W.D. Lubitz, K. WarrinerAbstractChlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide in apple production but there are concerns that residues ingested by consumers can lead to chronic neurological conditions. In the following, a method based on Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was validated for the degradation of chlorpyrifos on apples and...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Anil Kumar Anal, Giorgia Perpetuini, Awanwee Petchkongkaew, Reasmey Tan, Sylvie Avallone, Rosanna Tofalo, Hai Van Nguyen, Son Chu-Ky, Phu Ha Ho, Thanh Tam Phan, Yves WachéAbstractSouth-East Asia is well-known for traditionally fermented foods. However, these products are generally still produced at small scale following traditional procedures. Nowadays, consumers are particularly aware...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Subrata Banik, Mahmuda Akter, Serene Ezra Corpus Bondad, Takeshi Saito, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Masaaki KurasakiAbstractCarvacrol is a monoterpenic phenol found in essential oils, is considered a safe food additive, and possesses various therapeutic properties. Numerous studies have also deciphered the protective role of carvacrol on various cytotoxicities. We clarify the effects of...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Fang Du, Ting Zhao, Hong-Chen Ji, Ying-Biao Luo, Fen Wang, Guang-Hua Mao, Wei-Wei Feng, Yao Chen, Xiang-Yang Wu, Liu-Qing YangAbstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) would do serious damage to multiple systems, while coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls, the most toxic member of the family, has been widely taken into consideration. In this study, ICR mice were fed with different doses...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Barbara Spolaore, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte, Maria Lina Massimino, Fiorella TonelloAbstractAlmost all animal venoms contain secretory phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 14 kDa disulfide-rich enzymes that hydrolyze membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position, releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. These proteins, depending on their sequence, show a wide variety of biochemical, toxic...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Suhyun Park, Yeongwan Hong, Jiyun Lee, Younglim Kho, Kyunghee JiAbstractBisphenol S (BPS) and 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-isoprooxyphenylsulfone (BPSIP) have been used as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA) owing to increased regulation of BPA in plastics. In this study, long-term toxicity tests of BPS and BPSIP were performed using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. The predicted no-effect...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:25
Silk fibers were carbonized to develop a biomass carbon material as an adsorbent for solid‐phase microextraction. The surface structure of the carbonized silk fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscope, and the graphitization degree was determined by Raman spectrometer. After the carbonization under high temperature, the orderliness and structural regularity of carbon atoms on silk...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:22
The recently published study by Truong and Pessah (2018) raised severe food safety concerns about the application of the diamide pesticides chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide. In the present letter we wish to share our thoughts provoked by their paper and provide important future research perspectives.
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:22
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Several neurotoxic congeners display axial chirality and atropselectively affect cellular targets implicated in PCB neurotoxicity. Only limited information is available regarding the atropselective metabolism of these congeners in humans and their atropselective effects on neurotoxic outcomes. Here we...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:22
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant of considerable interest throughout the world and potentially a neurotoxicant. Our recent data indicate that Cd exposure induces impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms for this defect are not known. The goal of this study was to determine if Cd inhibits adult neurogenesis and to identify...
Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:22
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed nanostructures released by cells into the extracellular environment. As major actors of physiological intercellular communication, they have been shown to be pathogenic mediators of several liver diseases. Extracellular vesicles also appear to be potential actors of drug-induced liver injury but nothing is known concerning environmental...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Mengyao Mu, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Dongxue Fei, Mingwei XingAbstractArsenic and copper are naturally occurring element. Contamination from natural processes and anthropogenic activities can be discovered all over the world and their unique interactions with the environment lead to widespread toxicity. When the content was excessive, the organism would be hurt seriously....
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Aneta Spyra, Anna Cieplok, Małgorzata Strzelec, Agnieszka BabczyńskaAbstractIn this study we focused on Physella acuta, an alien snail species in order to determine their ability of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in their shells, bodies, the difference in accumulation in relation to age classes, and the influence of ecological variables on the community composition and density. On the...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): He Xiao, Asfandyar Shahab, Jieyue Li, Beidou Xi, Xiaojie Sun, Huijun He, Guo YuAbstractIn this study, heavy metals including Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, As, and Hg, in the surface sediment (0–10 cm) of the Huixian wetland in a karst region were investigated in terms of their spatial distribution, ecological risks, and possible sources. Samples were collected from 13 typical sites...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Jaime Rodríguez-Estival, Carlos Morales-Machuca, Jennifer Pareja-Carrera, Manuel E. Ortiz-Santaliestra, Rafael MateoAbstractHere we characterize the bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) from two river courses in Central Spain that are impacted by historical Hg and Pb mining activities, respectively. We estimate the absolute oral...

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