Chemical contaminants

Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
In this study, the inhibitory potential of 3-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives was evaluated against a panel of bacteria, as well as mammalian cell lines to determine their therapeutic index. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of antibiotic action of the derivatives to identify their therapeutic target. We discovered compound 2 to be an extremely potent inhibitor of...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:16
Yellow corn kernels were subjected to gamma (γ) irradiation (1.0–10.0 kGy), post packaging in polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminium foil trilamellate. These packaged‐irradiated corn grits were stored under ambient conditions (23 ± 2°C, 80% R.H.) and their shelf lives were ascertained chiefly w.r.t. lutein and aflatoxin contents. Among all samples investigated, 3 kGy‐irradiated...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:14
The development of sustainable agriculture and the increasing antibiotic resistance of human pathogens call for novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we describe the extraction and characterization of a class of cationic circular lipopeptides, for which we propose the name relacidines, from the soil bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus MG64. Relacidines are composed of a fatty acid side chain (4‐...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 08:02
by Michael G. Reuscher, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Paul A. Montagna The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout off the coast of Louisiana caused the largest marine oil spill on record. Samples were collected 2–3 months after the Macondo well was capped to assess damage to macrofauna and meiofauna communities. An earlier analysis of 58 stations demonstrated severe and moderate damage to an area of 148 km2. An...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:02
In this study, a combination of modified quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe extraction (QuEChERS) and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of multiclass pesticide residues from yogurt samples prior to their determination by fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Factors influencing DLLME efficiency, including type...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:02
Abstract Aims Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX1) was reported to be induced by NaCl in plants and NaCl can alleviate the toxic effect in plants caused by cadmium (Cd). However, it is unknown whether the NHX1 gene is involved in Cd adaptation in plants. This study aimed to explore the relationship between Cd resistance and NHX1 in plants. Methods SseNHX1 gene obtained by shuffling using SsNHX1 from...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:17
Radar rainfall nowcasting, the process of statistically extrapolating the most recent rainfall observation, is increasingly used for very‐short‐range rainfall forecasting (less than six hours ahead). We performed a large‐sample analysis of 1533 events, systematically selected for four event durations and twelve lowland catchments (6.5—957 km2), to determine the predictive skill of nowcasting....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Recent in vitro studies reported the exceptional ability of some bacterial species to form biofilm-like aggregates in human and animal synovial fluids (SF), but evidences from infected clinical samples are still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether this bacterial phenotype was present in infected SFs collected from joint infections and if it was maintained in in vitro settings. SFs...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Misuse of antibiotics in veterinary medicine has the potential to generate residues in animal derived products, which could contributing to the development of an important health risk either through the exposu...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 14:06
Investigation of suspect surface contamination in a building may require comparative sampling across different zones to provide meaningful information with regard to contaminant sources, pathways and/or extent of dispersal. However, evaluation of the data using traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) based upon the mean may result in misleading inference when encountering erratic...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) undergo conformational changes upon interaction of the gp120 exterior glycoprotein with the CD4 receptor. The gp120 inner domain topological layers facilitate the transition of Env to the CD4-bound conformation. CD4 engages gp120 by introducing its phenylalanine 43 (Phe43) in a cavity ("the Phe43 cavity") located at the interface between the inner...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major public health threat in part due to the spread of antibiotic resistance and repeated failures to develop a protective vaccine. Infection is associated with production of virulence factors that include exotoxins that attack host barriers and cellular defenses, such as the leukocidin (Luk) family of bicomponent pore-forming toxins. To investigate...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT We propose the concept that administration of an unrelated live attenuated vaccine, such as MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), could serve as a preventive measure against the worst sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is mounting evidence that live attenuated vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of the vaccine by...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Resistance or tolerance to traditional antibiotics is a challenging issue in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Moreover, traditional bactericidal antibiotics kill only actively growing bacterial cells, whereas nongrowing metabolically inactive cells are tolerant to and therefore "persist" in the presence of legacy antibiotics. Here, we report that the diarylurea derivative PQ401, previously...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS) needle comprised of multiple PscF subunits is essential for the translocation of effector toxins into human cells, facilitating the establishment and dissemination of infection. Mutations in the pscF gene provide resistance to the phenoxyacetamide (PhA) series of T3SS inhibitory chemical probes. To better understand PscF functions and...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Leishmaniasis (Leishmania species), sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) are devastating and globally spread diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites. At present, drugs for treating trypanosomatid diseases are far from ideal due to host toxicity, elevated cost, limited access, and increasing rates of drug resistance. Technological advances in...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
In Sudanese traditional medicine, decoctions of the stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpa are used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, this plant has not been investigated before for its antimycobacterial effects. Our screening results show, for the first time, that many extracts of various parts of A. leiocarpa exhibit growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Minimum...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 22:15
PC12 cells were treated with acrylamide (AA) in the absence or presence of P‐CS, and cell apoptosis was analyzed. Interestingly, P‐CS pretreatment of the cells could significantly prevent AA‐induced cell death, glutathione (GSH) contents decrease, and ROS overproduction. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of P‐CS on cell apoptosis revealed that P‐CS was able to...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Julieta Griboff, Juan Cruz Carrizo, Rocío Inés Bonansea, María Eugenia Valdés, Daniel Alberto Wunderlin, María Valeria Amé The occurrence of 46 antibiotics (amphenicols, cephalosporins, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluroquinolones, macrolides, nitrofurans, penicillins, quinolones, sulfamides and tetracyclines) in Argentinean market fish were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS....
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Yiming Zhang, Qingqing Liu, Hang Yin, Shu Li Cadmium (Cd) is a type of toxic metal, in most cases, coming from fuel burning and aquatic plants. The cells of organisms can be caused serious damage, including pyroptosis, exposure to low concentrations of Cd in long-term. Pyroptosis is a recently discovered Caspase-1-mediated cell death. In this study, lymphocytes were extracted from the...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Heelak Choi, Sung-Jin Han, Jong-In Won Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are stimulus–responsive protein-based biopolymers that exhibit phase transition behavior. By joining them to synthetic phytochelatin (EC), EC–ELP fusion proteins with temperature sensitivity and metal-binding functionality were generated to remove heavy metal ions biologically. Three different EC domains (EC10,...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 04:03
A series of novel α-ketoamide derivatives bearing a vanillin skeleton were designed and synthesized. Bioactivity tests on virus and bacteria were performed. The results indicated that some compounds exhibited excellent antitobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities, such as compound 34 exhibited an inactivation activity of 90.1% and curative activity of 51.8% and compound 28 exhibited a curative...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 18:02
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a ubiquitous group of anthropogenic air pollutants that are generated through incomplete carbon combustion. Although the immunotoxic nature of PAHs has been previously reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the mitochondrial-mediated epigenetic regulation of 2...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 16:00
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of environmental and public health concerns and contribute to adverse skin attributes such as premature skin aging and pigmentary disorder. However, little informati...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 08:02
by Jiwon Seo, Dae-Young Kim, Iksung Cho, Geu-Ru Hong, Jong-Won Ha, Chi Young Shim This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of lead-related tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with permanent pacemaker (PM). A total of 2,533 patients who underwent permanent PM implantation between January 2008 and December 2017 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed....
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
The high background value of cadmium (Cd) in the Panax notoginseng planting soil is the main reason for the Cd content in P. notoginseng exceeding the limit standards. The main goal of this study was to reveal the mechanism by which potassium (K) reduces Cd accumulation in P. notoginseng from the perspective of the influences of soil microbial communities on soil pH, total organic matter (TOM)...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 14:05
The methods conventionally used for the extraction of organic pollutants in different environmental matrices are not suitable for measuring low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioaccumulated in terrestrial snails that are both indicator of soil quality and a food item of various consumers including human being. A protocol, adapted from the QuEChERS method, originally designed...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 08:02
by Mohd W. Azam, Amit Kumar, Asad U. Khan Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a growing health problem, which has become a challenge for the physicians to control infection and also an economic burden on the healthcare. This increase in resistance to the present antimicrobial agents led the researchers to find some alternative and more efficient drugs which can fight with the resistant...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Ruifei Li, Pei Hua, Jin Zhang, Peter Krebs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and abundant in various media. Understanding the environmental behavior of PAHs in different compartments is essential for better evaluating and mitigating PAHs in the urban environment. Based on a 20-year monitoring dataset of PAHs in suspended particulate matter (SPM), this study...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Mariana Morozesk, Lidiane S. Franqui, Fernanda C. Pinheiro, Joaquim A. Nóbrega, Diego S.T. Martinez, Marisa N. Fernandes Carbon nanotubes presence in the environment increases every year because of exponential industrial production around the world. In aquatic environments, carbon nanotubes can interact with other pollutants based on their adsorbent surface chemistry properties. Heavy...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
Given the increasing antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections (UTI), alternative strategies need to be investigated. Determination of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of essential oils from cajeput, lemongrass, tea tree, and thyme in artificial urine, revealed bactericidal activity of all four tested essential oils against seven uropathogenic species with values...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:16
Acrylamide (AA), classified as a probable carcinogen, can be neurotoxic, genotoxic, and can damage DNA. This study explored the ability of seabuckthorn berries juice (SBJ) to alleviate AA‐induced toxic injury in rats. Twenty‐four adult male Sprague‐Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, AA group (40 mg/kg), AA + SBJ (40 mg/kg AA and 5 mL/kg SBJ), and AA + vitamin...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:15
The migration of eight trace elements (Fe, Sn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn) was monitored for fruits canned in uncoated tinplate cans under different storage conditions until the shelf life. The levels of most of these elements significantly increased with storage time and were also affected by storage temperature. Particularly, storage at 40°C (simulating sunlight exposure of the cans) caused...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:15
Antioxidant and anti‐proliferative activities of M. laevigeta leaf and bark extract were determined against EAC cells in the peritoneum fluid of Swiss albino mice. Morphological alteration of the treated EAC cells on florescence microscope and DNA degradation in gel electrophoresis confirmed the apoptosis induction. The Expression pattern of the Bax, Bcl‐2 and PARP‐1 in comparison to control...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Meiotic recombination ensures accurate homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis and generates novel allelic combinations among gametes. During meiosis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are generated to facilitate recombination. To maintain genome integrity, meiotic DSBs must be repaired using appropriate DNA templates. Although the DNA damage response protein kinase Ataxia-telangiectasia...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
In the present study, we conducted field surveys to detect the population density of the most important invasive weed species and their associated virus vectoring aphids in crops grown under high input field (HIF) vs. low-input field (LIF) conditions, with and without fertilizers and pesticides. The most frequent invasive weed species were annual fleabane, Erigeron annua (L.), Canadian horseweed...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Nitrile hydratases have received significant interest both in the large-scale industrial production of acrylamide and nicotinamide, and the remediation of environmental contamination with nitrile-containing pollutants. Almost all known nitrile hydratases include an α-subunit (AnhA) and β-subunit (AnhB), and a specific activator protein is crucial for their maturation and catalytic activity. Many...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Zhengxin Xie, Ying Gan, Jun Tang, Shisuo Fan, Xiangwei Wu, Xuede Li, Haomiao Cheng, Jie Tang The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) is considered a contaminant of emerging concern. DCF can co-exist with heavy metals in aquatic environments, causing unexpected risks to aquatic organisms. This study aimed to assess the combined effects of DCF and cadmium (Cd) at...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 22:12
Peppers are rich in health‐promoting phytochemicals, which are involved in the defense mechanisms against cancer. To select a lead variety of pepper with anti‐proliferative activity against colon cancer cells and liver cancer cells, high antioxidant activity, and high concentrations of capsaicin, flavonoids, and phenolics, we compared these attributes in nine different pepper accessions belonging...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Rifampin is the first-line antituberculosis drug, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase as the molecular target. Unfortunately, M. tuberculosis strains that are resistant to rifampin have been identified in clinical settings, which limits its therapeutic effects. In clinical isolates, S531L and D516V (in Escherichia coli) are two common mutated codons in the gene rpoB, corresponding to...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Ceftazidime-avibactam and cefiderocol are two of the latest generation β-lactam agents that possess expanded activity against highly drug-resistant bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Here, we show that structural changes in AmpC β-lactamases can confer reduced susceptibility to both agents. A multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (Ent385) was...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Long Cang, Jinfeng Xing, Cun Liu, Yujun Wang, Dongmei Zhou Chemical immobilization of heavy metals is a simple, low-cost, and environment-friendly technology for remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. However, changes in environmental conditions, such as water management, acid deposition, temperature fluctuation, etc., might result in release of metal ions from the fixation...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:03
The distribution, seasonal variation and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Aurá River, a small amazon typical river located in Northern Brazil, were determined. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of SPM revealed a mixture of PAH from different origins and a seasonal variation of PAH primary source for the studied area....
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 22:15
Terpene glycosides (TGs) in the berry skins of Ecolly and Cabernet Gernischet (CG) grapes were profiled by ultra performance liquid chromatography‐quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (UPLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS) and compared to that of Muscat Hamburg (MH) grapes. The aroma glycosides in grape skins were extracted by methanol, purified using Amberlite XAD‐2 resins, eluted in methanol/ethyl acetate, and...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 22:15
Battered and breaded fish nuggets (BBFNs) were prepared by treating fish with a batter composed of wheat starch (WS) and wheat protein (WP) blends (at the ratios of 15:1, 13:1, 11:1, 9:1, and 7:1, w/w), frying at 170 °C (40 s) followed by 190 °C (30 s). Fried BBFNs were evaluated for moisture and fat contents, color, shrinkage, acrylamide content, and fat distribution. Results showed that...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 18:02
In this paper, we report leaching of precious and scattered metals such as gold (Au), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) from printed circuit boards of scrap mobile phones by hydrometallurgical process using inorganic acid, organic acid and base. The amount of metals leached by different leachants are quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Among various...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Mobile genetic elements, including plasmids, drive the evolution of prokaryotic genomes through the horizontal transfer of genes allowing genetic exchange between bacteria. Moreover, plasmids carry accessory genes, which encode functions that may offer an advantage to the host. Thus, it is expected that in a certain ecological niche, plasmids are enriched in accessory functions, which are...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 14:05
This study was carried out to assess the exposure to pesticide residues from vegetable consumption of residents in Seoul using data on pesticide residue concentrations and the quantity of vegetables consumed. A total of 34,520 samples of 96 types of vegetables collected from 2010 to 2014 by the Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment (SIHE) were analysed for 283...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 08:02
by Elspeth Ready, Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski We analyze a network of needle-sharing ties among 117 people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural Puerto Rico, using exponential random graph modeling to examine whether network members engage in partner restriction to lower their risk of contracting HIV or hepatitis C (HCV), or in informed altruism to prevent others from...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 02:02
Surfactants are substances applicable in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. This study aims to investigate the effects of surfactant mixtures, composed of nonionic, anionic, and cationic surfactants, on the removal efficiency of Cd and Zn by mixture design (MD). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was integrated to optimize the conditions of contaminated soil washing....

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