Chemical contaminants

Tue, 01/05/2016 - 09:35
Publication date: June 2016 , Volume 64 Author(s): Kyung-Min Lee, Timothy J. Herrman, Susie Y. Dai The statistically derived risk-based sampling plan for surveillance sample assignments of chemical and biological hazards was designed using binomial probability distribution. The binomial statistics was applied to the past 3-year data to estimate a confidence interval and a sample size...
Tue, 01/05/2016 - 09:35
Publication date: June 2016 , Volume 64 Author(s): Qin He, Junwei Huang, Xuewei Yang, Xin Yan, Jian He, Shunpeng Li, Jiandong Jiang The effect of different kinds of pesticide residues in grapes on alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated. Among four types of pesticides added into the grape slurry, omethoate, triadimefon and cyhalothrin did not inhibit the...
Tue, 01/05/2016 - 09:35
Publication date: June 2016 , Volume 64 Author(s): Zhiqiang Kong, Minmin Li, Jieying Chen, Yuming Bao, Bei Fan, Frédéric Francis, Xiaofeng Dai Numerous studies have focused on the effects of food-processing techniques on pesticide residues. However, it remains a challenge to ensure high-quality processing and effective pesticide removal from foods. Triadimefon (TF) is a broad-...
Mon, 01/04/2016 - 07:21
Abstract Aims(i) To investigate the enzymatic characterization of α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga thermarum DSM5069. (ii) To perform its excellent properties on converting ginsenoside Rc to ginsenoside Rd. Methods and ResultsThe thermostable α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Tt-Afs) gene from Thermotoga thermarum DSM5069 was cloned and overexpressed. Recombinant Tt-Afs was purified, and its...
Fri, 01/01/2016 - 00:00
In this study, copper(II) isonicotinate was first used as an online cleanup adsorbent in selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) for determination of trace residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fatty food samples. The adsorbent-to-sample ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, recycle times, etc. were optimized. The PCBs in food samples of pork,...
Fri, 01/01/2016 - 00:00
A sensitive and reliable method was proposed for the simultaneous detection of melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid in fish and shrimp by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after fast derivatization. The analytes were derivatized using a 99:1 mixture of N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) under microwave irradiation...
Fri, 01/01/2016 - 00:00
The efficiency of multi-detection screening methods, based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, has been proven in recent years. However, when simultaneously analyzing different groups of compounds with different physicochemical properties, the specificity of sample preparation has to be minimized. In mass spectrometry, this situation can lead to...
Fri, 01/01/2016 - 00:00
A sensitive molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully constructed for the detection of acrylamide (AM). It is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a composites prepared from gold nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and chitosan along with a sol-gel-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film. The latter was prepared using AM as the...
Tue, 12/29/2015 - 17:00
Jinxiang Wang, Pingping Zhang, Na Liu, Qian Wang, Jixian Luo, Lan Wang Calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the key intracellular signals, which is implicated in the regulation of cell functions such as impregnation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental pollutant that can disturb cell functions and even lead to cell death. Recently, we have found that Cd...
Mon, 12/28/2015 - 22:01
Publication date: May 2016 , Volume 115 Author(s): Amy E. Wiberley-Bradford, James S. Busse, Paul C. Bethke Regulation of sugar metabolism in potato tubers stored at low temperatures has significant ramifications for producers and consumers of potato chips and French fries. Low-temperature storage reduces losses due to sprouting and disease but induces undesirable accumulation of the...
Sat, 12/26/2015 - 22:08
Publication date: January 2016 , Volume 99, Issue 1 Author(s): T. Romero, J. Balado, R.L. Althaus, M.C. Beltrán, M.P. Molina The aim of this study was to determine whether the prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges used for estrus synchronization in goats may result in the presence of inhibitors in milk and, therefore, of positive results by microbial screening...
Sat, 12/26/2015 - 22:08
Publication date: January 2016 , Volume 99, Issue 1 Author(s): P.J. Gorden, M.D. Kleinhenz, L.W. Wulf, B. KuKanich, C.J. Lee, C. Wang, J.F. Coetzee Mastitis is a frequent problem among dairy cows, reducing milk yield and increasing cull rates. Systemic therapy with the cephalosporin antimicrobial ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEF) may improve therapeutic outcomes, but the incidence...
Wed, 12/23/2015 - 21:55
Publication date: May 2016 , Volume 115 Author(s): Linyan Song, Zhigang Wang, Zhimin Wang, Geng Meng, Rui Zhai, Meng Cai, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu Postharvest softening is an important physiological process that influences pear fruit quality. ‘Starkrimson’ pears soften rapidly, resulting in fruits with a low tolerance for storage and transportation. To better characterize the...
Tue, 12/22/2015 - 17:00
Alessandra Cardinali, Diego Pizzeghello, Giuseppe Zanin Introduction In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality. Materials and Methods In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged...
Tue, 12/22/2015 - 02:05
Abstract BackgroundThe challenge in developing analytical assessment of unexpected excess contaminations in infant formula has been the most significant project to address the widespread issue of food safety and security. Foodomics based on metabolomics techniques provides powerful tools for the detection of tampering cases with intentional contaminations. However, the safety and risk assessments...
Fri, 12/18/2015 - 09:59
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): M. Julia Melgar, Julián Alonso, M. Angeles García Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted...
Wed, 12/16/2015 - 01:20
Poultry litter is commonly used as fertilizer in agriculture. However, this poultry litter must be processed prior to use, since poultry have a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to isolate and genotypically and phenotypically characterize Escherichia coli from avian organic fertilizer. Sixty-four E. coli isolates were identified from avian organic fertilizer...
Tue, 12/15/2015 - 16:13
Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04164
Sat, 12/12/2015 - 07:24
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Vasily N. Dobrovolsky, Monserrat M. Pacheco-Martinez, Patrice L. McDaniel, Mason G. Pearce, Wei Ding Acrylamide (ACR) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) are structurally related compounds used for making polymers with various properties. Both chemicals can be present in food either as a...
Fri, 12/11/2015 - 17:00
Mohd Raihan Taha, Shariat Mobasser This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted...
Thu, 12/10/2015 - 07:20
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Grazia Barone, Roberto Giacominelli-Stuffler, Maria M. Storelli The objectives of this study were to investigate the trace element (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cr and Se) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) content of several commercially available brands of green and black tea marketed in Italy...
Mon, 12/07/2015 - 11:37
Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone in the bacterial respiratory chain, coupled with Na+ translocation across the membrane. Na+-NQR maturation involves covalent attachment of FMN residues, catalyzed by flavin transferase encoded by the nqr-associated apbE gene. Analysis of complete bacterial genomes has revealed another...
Wed, 12/02/2015 - 19:14
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Author(s): Margarita Andreadou, Emmanouil Liandris, Maria Gazouli, Antonia Mataragka, Ilias Tachtsidis, Nikolaοs Goutas, Dimitrios Vlachodimitropoulos, John Ikonomopoulos Leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that affects millions of people especially in resource-poor setting. The development of reliable diagnostic assays that...
Wed, 12/02/2015 - 15:07
Abstract Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling...
Wed, 12/02/2015 - 11:49
Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04337
Wed, 12/02/2015 - 02:51
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Jie Gao, Yunfeng Zhao, Feng Zhu, Yongjian Ma, Xiaowei Li, Hong Miao, Yongning Wu The levels of acrylamide in 240 food composite samples from the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured using an LC-MS/MS method and the exposure estimates for the general population were evaluated....
Sat, 11/28/2015 - 00:00
In this study, a screening method was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOFMS) for multiclass pesticide analysis in jam samples. The method was based on an experimental database with retention time/accurate mass data for the 353 selected analytes. Compound identification was based on retention time and the...
Thu, 11/26/2015 - 00:00
A new method was developed for the determination of four acrylamide compounds (acrylamide, methacrylamide, N-methylol acrylamide, N-(Methoxymethyl)methacrylamide) in food contact paper products, three kinds of water-based food simulants, and dry food simulant (modified polyphenylene oxide, MPPO) by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (...
Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food are an important food safety concern. Simple and sensitive analytical methods are needed to monitor PCB residues and ensure that food is safe for consumption. The aim of this study was to adapt a selective, sensitive, quick, and easy sample treatment for purification of animal fat matrices and to measure the level of PCB28, PCB52...
Fri, 11/20/2015 - 00:00
A solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) method has been developed for extraction and determination of organic bisphenol A (BPA) in different real samples. Bisphenol A was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FL). Variables...
Thu, 11/19/2015 - 00:00
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tb is a significant public health concern because most of the anti-TB drugs that have been in use for over 40 years are no longer effective for the treatment of these infections....
Sat, 11/14/2015 - 00:00
The electrochemical oxidation of bisphenol A has been studied by CdO nanoparticle ionic liquid carbon paste electrode. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the suitability of new sensor for the electrooxidation of bisphenol A in aqueous solution. The electrooxidation of bisphenol A occurs at a potential about 50 mV less...
Fri, 11/13/2015 - 17:00
Huan-Yan Xu, Li-Cheng Wu, Hang Zhao, Li-Guo Jin, Shu-Yan Qi Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) used in this work was obtained heating dicyandiamide and melamine, respectively, at different temperatures. The differences of g-C3N4 derived from different precursors in phase composition, functional group, surface morphology, microstructure, surface property, band gap and specific surface area were...
Thu, 11/12/2015 - 05:35
Summary Conjugative transfer of toxin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Clostridium perfringens is mediated by the tcp conjugation locus. Surprisingly, neither a relaxase gene nor an origin of transfer (oriT) have been identified on these plasmids, which are typified by the 47 kb tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. The tcpM gene (previously called intP), encodes a potential tyrosine...
Tue, 11/10/2015 - 15:43
Abstract In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC-MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro...
Mon, 11/09/2015 - 11:50
β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase (FabG) catalyzes the key reductive reaction in the elongation cycle of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is a vital metabolic pathway in bacteria and a promising target for new antibiotic development. The activation of the enzyme is usually linked to the formation of a catalytic triad and cofactor binding, and crystal structures of FabG from...
Fri, 11/06/2015 - 17:00
Halina B. Röllin, Tahira Kootbodien, Kalavati Channa, Jon Ø. Odland Background The impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) on birth outcomes is an area of concern. This study aimed to assess an impact of prenatal Cd exposure on birth outcomes in distinct coastal populations of South Africa. Methods Cadmium was measured in maternal blood (CdB) (n = 641), cord blood and in maternal urine (n =...

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