Chemical contaminants

Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:17
Two medicinal plants, African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) and Lonicera japonica, traditionally used in West Africa and China were investigated against four spoilage microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Pantoea agglomerans, and Bacillus sp., isolated from mulberry fruit. The aqueous extract of the P. biglobosa (ALB) was potent with average inhibitory zones against four...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:16
In this work, a simple, fast, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method was developed for preconcentration and quantitative measurement of bisphenol A in water samples using GC‐MS instrument. The preconcentration approach, namely biosorption‐based dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction with extractant removal by magnetic nanoparticles was performed based on the formation of microdroplet of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 22:13
Background Pyraclostrobin and picoxystrobin are two representative pesticides of strobilurins used to treat cucumber downy mildew, which have raised issues of food safety and human health. A new formulation containing these two compounds is being prepared for marketing in China. Results The dissipation and residual levels of pyraclostrobin and picoxystrobin in cucumbers under field conditions...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 18:02
Separation of arsenic and valuable metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sn, In, Ag, Sb, etc.) is a core problem for effective utilization of high arsenic-containing copper smelting ashes (HACSA). This study developed an effective separation process of arsenic, lead, and zinc from HACSA via alkali leaching followed by sulfide precipitation. The separation behaviors and optimum conditions for alkali leaching of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 16:00
The majority of environmental microbiomes are not amenable to cultivation under standard laboratory growth conditions and hence remain uncharacterized. For environmental applications, such as bioremediation, it is necessary to isolate microbes performing the desired function, which may not necessarily be the fast growing or the copiotroph microbiota. Toward this end, cultivation and isolation of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 14:05
A large number of pesticides used in agricultural practice has been characterized or suspected to be Endocrine Disruptors, with dietary intake to be the major route of consumer’s exposure. In the present study the safety to consumer after the consumption of pome fruits and fruiting vegetables originated from the area of Thessaly, Central Greece was assessed. Objective samplings of 110 samples...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 02:03
l-asparaginase (E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important enzyme that has been purified and characterized for over decades to study and evaluate its anti-carcinogenic activity against different lymphoproliferative disorders such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The ability of the enzyme to convert l-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia is the reason behind its anti-cancerous...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 02:02
In this study, groundwater of 10 union councils of Larkana city was assessed by using atomic absorption spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. A total of 110 groundwater samples were collected by using a Global Positioning System. The results revealed that iron, zinc, nickel, copper, and lead present in the groundwater of Larkana city were within the level of 0.002–0.6 mg/L, 0.02–0....
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Gluten‐free quinoa flour (QF) with high protein, low asparagine level, and reducing‐sugars as acrylamide producing agents, is a substitute for wheat flour (WF). This study aims to optimize the biscuit formulation by soft, white WF substitution with QF at five levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), sodium‐bicarbonate at three levels (0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% based on the final dough weight), and...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Praying mantis egg case powder inhibits the accumulation of Cd concentration in catfish bone and muscle tissues and increases its dietary protein content. It also up‐regulated serum NO level in catfish to initiate vasodilatation of bones and muscles for proper blood flow. Finally, it augments the dwindling of myeloperoxidase activity caused by Cd exposure, which has the potential to kills...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Zingerone restored anti‐oxidant enzyme activity (CAT, SOD, GPx, and GR), normalized lipid profile, improved organ function, and prevented tissue injury in kidney and liver. Abstract Among the heavy metal poisonings, lead is considered as a major toxic metal causing hematological, neurological, immunological, hepatic, and renal dysfunctions. Lead causes inhibition of ALAD leading to the ALA...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:15
SUMMARY Glyphosate is a popular, systemic, broad‐spectrum herbicide used in modern agriculture. Being a structural analog of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), it inhibits 5‐enolpyruvylshikimate 3‐phosphate synthase (EPSPS) which is responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and various aromatic secondary metabolites. Taking a lead from glyphosate‐resistant weeds, two mutant variants of the...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Relative to other cytochrome b inhibitors, JAG21 has improved solubility and ADMET properties, without need for pro-drug....
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 04:05
In this work, a new mega-method of sample preparation called “QuEChERSER” (more than QuEChERS) is being presented for the first time. Fast, efficient, and cost-effective analysis of chemical contaminants in meat is useful for international trade, domestic monitoring, risk assessment, and other purposes. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a simple high-throughput mega-method for...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 04:05
The goal of this study was to develop and validate a new method for simultaneous determination of 106 veterinary drugs and 227 pesticides and their metabolites plus 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at and below their regulatory levels established for catfish muscle in the European Union and U.S.A. To do this, two different QuEChERS-based methods for veterinary drugs and pesticides and PCBs...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 04:05
Ricin toxin A subunit (RTA) removes an adenine from the universally conserved sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) on eukaryotic ribosomes, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. No high affinity and selective small molecule therapeutic antidotes have been reported against ricin toxicity. RTA binds to the ribosomal P stalk to access the SRL. The interaction anchors RTA to the P protein C-termini at a well-...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Wei Liu, Chung Chi Le, Dong Wang, Di Ran, Yi Wang, Hongyan Zhao, Jianhong Gu, Hui Zou, Yan Yuan, Jianchun Bian, Zongping Liu Environmental cadmium (Cd) pollution can ultimately lead to chronic toxicity via food consumption. Previous studies have demonstrated that long-term low-dose Cd exposure decreases bone mineral density and bone mineralization. Cd may increase receptor activator of...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Insect growth regulators (IGRs) can cause abnormal growth and development in insects, resulting in incomplete metamorphosis or even death of the larvae. Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and chitinase in insects play indispensable roles in the molting process. Ecdysone analogues and chitinase inhibitors are considered as potential IGRs. In order to find new and highly effective IGR candidates, based on the...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Chemistry campaigns identified amphiphilic indolyl Mannich bases as novel membrane-permeabilizing antimycobacterials. Spiroketal analogs of this series showed increased potency, and the lead compound 1 displayed efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Yet the mechanism by which the spiroketal moiety accomplished the potency “jump” remained unknown. Consistent with its membrane-permeabilizing...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 04:03
Viridicatumtoxins are a rare class of tetracycline-like antibiotics that strongly inhibit drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Although reported to exhibit in vitro inhibition activity to undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall synthesis, the biological targets and mechanism of action of viridicatumtoxins, especially the drug–target interactions,...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:15
A mesoporous silica was functionalized by carbon nanotubes to enhance the extraction performance. The mesoporous material was coated on stainless steel wires, and three wires were inserted inside of a polyetheretherketone tube for in‐tube solid‐phase microextraction. The tube was coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to obtain online analytical system, then...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:15
Infant formulas are manufactured products to meet specific nutritional requirements for infants. However, infant formulas can contain harmful substances, such as chemical contaminants and residues, normally due to possible contamination of the raw material or from the production chain. Some studies have demonstrated that veterinary drugs, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, packaging materials...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:14
Background Childhood asthma is a multifactorial inflammatory condition of the airways, associated with specific changes in respiratory microbiome and circulating metabolome. Methods To explore the functional capacity of asthmatic microbiome and its intricate connection with the host, we performed shotgun sequencing of airway microbiome and untargeted metabolomics profiling of serum samples in a...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Yingnyu Gao, Ying Wang, Jiang Qian, Wenshuai Si, Qi Tan, Jiyang Xu, Yucheng Zhao Many wild mushroom species are known to immune heavy metals. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains largely unsolved. Melatonin (MT) has been proven to play an important defensive role against various abiotic stresses in plants and animals. This study reports on the presence of MT in edible...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Szu-Chieh Chen, Hsing-Chieh Lin, Wei-Yu Chen We aim to assess the risks of renal dysfunction and osteoporosis that is attributed to the seawater acidification caused cadmium (Cd) level increase in human consumed shellfish. A physiology-based pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate Cd concentrations in urine and blood among shellfish-only consumers and among the general population....
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
Fluralaner, a veterinary drug, is a potential chiral isoxazoline insecticide possessing high insecticidal and acaricidal activity. However, there is little information regarding the enantioselective effect of fluralaner. In this work, a promising chiral detection method was established with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in agricultural products and animal organs to investigate...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
The current study developed an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to simultaneously analyze cascade metabolites of acrylamide in urine of rats and humans, including acrylamide, glycidamide, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteine (AAMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteine-sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-l-cysteine, and N-acetyl-S...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 04:03
Cytochrome bd (cyt-bd) oxygen reductases have a high affinity to oxygen and use the two electrons provided by ubiquinol or menaquinol, like in mycobacteria, to reduce oxygen to water. Although they do not pump protons from the cytoplasmic to the periplasmic side, they generate a proton motive force due to the release of protons after quinol oxidation. Here, we show that the mycobacterial cyt-bd...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 02:02
Soil is the support medium for the development of several activities; however, improperly used soils can become a serious environmental issue. The aim of the current study is to determine the concentration of chemical elements in soil used as landfill in Southern Brazil. Samples were collected in different soil profiles and depths and analyzed based on the X-ray fluorescence technique. Results...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 08:02
by Awwad Radwan, Gamal M. Mahrous Bacterial histidine kinases (HKs) are considered attractive drug targets because of their ability to govern adaptive responses coupled with their ubiquity. There are several classes of HK inhibitors; however, they suffer from drug resistance, poor bioavailability, and a lack of selectivity. The 3D structure of Staphylococcus aureus HK was not isolated in high-...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:03
Novel pyrimidine sulfide derivatives containing a dithioacetal and strobilurin moiety were designed and synthesized. Their antiviral activities against tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) were investigated through the tomato chlorosis virus coat protein (ToCVCP)-oriented screening method. Microscale thermophoresis was used to study the interaction between the compound and the ToCVCP. Compounds B13 and...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 02:04
Impact of spraying 50 µM salicylic acid (SA), lead nitrate soil treatments [1 and 2 mM Pb (NO3)2] and their combinations on parsley leaves (Petroselinum crispum L.) for 3 weeks was studied to evaluate leaf symptoms, photosynthetic pigments, anthocyanin, ultrastructure, malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble proteins, phenolic compounds, and guaiacol peroxidase activity (GPOX). Under Pb effect, parsley...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 02:03
This paper investigates the concentrations of PCBs in the water and sediment media and its bio-concentration in the fish host-parasite bentho-pelagic food chain in Epe lagoon. Samples of water, sediment, plankton, mollusks, fish and intestinal helminth parasites were collected from three stations (Oriba, Imode and Ikosi) in Epe Lagoon. Concentration of total PCBs in the surface water and sediment...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:17
In this review and synthesis, we explore how global change can cause populations to become maladapted and how populations, in turn, exhibit adaptive or maladaptive responses to global change. We use the metaphor of a “double‐edged sword” to explore these evolutionary responses to global change. As the double‐edged sword has both beneficial and detrimental effects, evolutionary responses to global...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:11
ABSTRACT Background Fluopyram is a pesticide widely used in tomato and cucumber crops cultivation to control fungal diseases that develop especially in environments with moderate temperatures and high humidity, such as in a greenhouse. The pathway of fluopyram dissipation has been monitored in cucumber and cherry tomato under greenhouse conditions. Results In the greenhouse trials, cherry tomato...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 16:00
Pseudomonas microorganisms are used for bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The overall remediation efficiency is largely dependent on the presence of macro- and micronutrients. Widely varying concentrations of available nitrogen and iron (Fe) in soils were shown to affect residual hydrocarbons in the course of biodegradation. The regulatory mechanisms of expression...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 14:06
An LC-MS/MS multi-residue method was validated for the determination of 59 pesticide residue levels in a chicken egg by using QuEChERS extraction method. The validation parameters used were taken from the SANTE/11813/2017 guideline. The calibration curves for each target pesticide had a good linearity in a range of 1.0 or 2.5 to 100.0 µg kg−1 (r2 ≥ 0.995). Ten per cent of the total pesticides had...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:51
by Shuping Wang, Zhenguang Yan, Pengyuan Wang, Xin Zheng, Juntao Fan Qinhuangdao coastal area is an important mariculture area in North China. Microbial communities play an important role in driving biogeochemical cycle and energy flow. It is necessary to identify the microbial communities and their functions in the coastal mariculture area of Qinhuangdao. In this study, the microbial community...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:51
by Alexandra M. Ward, Rola Yaman, Jon O. Ebbert Background Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; e-cigarettes), consisting of a battery, heating element and e-liquid, have evolved significantly with wide variation in design, components, operating powers, and chemical constituents. Generated aerosols have been reported to contain potentially toxic substances. We conducted a systematic review...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:48
Author(s): Omolola A. Adesanoye, Amos O. Abolaji, Tolulope R. Faloye, Hannah O. Olaoye, Adeola O. Adedara Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used in the production of various plastic materials. It is associated with reproductive, immunological and neurological disorders. Luteolin, a flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and free radical...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:39
Many bisphenol A (BPA) analogs have been commercially used recently, such as 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4′-ethylidenebisphenol, 4,4′-methylenediphenol (BPF), 4,4′-(1,4-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol (BPP), 4,4′-dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone (BPS), 4,4′-cyclohexylidenebisphenol (BPZ), 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol (BPAF), 4,4′-(1-phenylethylidene)bisphenol (BPAP), and 2,2-...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:39
Lead is a nonessential metal which enters the body through various means and is considered as one of the most common health toxins. Several cases of lead poisoning are reported as a result of inhalation or ingestion of lead in employees working as painters, smelters, electric accumulator manufacturers, compositors, auto mechanics, and miners. In addition to occupational lead exposure, several...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:38
Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide widely used for agricultural crops and for vector control of Aedes aegypti. Humans are exposed to this environmental contaminant by ingesting contaminated food. The juvenile and peripubertal periods are critical for the postnatal development of the epididymis and are when animals are most vulnerable to toxic agents. Since juveniles and adolescents are...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:52
by Saki Sultana, Jacklyn Stewart, Aarnoud C. van der Spoel The enzyme β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) is clinically relevant because it is targeted by the drug miglustat (Zavesca®) and because it is involved in inherited diseases. Mutations in the GBA2 gene are associated with two neurological diseases on the ataxia-spasticity spectrum, hereditary spastic paraplegia 46 (SPG46) and Marinesco-Sjögren-like...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:40
Metal based packaging materials provide excellent barrier properties and hence, being used widely in food packaging applications. They are used in different package forms and also as closures such as for glass bottles and composite cans. Major health and product safety concerns of metal packaging comprise migration of bisphenol A, lead, cadmium, mercury, aluminium, iron, nickel, bulging of cans,...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:38
The fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. This fungus is considered a facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside macrophages. The survival of the fungus during infection depends on its adaptability to various conditions, such as...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:52
Carboxylesterase PytH, isolated from the pyrethroid-degrading bacterium Sphingobium faniae JZ-2, could rapidly hydrolyze the ester bond of a wide range of pyrethroid pesticides, including permethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, cyhalothrin, and bifenthrin. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of PytH, we report here the crystal structures of PytH with bifenthrin (BIF)...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:51
Author(s): Marcella Malavolti, Susan J. Fairweather-Tait, Carlotta Malagoli, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal released into the environment after natural and anthropogenic activities. Excluding populations in occupations where there is possible lead contamination, food is the major source of human exposure. In this study, we determined lead...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:50
Author(s): Lijin Huang, Wan Huang, Rujia Shen, Qin Shuai In this work, a facile solid phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the analysis of trace Pb2+ and Cd2+ by using chitosan/thiol modified metal-organic frameworks (CS/MOF-SH) composite as adsorbent followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS) detection. The potential influencing factors, such as solution pH,...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Yin-Han Wang, Chia-Fang Wu, Chia-Chu Liu, Tusty-Jiuan Hsieh, Yi-Chun Tsai, Ming-Tsang Wu, Chu-Chih Chen Environmental exposure to melamine has been associated with early renal injury in urolithiasis patients even when urinary concentrations of melamine are low. The aim of this study was to derive a benchmark dose (BMD) for melamine for urolithiasis patients. To do this, one-spot urine...

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