Chemical contaminants

Thu, 09/26/2019 - 03:22
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed nanostructures released by cells into the extracellular environment. As major actors of physiological intercellular communication, they have been shown to be pathogenic mediators of several liver diseases. Extracellular vesicles also appear to be potential actors of drug-induced liver injury but nothing is known concerning environmental...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Mengyao Mu, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Dongxue Fei, Mingwei XingAbstractArsenic and copper are naturally occurring element. Contamination from natural processes and anthropogenic activities can be discovered all over the world and their unique interactions with the environment lead to widespread toxicity. When the content was excessive, the organism would be hurt seriously....
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Aneta Spyra, Anna Cieplok, Małgorzata Strzelec, Agnieszka BabczyńskaAbstractIn this study we focused on Physella acuta, an alien snail species in order to determine their ability of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in their shells, bodies, the difference in accumulation in relation to age classes, and the influence of ecological variables on the community composition and density. On the...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): He Xiao, Asfandyar Shahab, Jieyue Li, Beidou Xi, Xiaojie Sun, Huijun He, Guo YuAbstractIn this study, heavy metals including Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, As, and Hg, in the surface sediment (0–10 cm) of the Huixian wetland in a karst region were investigated in terms of their spatial distribution, ecological risks, and possible sources. Samples were collected from 13 typical sites...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Jaime Rodríguez-Estival, Carlos Morales-Machuca, Jennifer Pareja-Carrera, Manuel E. Ortiz-Santaliestra, Rafael MateoAbstractHere we characterize the bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) from two river courses in Central Spain that are impacted by historical Hg and Pb mining activities, respectively. We estimate the absolute oral...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:27
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic element widely distributed in the aquatic environment and producing a wide variety of harmful effects. In this study, the acute toxicity (96 h LC50) of Cd to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss embryos and larvae was determined. The obtained results showed that hatched larvae were the most sensitive to Cd exposure. After 4 days of exposure, embryos were found to have...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:27
Tree foliage sequesters gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) through stomatal uptake, when the foliage senesces and falls into the water, Hg from leaf litter can be released into the water and/or microbially methylated into a highly toxic form, methylmercury. The dominant groups of microbial communities that can methylate Hg during litter decomposition are, however, less certain. We conducted a...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:27
This study investigated the effect of persistent heavy metal exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea natalensis. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured as an index of lipid peroxidation. The snails were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead and mercury for a total of 28 days at 0.1 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:27
The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicity of trace elements to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in recreational and military shooting range soils. The earthworms were exposed to soils; then mortality, growth, and reproduction endpoints were determined. In the recreational shooting range, the total Pb concentration was 6151 mg kg−1 and in the soil of the impact berm of the military...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:41
by Aung B. Bo, Jae D. Kim, Young S. Kim, Hun T. Sin, Hye J. Kim, Botir Khaitov, Young K. Ko, Kee W. Park, Jung S. Choi Bioactive herbicidal compounds produced by soil microorganisms might be used to creating a bioherbicide for biological weed control. A total of 1,300 bacterial strains were isolated and screened for herbicidal activity against grass and broadleaf weeds. Among primarily selected...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:40
Carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D carbapenemases (CHDLs) are enzymes that produce resistance to the last-resort carbapenem antibiotics, severely compromising the available therapeutic options for the treatment of life-threatening infections. A broad variety of CHDLs, including OXA-23, OXA-24/40, and OXA-58, circulate in Acinetobacter baumannii, while the OXA-48 CHDL is predominant in...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:40
Glutamate amidation, a secondary modification of the peptidoglycan, was first identified in Staphylococcus aureus. It is catalyzed by the protein products of the murT and gatD genes, which are conserved and colocalized in the genomes of most sequenced Gram-positive bacterial species. The MurT-GatD complex is required for cell viability, full resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, and resistance...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:40
Oral candidiasis (OC) caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised populations. The dramatic increase in resistance to common antifungal agents has emphasized the importance of identifying alternative therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as promising drug candidates due to their antimicrobial properties;...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): Herbert Musarurwa, Luke Chimuka, Vusumzi Emmanuel Pakade, Nikita Tawanda TavengwaAbstractQuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) is one of the pre-treatment techniques that has gained tremendous popularity among researchers during pesticide analysis of food and agricultural samples. Since its inception, this method is considered particularly suitable and effective in...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Lanlan Peng, Jiwang Chen, Lu Chen, Jie Cai, Wenping Ding, Yonggui Gao, Yongning Wu, Shuiyuan ChengAbstractIn this work, rice ultrafiltration albumin (RUA) and rice cadmium-binding protein (RCBP) were separated and purified from rice albumin (RA) in rice grain endosperm using ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). Physicochemical properties of RCBP were investigated,...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Marco Genchi, Alice Vismarra, Chiara Lucchetti, Antonio Viglietti, Serena Crosara, Giacomo Gnudi, Cecilia Quintavalla, Roland Schaper, Laura KramerAbstractHeartworm infection (also known as dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs causes chronic pulmonary disease that, if left untreated, can lead to right-side congestive heart failure. Currently, the only registered drug for...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Wei Yang, Zhi-Kai Tian, Hui-Xin Yang, Zhao-Jun Feng, Jian-Mei Sun, Hong Jiang, Chao Cheng, Qing-Lei Ming, Chan-Min LiuAbstractFisetin, a natural flavonoid found in plants, fruits and vegetables, exerts anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-mitotic effects. The current study instigates the protective effect of fisetin against lead-induced synaptic dysfunction,...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Keuri Eleutério Rodrigues, Fábio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Benilson Ramos Cassunde Barbosa, Ricardo S. Oliveira Paraense, Cahy Manoel Bannwart, Bruno Gonçalves Pinheiro, Anderson de Santana Botelho, Nilton Akio Muto, Cristine Bastos do Amarante, Moises Hamoy, Barbarella de Matos Macchi, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz Maia, Alejandro Ferraz do Prado, José Luiz Martins do...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Nathan C. Twaddle, Frederick A. Beland, Daniel R. DoergeAbstractArsenic is a common toxic contaminant in food and drinking water. Metabolic activation of arsenic species produces reactive trivalent intermediates that can disrupt cellular regulatory systems by covalent binding to thiol groups. Arsenic exposures have been associated with human diseases including cancer, diabetes, lung...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Chuang Ma, Fu-Yong Liu, Bin Hu, Ming-Bao Wei, Ji-Hong Zhao, Ke Zhang, Hong-Zhong ZhangAbstractA field experiment was conducted to assess the atmospheric deposition effects on lead (Pb) contamination in wheat by two contrasting treatments: wheat exposed or not to atmospheric deposition. Plants were housed in a shed during wheat greening for the non-exposed treatment. The Pb contents of...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:31
A multidisciplinary approach was carried out in order to study the biodeterioration and the associated microbiome of a XVIII Century wax seal coloured with minium. A small wax seal fragment was observed by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy in non‐destructive mode. The same object was analysed by Raman and Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy. The...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:32
Salmonella genomic island 3 (SGI3) was first described as a chromosomal island in Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:–, a monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The SGI3 DNA sequence detected from Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:– isolated in Japan was identical to that of a previously reported one across entire length of 81 kb. SGI3 consists of 86 open reading frames...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:32
In the quest for new antibacterial lead structures, activity screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis identified antitubercular effects of gallic acid derivatives isolated from the Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that 3-O-methyl-alkylgallates comprising aliphatic ester chains with four to eight carbon atoms showed the strongest growth...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Fabián Lorenzo-Diaz, Inmaculada Moreno-Córdoba, Manuel EspinosaAbstractStreptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic and opportunistic Gram-positive bacterium that is the leading cause of community-acquired respiratory diseases, varying from mild- to deathly- infections. The appearance of antibiotic-resistant isolates has prompted the search for novel strategies and targets to tackle the...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:22
Chimney sweeps have higher incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD), likely related to their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to identify underlying mechanisms of PAH-related CVD, we here investigated whether PAH exposure was associated with levels of putative CVD-related proteins in serum among currently working chimney sweeps. We enrolled 116 chimney...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Gomaa R.M. Ramadan, Samir A.M. Abdelgaleil, Mohamed S. Shawir, Ahmed S. El-bakary, Peter A. Edde, Thomas W. PhillipsAbstractEthanedinitrile (EDN) is used to fumigate logs and timber products, and it has the potential as an alternative fumigant for stored food products. Other work has demonstrated efficacy of EDN for controlling stored grain pests, but information on EDN residues in...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:25
Driven by the significant need for characterization of the chemical speciation of arsenic in food, this work developed a method for rapid determination of four common arsenic species, namely, arsenite, arsenate, monomethyl arsenic acid, and dimethyl arsenic acid, in vegetables using microwave‐assisted extraction, followed by detection with high‐performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:25
The aim of this work was to develop an efficient method for the selective extraction and analysis of fenoxycarb, a carbamate pesticide, in mussel samples using a molecularly imprinted solid‐phase extraction device. The optimization of molecularly imprinted polymer synthesis was performed using the experimental design under the response surface methodology approach. A fast rebinding study and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:24
2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) is a well‐known environmental contaminant that produces a wide variety of adverse effects in humans. Catalpol, a major bioactive compound enriched in the dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa, is a major iridoid glycoside that alleviates bone loss. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of catalpol remain unclear. The present study evaluated...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:24
BACKGROUND Grape is an important fruit consumed either fresh or processed, therefore, fungicide misuse of grape has become an issue of global food safety and human health. Pyraclostrobin, and cyazofamid have been applied to grape frequently. RESULTS Here a simple QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry technique has been developed and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Arthrobacter sp. are Gram-positive bacilli commonly obtained from soil and in the hospital environment. These species have been reported to cause several types of infection. Heavy metals are a threat to the ecological system due to their high-levels of toxicity and the fluoroquinolones are antimicrobials widely used for the treatment of different bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) specifically recognizes the 5′ mRNA cap, a rate-limiting step in the translation initiation process. Although the 7-methylguanosine cap (MMGcap) is the most common 5′ cap structure in eukaryotes, the trans-splicing process that occurs in several organism groups, including nematodes and flatworms, leads to the addition of a trimethylguanosine cap (TMGcap...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
In this study, the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the street soil of Ma’an City, Jordan. The probable sources of PAHs in the soils were estimated by using diagnostic ratios. PAHs were extracted from soil samples via the ultrasonic extraction method using three portions of 20 mL of n-hexane/acetone mixture. The most priority environmental protection agency 13...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Vieira River is the main recipient of domestic and industrial wastewater in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. Until 2010, domestic sewage was dumped in it without any kind of treatment. Concentrations of arsenic (As), chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in water and sediment samples in eight locations along the Vieira River during the dry season of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The occurrence and distribution of 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their degradation products as well as of 17 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were investigated for the first time in sediments of three (Lake Prošće, Lake Kozjak, Lake Kaluđerovac) out of 16 cascading karst lakes within the protected area of the Plitvice Lakes National Park in central Croatia. The 15-cm-long...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
One of the direct causes of biodiversity loss is environmental pollution resulting from the use of chemicals. Different kinds of chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants and some heavy metals, can be endocrine disruptors, which act at low doses over a long period of time and have a negative effect on the reproductive and thyroid system in vertebrates worldwide. Research on the effects of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Railway transport of coal poses an environmental risk, because coal dust contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury, and other trace metals. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, proposed infrastructure projects could result in an increase in coal transport by train through the Columbia River corridor. Baseline information is needed on current distributions, levels, and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Patterns of lead and other trace metals were examined in 122 Eurasian eagle owls Bubo bubo found dead in Sweden in the period 1978–2013. Environmental lead (Pb) has decreased over recent decades from reduced anthropogenic emissions but mortality by Pb poisoning is still frequently reported for avian raptors and scavengers exposed to Pb ammunition. One objective here was to determine if Pb...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Land application is suggested to be the most economical sludge disposal method but is also a potential source of bisphenol analogs (BPs) to the environment. In this study, BP concentrations in sewage sludge from Henan province ranged from 15.1 to 2237 ng g−1 dw. BPA was dominant with mean concentration of 140 ng g−1 dw, followed by BPS (mean 43.4 ng g−1 dw), BPF (mean 7.98 ng g−1 dw), BPAF (mean...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Lead is a widely used and toxic heavy metal that poses a serious hazard to wildlife species and their ecosystems. Lead is used for production of hunting ammunition. Via gunshot or rifle projectiles, it spreads in ecosystems and may end up in predators and scavengers feeding on wounded or dead animals shot with lead-based ammunition. To assess to what degree Danish raptors are subject to lead...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
In most laboratory studies with oral exposure of terrestrial invertebrates to metals an artificial food, which is easy to handle, is used. The bioavailability of metals from this artificial food may, however, be much higher than from more field relevant food sources. Such differences may affect toxicokinetic processes in different tissues. To test the effect of bioavailability of Cd in food on Cd...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The widespread use of bisphenol S (BPS) as a bisphenol A substitute increases its potential of release into the aquatic environments. However, the degradation of BPS in aquatic systems is largely unknown, which will dictate its fate and toxicity. In this study, a bacterial consortium was enriched from river sediments and the dynamic changes of community structure during bacterial acclimation were...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Systemic pesticides, such as the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, can be introduced into aquatic ecosystems through contaminated plant material, which is the basis for detrital (brown) aquatic food-webs. With the aim of exemplarily assessing for indirect effects on the level of predators, we first offered imidacloprid contaminated and uncontaminated alder leaves to the stonefly shredder Protonemura sp...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
This research presents the assessment of contamination status, congener profiles and ecological risk of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (S-EDCs) in surface water from KimNguu River, Hanoi. Selected EDCs compose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Water sampling and chemical analyses were carried out in collected water...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement aspects of conventional methods (petroleum-based solvent and Folch assay) by alternative methods (bio-based and biodegradable solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2)) for seed oil extraction from anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Results showed that the highest oil yield of...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
The term ‘quality’ is a complex parameter in the field of potato production, and the desired quality traits depend on the intended use. Important internal quality traits for potatoes are tuber flesh discolouration, dry matter, and starch content. External quality traits include tuber size and shape as well as resistance against mechanical stress during and after harvest. These quality traits are...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
There is a significant increase in the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds in recent past to combat drug resistant pathogens. Members of the genus Bacillus and related genera have been screened extensively due to their ability to produce wide range of antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a new antimicrobial peptide from a marine bacterium identified as...

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