Chemical contaminants

Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:36
Nosocomial outbreak detection is a fundamental activity of hospital infection control programs. Traditionally, infection preventionists screen for outbreaks by applying simple rules to data derived from the manual review of microbiology reports. For example, the identification of 3 or more cases of bloodstream infection due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) or another...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:55
Author(s): Junmin Ji, Yulan Liu, Dongmin Wang Peanut oil is a traditional high-end food oil, and most consumers enjoy fragrant peanut oil because of its unique flavor. In this paper, crude peanut oils were obtained from skinned and de-skinned peanut kernels by solvent extraction, cold pressing or hot pressing, and then, the contents of aflatoxins (AFs), phthalate esters (PAEs), and polycyclic...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:49
Significance and Impact of the Study: Vibrio harveyi is a major pathogen of marine animals. The bacterium could enter into a viable but non‐culturable state (VBNC) state when exposed to harsh conditions, and retains its pathogenicity after resuscitation. In this work, we analysed the enzyme activities of a resuscitation‐promoting factor YeaZ and the relationship of protease activities with its...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:46
This study measured both nutrient and pesticide concentrations at up to 13 different freshwater stream sites in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island between 2013 and 2018. Up to 62 different pesticides were analysed in 248 discreet samples. A large majority of pesticides were below the detection limit of the laboratory while seven pesticides had at least 20% or more detections...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:46
Here we describe the improvement of pesticide residue extraction from tomatoes by an improved QuEChERS method. Through Plackett–Burman design, 4 significant variables out of 11 potential variables were identified that could influence the relative deviation of measurements. The 11 variables were: amount of sample, C18, Na2SO4, NaCl, MgSO4, NaAc, GCB (graphitized carbon black), and PSA (primary–...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:47
Multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a major global public health threat. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) target the most widely used antibiotic class, the β-lactams, including the most recent generation of carbapenems. Interspecies spread renders these enzymes a serious clinical threat, and there are no clinically available inhibitors. We present the crystal structures of...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Hengye Chen, Ou Hu, Yao Fan, Lu Xu, Lei Zhang, Wei Lan, Ying Hu, Xingrui Xie, Lixia Ma, Yuanbin She, Haiyan Fu The needing of rapid and sensitive detection method for pesticides is increasing, to facilitate its detection without complicated instruments. Herein, a novel paper-based senor was developed for the visual detection of three carbamate pesticides (metolcarb, carbofuran, and...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Dongmei Xu, Hua Pan, Jiachao Yao, Yixuan Feng, Panpan Wu, Kai Shao Sulfonamides (SAs) are antibiotics widely used in clinical practice, livestock and poultry production, and the aquaculture industry. The compounds enter the soil environment largely through livestock and poultry manure application to farmland. SAs not only affect plant growth, but also pose a potential threat to human...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:41
Processing methods of grilled pork and performances of the two most used grills were assessed. Twelve experiments were performed with three processors. Results showed that the temperatures recorded in the combustion place of barrel grill (VBG1C) and clay grill (CG2C) reached 466.8 ± 41.7°C and 458.3 ± 90.8°C, respectively. These temperatures exceeded 450°C, value at which uncompleted wood...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:37
Today, industrial activities lead to the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, water, and air due to mine deposits and operations, fertilizers, and drugs used in agriculture, and urban wastes. Using microorganism bioremediation of metals is an important technique in solving these problems. Herein, a rhizoid bacterium isolated from orchids that grow in Ovit plateau was defined as Bacillus sp....
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:52
by Da-Hui Wang, Hui Xu, Yi-Hua Zheng, Dong-Sheng Gu, Ya-Jun Zhu, Ying Ren, Shi-Chang Wang, Lei Yang, Liang-Wen Xu Hearing loss is the second most common nonfatal problem affecting the Chinese population. Historical studies have suggested an association between exposure to heavy metals, such as cadmium and lead, and hearing loss. Few studies have investigated this relationship in the general...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:52
by Beata Pepłońska, Beata Janasik, Valerie McCormack, Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Paweł Kałużny Introduction Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal, which is widespread in the environment and has been hypothesized to be a metalloestrogen and a breast cancer risk factor. Mammographic density (MD) reflects the composition of the breast and was proposed to be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer. The...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Lei Tian, Cindy Gates Goodyer, Jingyun Zheng, Stéphane Bayen The thermal degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) was investigated in water and fish (cod, basa) fillets. Ultrasound assisted solvent extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze residues in fish. Good...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Nail Altunay, Adil Elik, Savaş Kaya In this study, a simple and quick ionic liquid- based ultrasonic-assisted microextraction (IL-UA-ME) procedure has been improved for extraction of melamine in dairy products followed by UV–VIS spectrometry. For the analysis of stability and reactivity of melamine and its some metal complexes, quantum chemical parameters like frontier orbital energy-...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:47
To assess the dietary exposure risks of pesticide residues in snow fungus for the general population and young children, 91 snow fungus samples were collected from major production areas in Fujian Province, China and the presence of 44 pesticides was determined. A total of thirteen pesticides were detected; 65.9% of the samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently found...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:40
Detection and removal of pesticides have become increasingly imperative as the widespread production and use of pesticides severely contaminate soil and groundwater and cause serious problems to non-target species such as human and animals. Recently, new two-dimensional materials beyond graphene (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides, layered double hydroxides), called post-graphene two-...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:38
Over the years, many researchers have reported a great diversity of bacteriophages infecting members of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC). This diversity has driven bacterial evolution by leading the emergence and maintenance of bacterial defense systems to combat phage infection. In this work, we present an in silico study of the arsenal of defense systems that RSSC harbors and...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:48
by Roger Pamphlett, Rachel Mak, Joonsup Lee, Michael E. Buckland, Antony J. Harding, Stephen Kum Jew, David J. Paterson, Michael W. M. Jones, Peter A. Lay Objective Damage to locus ceruleus neurons could play a part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis because of impairment of the blood-brain barrier and...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:47
Microbial production of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) is a significant health and environmental concern, as it can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food web. A chalkophore or a copper-binding compound, termed methanobactin (MB), has been shown to form strong complexes with mercury [as Hg(II)] and also enables some methanotrophs to degrade MeHg. It is unknown, however, if Hg(II) binding...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:37
Mercury (Hg) methylation could occur in freshwater ecosystems with low or high salinity. However, few studies are available about the effects of salinity change on mercury(Hg) release and methylation. In-situ experiments using Suaeda heteroptera wetland soil column from the Liaohe estuary were performed to decipher how total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents change under fluctuant...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:36
Pesticide residues are detected in food items globally at levels that may cause health problems. Paper-based analytical devices have emerged as an alternative low-cost and field-based tools for determining target analytes including the pesticide residues. However, the paper devices with colorimetric detection system are limited by lower sensitivity due to their inability to record wavelength...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:36
The use of chemicals in the textile industry has been widely investigated. This study used an improved method with the USEtox model to assess the environmental impacts of chemical pollutants discharged by the textile industry. The environmental impacts attributed to the discharged chemical pollutants were ranked using a quantity analysis method and a toxicity analysis method. The rankings of the...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:35
Host defense peptides (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides, are naturally occurring polypeptides (~12–50 residues) composed of cationic and hydrophobic amino acids that adopt an amphipathic conformation upon folding usually after contact with membranes. HDPs have a variety of biological activities including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-biofilm functions....
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:49
This study investigated the levels of lead, selenium, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium and nickel in honey and their potential health risks to consumers using standard protocols. The honey samples were obtained from apiary farms at nine different locations in southeast Nigeria. They were digested at optimal conditions and analyzed using flame absorption spectrophotometer...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:49
by Shoujing Zhu, Wenjuan Shi, Yucheng Jie, Qingming Zhou, Chenbo Song MYB-related transcription factors play important roles in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. In the present study, a novel MYB gene, designated as BnMYB2 (GenBank accession number: MF741319.1), was isolated from Boehmeria nivea using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR on a sequence...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:44
A flood forecasting system commonly consists of at least two essential components, i.e., a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to provide rainfall forecasts and a hydrological/hydraulic model to predict the hydrological response. Whilst being widely used for flood forecasting, hydrological models only provide a simplified representation of the physical processes of flooding due to negligence...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:40
Aims Industrial growth has increased the exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) in all organisms. Bisphenol A (BPA), an EDC, has been demonstrated to be involved in the susceptibility to parasite infections. However, few studies have analyzed this connection in more depth. The aim of this study was to determine if early BPA exposure in female mice affects the systemic immune response...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:39
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic environmental pollutants with a total of 209 homologs. The homolog 2,3′,4,4′,5‐pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) is one of the most important dioxin‐like PCBs and is highly toxic. PCB118 can accumulate in human tissues, serum and breast milk, which leads to direct exposure of the fetus during development. In the present study, pregnant...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:37
Rapid growth of vehicles in Medan, Indonesia, is one of the causes in the increasing of air pollution, in which approximately 85% is contributed merely by vehicles. On the other hand, the use of lead-based fuel in motor vehicle increases the air contamination in Medan. This study aimed to obtain an accumulation of lead (Pb) in the thallus of lichens in mahogany trees in four different locations...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:37
Salix integra Thunb., a fast-growing woody plant species, has been used for phytoremediation in recent years. However, little knowledge is available regarding indigenous soil microbial communities associated with the S. integra phytoextraction process. In this study, we used an Illumina MiSeq platform to explore the indigenous microbial composition after planting S. integra at different lead (Pb...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:37
Neonicotinoids are derivatives of synthetic nicotinoids with better insecticidal capabilities, including imidacloprid, nitenpyram, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and dinotefuran. These are mainly used to control harmful insects and pests to protect crops. Their main targets are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the past two decades, the environmental residues of...
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Puja Agarwal, Mehali Mitra, Samrat Banerjee, Sujit Roy Here, we describe functional characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB4 transcription factor, a member of R2R3-subfamily of MYB domain protein, in the regulation of Cd-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MYB4 showed appreciable Cd tolerance than wild-type plants, while MYB4 loss of...
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:38
BACKGROUND The polishing process plays a key role in determining the beneficial quality of rice. However, the effects of polishing on human exposure to essential and toxic elements are not well reported. This study evaluated the effects of polishing on the levels of essential and toxic elements in rice grains and evaluated the status of their daily intake using probabilistic assessment. RESULTS...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:49
by Emily C. Moody, Elena Colicino, Robert O. Wright, Ezekiel Mupere, Ericka G. Jaramillo, Chitra Amarasiriwardena, Sarah E. Cusick Background Stunting is an indicator of poor linear growth in children and is an important public health problem in many countries. Both nutritional deficits and toxic exposures can contribute to lower height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ < -2). Objectives...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:39
Background The aims of this study are to (i) evaluate the effects of color enhancers, caramel (C) and molasses (M), on acrylamide and 5‐hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) formation in non‐centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), and to (ii) perform nine‐point hedonic scale and evaluation of sensory attributes, encompassing the appearance, flavor, texture, and aftertaste, by 71 consumers on NCS, NCS_C, and NCS...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:39
Background Nutritional and environmental benefits of mycoprotein verify its health beneficial role on humankind in next decades. Agro‐industrial wastes can be used as cheap substrates to decrease total cost of product. However, fungi may produce toxins or lead to allergic reactions in consumer. So, the study of the safety and nutritional aspects of this product are very imperative. Results...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:37
Lead exposure can have serious consequences on human health, particularly on the mental development of children, but this is not the only impact. High lead exposure can lead to comas, convulsions and death, and even low levels can result in anaemia, hypertension, renal impairment, immunotoxicity and toxicity to the reproductive organs.
Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Baojie Li, Shenglu Zhou, Teng Wang, Yujie Zhou, Liang Ge, Hong Liao In this study, we collected samples of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the most developed regions in China, during four seasons, from June 2017 to May 2018. We identified the spatiotemporal distribution of PAHs in YRD, and analyzed the factors (source...
Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Nana Liu, Raja Arumugam Senthil, Xuan Zhang, Junqing Pan, Yanzhi Sun, Xiaoguang Liu Herein, we propose a green, cost-effective and short-loop route for recovering high-purity α-lead oxide (α-PbO) from spent lead-acid batteries. This newly proposed route consists of leaching, carbonation and thermal decomposition processes. In the leaching process, the lead sulfate (PbSO4) from spend...
Fri, 05/15/2020 - 03:42
Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products yearly. The safety and quality of dairy milk are regularly monitored in most countries worldwide. The Israeli monitoring program of chemical residues in milk has not changed in the last decades, focusing only on major veterinary drugs and few selected environmental contaminants such as heavy metals and persistent...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Jonatan Schlotthauer, Lucila Brusa, Claudia Liberman, Mariano Durand, Alberto Livore, Mirna Sigrist Inorganic As (iAs) species require strict monitoring in foodstuff due to their toxicity. Rice is of particular concern, with recent legislations establishing limits for these species. In this work we develop a method based on selective hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Yuchen Zhu, Yinghua Luo, Guoyu Sun, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen Glutathione (GSH) is a potential inhibitor for acrylamide (AA) in heated food. In the present study, the inhibition pathways of GSH on AA were investigated in the asparagine (Asn)/glucose (Glc)/GSH model system. In comparison to the Asn/Glc model system, three unique molecular ions (m/z 470, 379, and 193) were...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Neus González, Josep Calderón, Antoni Rúbies, Jaume Bosch, Isabel Timoner, Victòria Castell, Montse Marquès, Martí Nadal, José L. Domingo Diet is the major route of exposure to arsenic (As), with rice and rice products as food groups with relatively highest As concentrations. This study was aimed at determining the concentrations of total arsenic (total As) and inorganic arsenic (InAs...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Shiyu Qin, Hongen Liu, Zed Rengel, Wei Gao, Zhaojun Nie, Chang Li, Mingyang Hou, Jin Cheng, Peng Zhao Various nutrients (Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Si, etc.) can supress cadmium (Cd) uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity, but the mechanisms are not the same. In this study, the molecular mechanism governing the effects of boron (B) on uptake of Cd in hydroponically-grown wheat was characterized. As...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:43
The concentrations and potential human health risks through dietary ingestion of PCBs in canned sardines collected from the Nigerian market were determined. The results shows that the total PCBs concentrations varied from Hexa-PCBs > Tetra-PCBs > Di-PCB > Deca-PCB > Tri-PCBs > Hepta-PCBs > Octa-PCB. The estimated daily intake for total PCBs ranged from
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:37
BACKGROUD Pesticides are widely used to control insect infestation and weeds in agriculture. However, concerns about the pesticide residues in agricultural products have been raised in recent years because of public interest in health and food quality and safety. Thus, rapid, convenient, and accurate analytical methods for the detection and quantification of pesticides are urgently required....
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:37
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Cyromazine and acetamiprid are widely applied as pesticides in agriculture, causing increasing concerns about their residues in crops. In this study, cyromazine, acetamiprid and their mixture were applied to cowpea to investigate their degradation dynamics and perform a dietary risk assessment. RESULTS The dissipation behavior of cyromazine and acetamiprid in the single‐ and...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:36
The Upper Silesian basin belongs to the largest industrial pollution sources in Europe and the city of Ostrava ranks among the worst-polluted urban areas in the European Union. To assess temporal and spatial trends in atmospheric pollution, we determined concentrations of S, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Al in snow in downtown Ostrava and at the Lysa Hora Mt. (LH), situated 33 km southeast....
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:35
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal element and the mechanism(s) underlying Cd tolerance in plants are still unclear. Increasingly more studies have been conducted on Cd binding to plant cell walls (CW) but most of them have focused on Cd fixation by CW pectin, and few studies have examined Cd binding to cellulose and hemicellulose. Here we found that Cd binding to CW pectin, cellulose, and...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:48
Author(s): Shuai Gu, Liang Zhang, Bitian Fu, Ji Whan Ahn, Xinpeng Wang Based on the concept of recycling waste with waste, the mixed cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries were recycled with waste electrolyte from spent lead–acid batteries. With the assistance of thermodynamic simulations, the optimized recycling path of the mixed cathode materials was proposed and tested. A higher...

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