Chemical contaminants

Fri, 11/20/2015 - 00:00
A solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) method has been developed for extraction and determination of organic bisphenol A (BPA) in different real samples. Bisphenol A was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FL). Variables...
Thu, 11/19/2015 - 00:00
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tb is a significant public health concern because most of the anti-TB drugs that have been in use for over 40 years are no longer effective for the treatment of these infections....
Sat, 11/14/2015 - 00:00
The electrochemical oxidation of bisphenol A has been studied by CdO nanoparticle ionic liquid carbon paste electrode. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the suitability of new sensor for the electrooxidation of bisphenol A in aqueous solution. The electrooxidation of bisphenol A occurs at a potential about 50 mV less...
Fri, 11/13/2015 - 17:00
Huan-Yan Xu, Li-Cheng Wu, Hang Zhao, Li-Guo Jin, Shu-Yan Qi Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) used in this work was obtained heating dicyandiamide and melamine, respectively, at different temperatures. The differences of g-C3N4 derived from different precursors in phase composition, functional group, surface morphology, microstructure, surface property, band gap and specific surface area were...
Thu, 11/12/2015 - 05:35
Summary Conjugative transfer of toxin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Clostridium perfringens is mediated by the tcp conjugation locus. Surprisingly, neither a relaxase gene nor an origin of transfer (oriT) have been identified on these plasmids, which are typified by the 47 kb tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. The tcpM gene (previously called intP), encodes a potential tyrosine...
Tue, 11/10/2015 - 15:43
Abstract In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC-MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro...
Mon, 11/09/2015 - 11:50
β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase (FabG) catalyzes the key reductive reaction in the elongation cycle of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is a vital metabolic pathway in bacteria and a promising target for new antibiotic development. The activation of the enzyme is usually linked to the formation of a catalytic triad and cofactor binding, and crystal structures of FabG from...
Fri, 11/06/2015 - 17:00
Halina B. Röllin, Tahira Kootbodien, Kalavati Channa, Jon Ø. Odland Background The impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) on birth outcomes is an area of concern. This study aimed to assess an impact of prenatal Cd exposure on birth outcomes in distinct coastal populations of South Africa. Methods Cadmium was measured in maternal blood (CdB) (n = 641), cord blood and in maternal urine (n =...
Fri, 11/06/2015 - 17:00
Xiao-Xin Dai, Xing Duan, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim, Bo Xiong, Shao-Chen Sun Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal...
Thu, 11/05/2015 - 03:48
Abstract BACKGROUNDThis study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMSs) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of respectively context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High-risk context...
Sun, 11/01/2015 - 00:00
Abstract Edible yeast, Lactobacillus plantarum and Mucor were used in traditional fermentation of three food materials wheat dough, pickled Chinese cabbage and Mao-tofu, respectively. The potencies of yeast, lactic acid bacteria and Mucor to promote the degradation of four organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) including chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, phorate and trichlorphon were...
Fri, 10/30/2015 - 11:25
Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6 is able to degrade various lignin-derived biaryls, including a phenylcoumaran-type compound, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DCA). In SYK-6 cells, the alcohol group of the B-ring side chain of DCA is initially oxidized to the carboxyl group to generate 3-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl) acrylic acid (DCA-C). Next, the...
Wed, 10/28/2015 - 11:32
The aroma-active compounds and the levels of acrylamide and ascorbic acid in pan-fried potato slices cooked at three different temperatures (i.e., 160, 180 and 210C) and five heating times (i.e., 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 min) were detected. The aroma-active compounds in potato slices were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and then analyzed by gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry. A...
Fri, 10/23/2015 - 22:11
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Shruti Agrawal, Pradeep Bhatnagar, S.J.S. Flora The present study investigated the toxic effects of individual, combined (binary and ternary) exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury on, (i) oxidative stress (ii) alterations in brain biogenic amines and (iii) tissue metals concentration. Rats were...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Although fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth and activity of probiotics and beneficially modulate the balance of intestinal microbiota, knowledge of the molecular mechanism for FOS metabolism by probiotics is still limited. Here a combined transcriptomic and physiological approach was used to survey the global alterations that occurred during the logarithmic growth...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Two previously uncharacterized potential broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance operons (mer) are present on the chromosome of the soil Alphaproteobacteria Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. These operons, mer1 and mer2, contain two features which are commonly found in mer operons in the genomes of soil and marine Alphaproteobacteria, but are not present in previously characterized mer operons: a...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 14:44
Instant research was planned to study the dissipation behavior of antibiotic residues in chicken meat using various heat-processing treatments. Purposely, poultry birds were procured and administered with antibiotics for a period of 42 days. Chicken meat, after slaughtering, was processed through boiling, grilling, microwaving and roasting techniques to assess the impact of processing on...
Wed, 10/14/2015 - 17:00
Jill F. Kerrigan, Daniel R. Engstrom, Donald Yee, Charles Sueper, Paul R. Erickson, Matthew Grandbois, Kristopher McNeill, William A. Arnold Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are a new class of contaminants of emerging concern, but the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic sources remain uncertain. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as brominated flame...
Wed, 10/14/2015 - 07:57
Volume 32, Issue 11, November 2015, pages 1914-192610.1080/19440049.2015.1087059Zuzana Zelinkova
Tue, 10/13/2015 - 03:30
Summary Undesirable substances of thermal food processing such as acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) have been intensively studied in recent decades. The aim of this work was to investigate the evolution mechanism of AA and HMF contents in the presence of various valence metal cations at various concentrations in asparagine–glucose model system. Three interesting phenomena were...
Fri, 10/09/2015 - 11:48
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): José L. Domingo, Martí Nadal Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 200 different organic compounds that are mainly formed as the result of pyrolytic processes. For the general population, a number of studies have shown that, as for other environmental organic contaminants, the...
Fri, 10/09/2015 - 09:45
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Author(s): V. Manimanna Sankarlal, E.D. Testroet, D.C. Beitz, S. Clark Because residual antibiotics in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could lead to inadvertent feeding of antibiotics to animals, the objective of our study was to determine if a commercial DDGS contained antibiotics. The DDGS used in a feeding study, and...
Fri, 10/09/2015 - 04:11
Publication date: March 2016 , Volume 61 Author(s): Søren Sørensen, Kirsten H. Lund, Tommy L. Cederberg, Nicolai Z. Ballin Salmon and herring from the Baltic Sea are prohibited for sale for human consumption in the European Union or only allowed to be marketed under certain conditions. Fish from certain specific geographical origins also command higher prices in the market than fish...
Thu, 10/08/2015 - 05:45
Volume 32, Issue 11, November 2015, pages 1867-187410.1080/19440049.2015.1087058Mario Chiari
Wed, 10/07/2015 - 14:00
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic of volatile compounds in the Zaopei during the fermentation and distillation process by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS). Physicochemical properties analysis of Zaopei (fermented grains [FG], fermented grains mixed with sorghum [FGS], streamed grains [SG], and streamed grains...
Tue, 10/06/2015 - 01:31
Abstract BackgroundPangasius is a fish produced on a large scale in Vietnam and exported to many countries. Since the rivers contamination from human activities can affect the safety of this food, fish consumption can be an exposure to potentially toxic elements for humans. Thereby, the aim of this study was to assess arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption...
Fri, 10/02/2015 - 11:12
DNA-based stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) was used in this study to investigate the uncultivated bacteria with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolism capacities in two Chinese forest soils (Mt. Maoer in Heilongjiang Province and Mt. Baicaowa in Hubei Province). We characterized three different phylotypes with responsibility for BaP degradation, none of which were previously reported as BaP-degrading...
Fri, 10/02/2015 - 11:12
Recent studies of natural environments have revealed vast genetic reservoirs of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Soil bacteria and human pathogens share AR genes, and AR genes have been discovered in a variety of habitats. However, there is little knowledge about the presence and diversity of AR genes in marine environments and which organisms host AR genes. To address this, we identified the...
Wed, 09/30/2015 - 03:20
Mercury and marine mammals Northern elephant seals accumulate MeHg from their prey in the North Pacific. Image courtesy of James Harvey (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA). Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that accumulates in marine food chains, posing a threat to environmental and human health. High Hg concentrations...
Wed, 09/30/2015 - 03:20
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that is biomagnified approximately 1–10 million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. The potential for this top-down contamination...
Wed, 09/30/2015 - 01:21
An ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay was developed for detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Herein, thiol-modified single-strand DNA (SH-ssDNAs) and anti-BPA antibodies were simultaneously conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled single-strand DNA was hybridized with SH-ssDNAs to form a dual-codified probe. In the presence of BPA...
Sat, 09/26/2015 - 01:20
Publication date: 1 April 2016 , Volume 196 Author(s): Wronkowska Małgorzata, Piskuła Mariusz Konrad, Henryk Zieliński Changes in the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat, induced by roasting at 160 °C for 30, 40 and 50 min, were evaluated in the study. Furozine, was detected after roasting, in all buckwheat samples. Increase of FIC, the presence...
Sat, 09/26/2015 - 01:20
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): German Cano-Sancho, Gemma Perelló, Ana Luisa Maulvault, António Marques, Martí Nadal, José L. Domingo This study was aimed at characterizing the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in commercial fish and seafood species widely consumed by the population...
Fri, 09/25/2015 - 01:29
Wei Wang, Yan He, Guodong Yu, Baolong Li, Darren W. Sexton, Thomas Wileman, Alexandra A. Roberts, Chris J. Hamilton, Ruoxi Liu, Yimin Chao, Yujuan Shan, Yongping Bao The potential cytotoxicity of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) presents a barrier to their use in biomedical imaging or as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a chemoprotective compound derived from...
Wed, 09/23/2015 - 03:20
Elevated levels of neurotoxic methylmercury in Arctic food-webs pose health risks for indigenous populations that consume large quantities of marine mammals and fish. Estuaries provide critical hunting and fishing territory for these populations, and, until recently, benthic sediment was thought to be the main methylmercury source for coastal fish. New...
Wed, 09/23/2015 - 01:23
The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the...
Fri, 09/18/2015 - 09:19
Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03327
Fri, 09/18/2015 - 01:24
Mohd Rehan, Ejaz Ahmad, Ishfaq A. Sheikh, Adel M. Abuzenadah, Ghazi A. Damanhouri, Osama S. Bajouh, Samera F. AlBasri, Mansour M. Assiri, Mohd A. Beg Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4...

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