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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Thu, 03/07/2019 - 08:37
Abstract Sustainability and a more environment‐friendly approach is an emerging issue relevant to crop production. Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, heat, cold or heavy metal pollution can severely compromise yields, and in this respect, plant protection practices should be highly efficient as well as safe for the environment and people. Among the many ways to achieve high productivity of...
Tue, 03/05/2019 - 15:18
Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and resistance phenotypes of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical encephalitis cases, and compare this population to isolates derived from tank milk of healthy animals. Methods and results A total of 57 L monocytogenes strains isolated from ruminant's listeriosis cases (n=31) and from tank milk of...
Sun, 03/03/2019 - 13:43
Abstract Aims To investigate effects of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), a disinfectant, on spores of Bacillus species. Methods and results The ability of CTAB to trigger release of Bacillus spores’ large depot of dipicolinic acid (DPA) in a 1:1 chelate with Ca2+ (CaDPA), and to kill spores were investigated. CTAB triggered CaDPA release from spores of Bacillus...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 10:22
Abstract Aims The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) pathogens and nasopharyngeal commensal bacteria, as well as cytotoxicity in bovine turbinate (BT) cells in vitro. Methods and Results The chemical composition of 16 EOs was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. All EOs were first...
Wed, 02/27/2019 - 08:43
Abstract Aims This study investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of Enterobacteriaceae with extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBL)‐, AmpC‐ and carbapenemase‐mediated resistance in British beef cattle, and related risk factors. Methods and Results Faecal samples (n = 776) were obtained from farms in England and Wales (n = 20) and Scotland (n = 20) in 2015. Isolates from selective agars...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 15:59
Abstract Aims Genotype VII Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most epidemic and serious infectious diseases in the poultry industry. A novel vaccine targeting VII NDV is still in requirement. Methods and Results In this study, we constructed recombinant regulate delayed lysis Salmonella strains expressing either fusion protein (F) alone under eukaryotic CMV promoter or together with chicken...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 14:11
Abstract Aims To evaluate the protective efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus GS4 in cadmium (Cd)‐induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Methods and Results The previously reported probiotic P. pentosaceus GS4 interaction with Cd was evaluated experimentally. Swiss albino mice were segregated randomly into three different groups containing nine animals each. The binding ability of P....
Mon, 02/18/2019 - 14:24
Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the elimination of patulin (PAT) by Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 from artificially contaminated apple juice and its dependence on prebiotic, citric acid and ascorbic acid content. Methods and Results A central composite design was used for studying each of the three factors at five levels to find the optimum concentrations. The results...
Thu, 02/14/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Aim To investigate the use of a light scattering sensor, BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) coupled with a multi‐pathogen selective medium, SEL (Salmonella, Escherichia, and Listeria) for concurrent detection of the three major foodborne pathogens in a single assay. Methods and Results BARDOT was used to detect and distinguish the three major...
Thu, 02/14/2019 - 15:00
Abstract Aim Recent concerns about the possible adverse effects of agricultural chemicals on health and environment have generated a considerable interest in biological alternatives. This study aimed to test the insecticidal potential of fungus Aspergillus flavus and revealed its genotoxic and cytotoxic effects using Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) as a model. Methods and Results The fungus was...
Thu, 02/14/2019 - 15:00
Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature, mixing and sunlight exposure on the 5‐day survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., F+/male‐specific coliphages, somatic coliphages and Clostridium perfringens spores in an 80/20 blend of surface water and reclaimed water approved for potable reuse in North Carolina. Methods and Results Grab samples of...
Thu, 02/14/2019 - 15:00
Abstract Aims The current study aimed to investigate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) in removing four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr) and benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) from contaminated phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Method and Results The effect of initial PAH concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 μg ml−1),...
Fri, 02/08/2019 - 10:14
Abstract Aims This study investigated the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling leaf extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria, as well as the in vivo activity of the most active extract in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Moreover, the chemical composition of the extract used in the survival assay was evaluated...
Thu, 02/07/2019 - 07:49
Abstract Aims Field control of aflatoxin contamination is thought to occur through competitive exclusion of native aflatoxigenic fungi by introduced nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus biocontrol strains. In this study, we explored another possible mechanism that could increase the efficacy of biocontrol strains—the production of secreted compounds termed extrolites. Methods and Results Using...
Thu, 01/31/2019 - 13:03
Abstract Aims A small outbreak of gastroenteritis in 2011 in Apalachicola Bay, FL was attributed to consumption of raw oysters carrying Vibrio cholerae serotype O75. To better understand possible health risks, V. cholerae was surveyed in oysters, fish and seawater, and results were compared to data for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Methods and Results Enrichment protocols were...
Sun, 01/06/2019 - 14:34
Abstract Aims To obtain knowledge about 1) how to sample airborne MRSA and dust in the pig farm environment including effects of sampler on a) measured exposure, b) MRSA survival, and c) spatial and temporal variation in exposure, and 2) the association between exposure to MRSA, dust, and optical density. Methods and Results Airborne dust was sampled on five pig farms using five active and one...
Tue, 11/20/2018 - 11:49
Summary Chitosan has attracted a growing attention as a food preservative due to its versatility, nontoxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility. This review aims to provide a critical appraisal of the limitations and opportunities of the use of chitosan as a food preservative. The application of chitosan as a food preservative necessitates insights into mechanisms of chitosan‐mediated cell...
Mon, 10/29/2018 - 15:00
Summary Viral enteropathogens are one of the leading causative agents of foodborne illnesses in both the United States and the European Union. While human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus cause the vast majority of outbreaks and illnesses, there are handful of human enteric viruses that contribute to sporadic outbreaks worldwide including astrovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus and Aichi...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 15:08
Abstract Aim To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detection of Brucella. Methods and result The probe based RT‐LAMP was carried out by using a set of four or six primers and different LAMP chemicals to compare its results with real time PCR. Detection of gene amplification is done within 40 minutes and can be seen by amplification curve, turbidity and addition of DNA...
Thu, 03/08/2018 - 09:12
Abstract AimThis study aimed to test biofilm inhibition activities of each of essential oils (EOs), main compounds of EOs and enzymes against pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae Methods and ResultsEffect of seven EOs and three enzymes was tested on formation and eradication of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm. Peppermint oil showed robust biofilm inhibitory effect, causing inhibition ranged from 69.2-...
Wed, 03/07/2018 - 06:06
Abstract AimsThe present study was designed to assess the phenotypic traits and virulence determinants of vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains. Methods and ResultsA total of 520 fresh vegetables/fruits samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli, including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and Salmonella. The vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 13:55
Abstract AimsTo investigate the transmission route of Carnobacterium from the farm environment to the meat-manufacturing plant and potential risk for meat spoilage. Methods and ResultsA sheep farm level survey of Carnobacterium, consisting of 150 environmental and animal (no 100) associated samples, was carried out on two farms. A further 20 lamb carcass samples were taken from an abattoir...
Tue, 02/27/2018 - 07:25
Abstract AimsΑ systematic review to investigate fresh produce-borne viral outbreaks, tο record the outbreak distribution worldwide and to analyze the implication of different types of fresh produce and viral types as well. Methods and ResultsFour databases (PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Eurosurveillance Journal and Spingerlink electronic journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were...
Fri, 02/23/2018 - 08:55
Abstract AimsThe effect of nutritional supplementation of two Metarhizium species with riboflavin (Rb) during production of conidia was (a) evaluated on conidial tolerance (based on germination) to UV-B radiation and (b) on conidial expression following UV-B irradiation, of enzymes known to be active in photoreactivation, viz., photolyase (Phr), laccase (Lcc) and polyketide synthase (Pks)....
Sat, 02/17/2018 - 08:20
Abstract AimsAeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) has been isolated from various fish species in Egypt and is known to carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, which pose risk for public health. The aim of the present study is to report, for the first time, the infection of mullet (Mugil cephalus) with A. hydrophila and to clarify the potential association between antimicrobial...
Sat, 02/10/2018 - 05:55
Abstract AimsTo develop a microassay method to detect antimicrobials produced by spore-forming bacteria, thus speeding up the discovery of new antimicrobials. Methods and resultsEnvironmental isolates were grown in 96-well plates, to allow production of antimicrobials agents, then treated with lysozyme and heat sequentially. Lysozyme-heat treatment inhibited or prevented spore-to-cell...
Thu, 02/08/2018 - 08:40
Abstract AimThe study aimed to isolate and characterise Enterococcus species from apparently healthy waste attendants, cattle and cattle waste in Tanzania. Emphasis was given to antimicrobial resistance and in particular occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Methods and ResultsFaecal samples were collected from healthy cattle, cattle waste attendants, and cattle house wastes and...
Tue, 02/06/2018 - 06:50
Abstract AimSurvival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in animal wastes-based composts was studied with different compost types, storage conditions, and inoculum levels. Methods and ResultsA cocktail of 3 E. coli O157:H7 or S. enterica strains was inoculated into dairy manure-based composts (A and B) or poultry litter-based composts (C and D), respectively, at final...
Tue, 02/06/2018 - 02:10
Abstract AimsGenomic characterization of Harveyi clade vibrio strain Y6 causing ‘Scale drop and Muscle Necrosis syndrome’ (SDMN) isolated from barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in Vietnam. Methods and ResultsA bacterial genome was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Multilocus sequence analysis confirmed that the bacterium belongs to Vibrio harveyi species. Further phylogenetic analysis inferred...
Fri, 02/02/2018 - 01:20
Abstract AimsThe aim of the study was to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of Radiant Catalytic Ionization (RCI) against L. monocytogenes strains in the form of planktonic cells and biofilm on food products and food contact surfaces as a method of food preservation. Methods and ResultsThe study material comprised six strains of L. monocytogenes, isolated from food. Samples of different...
Wed, 01/31/2018 - 23:55
Abstract AimThe study aim was to evaluate the potential of 405-nm light as a virus intervention for blueberries. Methods and ResultsTulane virus (TV)-inoculated blueberries were treated with 4·2 mW cm−2 of 405-nm light for 5–30 min. To mitigate thermal heating due to the intense light, a dry ice-chilled, nitrogen-based cooling system was utilized. Blueberries were rotated to ensure exposure of...
Sun, 01/21/2018 - 05:16
Abstract AimsThe study was focused on P. fluorescens strains isolated from Mozzarella cheese, with the aim of evaluating the effects of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OEO) on the biofilm formation and eradication, as well as on the motility and blue pigment production at 10°C. Methods and ResultsMicrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration...
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 03:10
Abstract AimsThis study investigated the possible role of Fayoumi chickens and pigeons in the transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella with zoonotic potential. Methods and ResultsMorbid Fayoumi chickens (70) and pigeons (30) were examined to detect the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella and to detect and sequence sodC-1 gene as a zoonotic and phylogenetic marker....
Thu, 01/18/2018 - 09:16
Abstract AimsThis research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. Methods and ResultsAn integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil...
Thu, 01/11/2018 - 01:23
Abstract AimsWe investigated whether Listeria monocytogenes strains differ in their ability to escape from the primary phagosome after internalization into human intestinal epithelial cells. Methods and ResultsFood and clinical strains were used to study specific alleles; the activities of listeriolysin O (LLO) and phospholipases PlcA and PlcB, which promote rupture of the phagocytic vacuole; and...
Sat, 01/06/2018 - 01:30
Abstract AimsTo examine Salmonella and Escherichia coli in storm runoff and irrigation ponds used by fresh produce growers, and compare Salmonella serovars with those found in cases of human salmonellosis. Methods and ResultsWe collected water before and after rain events at two irrigation ponds on farms in southern Georgia, USA, and collected storm runoff/storm flow within the contributing...
Wed, 12/27/2017 - 06:15
Abstract AimsDairy cattle shed pathogenic E. coli O157 (O157) in feces, playing a role in human exposure. We aimed to measure fecal microbial communities in early lactation dairy cattle, and model outcomes with O157 shedding metrics. Methods and ResultsDaily fecal samples were collected from 40 cattle on two Colorado dairies for five consecutive days, and characterized for O157. 16S rRNA gene...
Wed, 12/27/2017 - 06:06
Abstract AimsThe purpose of this survey was to estimate the respective prevalence of the “gang of seven” and “non-gang of seven” serotypes of Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify the O80:H2 serotype in 245 intestinal contents collected at two slaughterhouses in Belgium in 2014. Methods and ResultsAfter overnight enrichment growth the 69 intestinal contents testing...
Sat, 12/09/2017 - 12:20
Abstract AimThe spoilage potential of 28 bacterial strains isolated from spoiled raw yellowfin tuna was evaluated. Methods and ResultsBacterial species were inoculated in irradiated tuna matrix. Chemical changes, bacterial growth and sensory quality were monitored during aerobic storage at 8°C. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermanii had no spoiling effect. Brochothrix...
Thu, 12/07/2017 - 09:20
Abstract AimsThis study aimed to review the microbiological results for raw drinking milk (RDM) samples submitted to Public Health England laboratories between 2014 and 2016 in order to produce up-to-date data on the microbiological safety of RDM and inform future risk assessments on its sale. Methods and ResultsA total of 902 samples of RDM were collected from retail sale in England for...
Thu, 12/07/2017 - 09:02
Abstract AimsTo compare the conventional plating method versus a fluorometric method using PrestoBlue® as a dye by determining the antimicrobial activity of two organic acids and curcumin against Salmonella Enteritidis in an avian in vitro digestion model that simulates the crop, proventriculus and intestine. Methods and ResultsA concentration of 108 cfu ml−1 of S. Enteritidis was exposed to...
Thu, 12/07/2017 - 08:54
Abstract AimsMolecular subtyping is commonly used in foodborne disease surveillance and microbial source tracking. There is a knowledge gap regarding the molecular ecology of foodborne pathogens in non-food associated environments. The objective of this study was to isolate and subtype foodborne pathogens from pristine natural environments with minimal anthropogenic inputs. Materials and...
Thu, 12/07/2017 - 08:45
Abstract AimsThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of warehouse storage conditions on the composition of the fungal community of green coffee beans (GCB) that were stored in jute sacks for one year. Methods and ResultsMolecular characterization of the fungal community composition and population dynamics obtained by Q-PCR, CE-SSCP (Simpson's diversity index D), and Illumina MiSeq...
Tue, 11/28/2017 - 03:04
Abstract AimsThe incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in Australia has increased since mid-2011. With reports of clinically important C. difficile strains being isolated from retail foods in Europe and North America, a foodborne source of C. difficile in cases of CA-CDI is a possibility. This study represents the first to investigate the prevalence and...
Mon, 11/27/2017 - 09:35
Abstract AimsTo enhance the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of norfloxacin against the planktonic and biofilm mode of growth in ESKAPE pathogens using chemically modified norfloxacin salts. Methods and resultsAntimicrobial testing, synergy testing and time kill curve analysis, were performed to evaluate antibacterial effect of norfloxacin carboxylic acid salts against ESKAPE pathogens. In...
Wed, 11/22/2017 - 09:05
Abstract AimsTo select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibodies from a phage display library by a novel simple and cost-effective immobilization method. Methods and ResultsLight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) was used as biomass support matrix for biopanning of a phage display library to select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibody. Four rounds of positive selection against LECA-...
Mon, 11/20/2017 - 04:55
Abstract AimsEnterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 as a major human pathogen is responsible for food borne outbreaks, bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and even death. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZMEO) and nanoliposome-encapsulated ZMEO was evaluated on the pathogenicity of...
Thu, 11/09/2017 - 01:25
Abstract AimsPathogenic bacteria can spread between individuals or between food items via the surfaces they share. Limiting the survival of pathogens on surfaces therefore presents an opportunity to limit at least one route of how pathogens spread. In this study we propose that a simple coating with the essential oil isoeugenol can be used to circumvent the problem of bacterial transfer via...
Tue, 11/07/2017 - 10:01
Abstract AimsThe objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against microorganism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides. Methods and ResultsCrude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory...
Mon, 11/06/2017 - 15:25
Abstract AimsMicrobiological, biotechnological and chemical characterization of a previously undescribed aryl-crowned polyketide from Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 isolated from brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius with activity against opportunistic Gram-negative food-borne pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods and ResultsA culture-dependent method was used to isolate heterotrophic B. subtilis...

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