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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Sun, 04/02/2017 - 08:21
Abstract AimThe antibacterial activities of chitosan (CS) and its derivative chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) were evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, three highly pathogenic bacteria of warmwater finfish. Methods and ResultsThe magnitude and mode of antimicrobial action on gram negative bacterial pathogens was investigated with an...
Wed, 03/29/2017 - 10:46
Abstract AimsThis study aimed to determine the effect of a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC27092 with and without rice bran extract (RBE) on Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s growth, and to identify a metabolite profile with antimicrobial functions. Methods and ResultsSupernatant was collected from overnight cultures of L. paracasei incubated in the presence (LP+RBE) or absence (...
Mon, 03/27/2017 - 02:55
Abstract AimA cross-sectional study was conducted in ten government organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. Methods and ResultsIn this study, 673 fecal samples both from non- diarhhoeic (n=501) and diarrhoeic (n=172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem...
Thu, 03/16/2017 - 12:10
Abstract AimsQuantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and determine vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. Methods and ResultsAflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen...
Mon, 03/06/2017 - 02:30
Abstract AimsThe spread of bacteria that are simultaneously resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobials would constitute an unsettling scenario. In order to explore an association between antimicrobial resistance and reduced susceptibility to biocides / microbicides like disinfectants in agriculture, we investigated Escherichia (E.) coli (n = 438) and enterococci (n = 120) isolated from six...
Sat, 03/04/2017 - 02:10
Abstract AimsTo identify production and processing practices that might reduce Campylobacter numbers contaminating chicken broiler carcasses. Methods and ResultsNumbers of campylobacters were determined on carcass neck skins after processing or in broiler house litter samples. Supplementary information that described farm layouts, farming conditions for individual flocks, the slaughterhouse...
Fri, 03/03/2017 - 01:55
Abstract AimsThis study used high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the intestinal microbiome dynamics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed commercial diets supplemented with either pre- or probiotics (0.6% mannan-oligosaccharides and 0.5% Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively) or the mixture of both. Methods and ResultsA total of 57 fish whole intestinal mucosa and contents bacterial...
Tue, 02/28/2017 - 10:55
Abstract AimsSilage is grass, preserved by fermentation and used as winter feed for cattle. The impact of a range of current grass silage preparation practices on the survival of Escherichia coli C600φ3538(Δvtx2::cat) and on the induction, release and infectivity of free phage were investigated. Methods and ResultsWilted and fresh grass samples, from plots with and without slurry application were...
Mon, 02/27/2017 - 00:26
Abstract AimsTo analyse whether some indoleacetic acid (IAA)-secreting plant growth-promoting bacteria can alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress, the role of an Ochrobactrum sp. MGJ11 from rhizosphere of soybean in promoting plant growth, and to evaluate the counteracting Cd effects on soybean. Methods and ResultsOchrobactrum sp. MGJ11 produced 121·2 mg l−1 of IAA. MGJ11 increased soybean root length,...
Sat, 02/25/2017 - 15:35
Abstract AimsThe population of Himalayan region is known to consume variety of fermented and non fermented foods and as a result they have been benefited in terms of overall health, because of the associated beneficial microbes. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to identify new strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from dairy products such as milk (cow, goat, buffalo) and fermented...
Tue, 02/14/2017 - 02:40
Abstract AimsGenetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of C. coli and C. jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Methods and ResultsCampylobacter spp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex...
Sat, 02/04/2017 - 01:55
Summary Food safety is a critical public health issue for consumers and the food industry because microbiological contamination of food causes considerable social and economic burdens on health care. Most foodborne illness comes from animal production, but as of the mid-1990s in the United States and more recently in the European Union, the contribution of fresh produce to foodborne outbreaks has...
Fri, 01/20/2017 - 08:15
Abstract Biofilms as complex microbial communities attached to surfaces are posing several challenges in different sectors, ranging from food and healthcare to desalination and power generation. Biofilms survive in hostile environments due to a distinct physiology and behavior in comparison to their planktonic counterparts. They are ubiquitous, resilient, and difficult to eradicate due to their...
Wed, 01/04/2017 - 09:15
Abstract AimsThis study was performed to develop passive sampling methodology for the detection of two viruses in seawater in the area of shellfish production, The Norovirus (NoV), a human pathogen implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to oyster consumption and the ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) a virus associated with mass mortalities of Pacific oysters. Methods and...
Thu, 12/29/2016 - 09:40
Summary Non-thermal disinfection technologies are gaining increasing interest in the field of minimally processed food in order to improve the microbial safety or to extend the shelf life. Especially fresh-cut produce or meat and fish products are vulnerable to microbial spoilage but due to their sensitivity, they require gentle preservation measures. The application of intense light pulses (PL)...
Thu, 12/29/2016 - 00:40
Abstract AimsThe aim of this study was to detect and quantify Aichi virus (AiV) in shellfish from three estuaries in Galicia, the main producer of molluscs in Europe. Methods and ResultsA total of 249 shellfish samples were analysed using a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR procedure. AiV was detected in 15 of 249 (6·02%) samples. Ría de Ares-Betanzos showed the highest prevalence (11·1%),...
Thu, 12/22/2016 - 02:45
Abstract AimsExplorations of freshwater cyanobacteria as antimicrobial (bacteria, fungi and MRSA strains) drug resource using bioassay, NRPS (non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetase) and PKS (polyketide synthase) genes, as well as in silico approach. Methods and ResultsWe have bioassayed the extracts of Phormidium CCC727, Geitlerinema CCC728, Arthrospira CCC729, Leptolyngbya CCC732, Phormidium...
Sat, 12/17/2016 - 16:20
Abstract AimsTo evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. Methods and ResultsGround beef samples inoculated with ~10 CFU of STEC or both STEC and S....
Thu, 12/08/2016 - 15:10
Abstract AimsThe aim of the current study was to explore the bacterial soil diversity for nitrile biocatalysts, in particular those for hydrolysis of β-substituted nitriles, to the corresponding carboxamides and acids that may be incorporated into peptidomimetics. To achieve this we needed to compare the efficiency of isolation methods and determine the influence of land use and geographical...
Thu, 11/17/2016 - 02:33
Abstract AimsThe aims of this study were to develop an effective oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection and to design new and more versatile mucosal adjuvants. Methods and ResultsGenetically engineered Lactobacillus casei strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG (rLpPG-2-FaeG) and either co-expressing heat-labile enterotoxin A (LTA) subunit with an amino...
Thu, 11/17/2016 - 02:33
Abstract AimsTo evaluate the comparative immunogenic potential of food grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) expressing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Shigella dysenteriae type-1 (SD-1) when administered either orally or intranasally. Methods and ResultsOmpA of SD-1 was cloned and expressed first in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and then in L. lactis. Presence of recombinant gene was confirmed by...
Mon, 11/14/2016 - 00:33
Abstract AimsThis investigation is designed to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of the noodle grass Syringodium isoetifolium, which is commonly found in the Indian coastal waters. Also, this study characterizes the active compound and predicts the mode of action in silico. Methods and ResultsHuman pathogenic bacteria were treated with crude metabolites of S. isoetifolium. The potent fraction...
Fri, 11/04/2016 - 04:42
Summary Clostridium difficile is a significant pathogen with over 300, 000 cases reported in North America annually. Previously it was thought C. difficile was primarily a clinical associated infection although through the use of whole genome sequencing it has been revealed that the majority of cases are community acquired. The source of community acquired C. difficile infections (CDI) is open to...
Fri, 11/04/2016 - 04:16
Abstract AimsThe aim of this study was to verify the suitable use of candidate ‘probiotics’ selected by in vitro tests and the importance of in vivo assays to nominate the microorganisms as probiotics and alternatives prophylactic treatments for Salmonella Typhimurium infection. Methods and ResultsThirty-three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from foal's faeces were assessed based on the main...
Mon, 10/31/2016 - 11:15
Abstract AimsThis study was designed to investigate the ability of naturally occurring bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate to prevent biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes or to remove existing biofilms in mushroom production facilities. Methods and ResultsIt is generally recognised that Listeria monocytogenes forms biofilms that can facilitate its survival in food processing environments....
Fri, 10/14/2016 - 10:50
Abstract AimsNovel cases of Brucella infections in frogs are discussed together with results of published reports to extend our current knowledge on ‘atypical’ brucellae isolated from amphibians and discuss challenges we face on this extraordinary emerging group of pathogens. Methods and ResultsSince our first description, additional 14 isolates from 4 different frog species were collected. Novel...
Sat, 10/08/2016 - 04:50
Abstract AimThis study assessed whether multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. Methods and ResultsMLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and...
Thu, 10/06/2016 - 01:36
Abstract AimsTo define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS) and of resveratrol, and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on C. jejuni morphology. Methods and resultsUsing gene-specific knock-out C. jejuni mutants and an efflux-pump inhibitor, we show CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across...
Tue, 10/04/2016 - 04:01
Summary Aim“Label Rouge” broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. Material and MethodsInitially the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as S. aureus and coliforms,...
Thu, 09/29/2016 - 10:04
Abstract Aimsto investigate the presence of genomic traits associated with a set of enteric viruses as well as pathogenic Escherichia coli in Top Soil Improvers (TSI) from Italy Methods24 TSI samples originating from municipal sewage sludges, pig manure, green and household wastes were analysed by Real Time PCR for the presence of Hepatitis E virus, porcine and human adenovirus, norovirus,...
Thu, 09/29/2016 - 09:55
Abstract AimsThe object of this study was to determine the impact of only modifying the processing and/or particle size of pig feed on Salmonella shedding and faecal microbiota. Methods and ResultsPigs were fed a diet that varied only by their processing (pellet or mash) and their particle size (500, 750 or 1250 μm) for 21 days. Salmonella detection in faeces and seroconversion were determined....
Thu, 09/29/2016 - 09:55
Abstract AimsDevelopment of Taqman MGB real-time PCR (q-PCR) assays for the quantitative detection of virulence factor genes in pure culture and food samples with regards to food safety assessment. Methods and resultsNew Taqman primers and probes were designed for the ace, esp and gelE genes based on the determinants of virulence profiles of enterococcal strains from GenBank. The high specificity...
Tue, 09/20/2016 - 21:20
Abstract AimsThis study was conducted to evaluate the biocontrol potential of Bacillus subtilis CICC 10034, Rhodobacter sphaeroides CGMCC 1.2182 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens CGMCC 1.2554 against patulin (PAT)-producer Penicillium expansum and their ability to remove PAT. Methods and ResultsBacillus subtilis effectively inhibited P. expansum both on apples and in in vitro experiments, which...
Fri, 09/16/2016 - 21:30
Abstract Aimsisolate and characterize native yeast strains from broilers' environment as feedstuff, faeces and gut, and to evaluate their binding capacity for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Methods and ResultsA total of 9 yeast strains were isolated: 3 from feedstuff identified as Pichia kudriavzevii (2) and Clavispora lusitaniae (1), 2 from gut identified as Candida tropicalis and 4 from faeces identified...
Wed, 09/14/2016 - 12:00
AbstractAimsCompare the survival behavior of food spoilage microorganisms treated with sequential doses or all at once treatments of eugenol.Methods and ResultsStaphylococcus carnosus, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens were exposed to the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) initially, or to half doses over time, with first half dose applied immediately and a second...
Fri, 09/02/2016 - 11:55
Abstract AimsA batch chlorination system was optimized for onsite wastewater treatment and reuse system (OWRS) and its efficiency was evaluated for reducing viruses, protozoa, bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance in cold and warm seasons. Methods and ResultsThe OWRS performance in reducing microbial contaminants was determined by assessing three different fecal indicators (Escherichia coli, F-...
Fri, 08/26/2016 - 09:40
Abstract AimsInvestigate how Cronobacter sakazakii modify their lipid A structure to avoid recognition by the host immune cells. Methods and ResultsLipid A modification was observed in C. sakazakii BAA894 grown at pH 5.0 but not pH 7.0. Overexpression of C. sakazakii gene ESA_RS09200 in E. coli W3110 caused a phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A; when ESA_RS09200 was deleted in C....
Sat, 08/13/2016 - 10:30
Abstract AimsTo investigate the virulence of the Vp_PirAB-like genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-AHPND causing strain and factors that associate with the virulence level. Methods and ResultsThe virulence of Vp_PirAB-like were examined using a non-virulent strain FP11 of V. parahaemolyticus transformed with a plasmid harboring Vp_PirAB-like genes and then used it to challenge shrimp Litopenaeus...
Mon, 08/08/2016 - 09:06
Abstract AimsTo identify faecal pollution along the southeastern Florida coast and determine the performance of a reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method for pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). Methods and ResultsIn 2014, bimonthly surface water samples were collected from inlets, exposed to runoff and septic seepage, and coastal sites, exposed to ocean...
Sat, 08/06/2016 - 06:42
Abstract Shoe soles are possible vectors for infectious diseases. Although studies have been performed to assess the prevalence of infectious pathogens on shoe soles and decontamination techniques, no systematic review has ever occurred. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the prevalence of infectious agents on shoe bottoms and possible...
Thu, 08/04/2016 - 02:48
Abstract AimsThe purpose of this study was to isolate, characterize and determine the structure and the antibacterial activities of a bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum CPN, a strain isolated from unpasteurized-milk Camembert cheese. Methods and ResultsThis bacteriocin, termed maltaricin CPN, was produced at higher amounts in MRS broth at temperatures between 15 and 25°C. It...
Tue, 08/02/2016 - 02:31
Abstract AimsOur aim was to assess the effects of step-wise exposure to didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) on the antimicrobial (antibiotics and biocides) susceptibilities of food-associated bacterial strains. Methods and ResultsAdaptive responses of bacterial strains were investigated by exposing the strains daily to increasing sub-inhibitory concentrations of DDAC for 7 days. Following...
Wed, 07/27/2016 - 07:15
Abstract The bacterial species, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are ubiquitous in estuaries and coastal waters throughout the world, but they also happen to be important human pathogens. They are concentrated by filter feeding shellfish which are often consumed raw or undercooked, providing an important potential route of entry for an infective dose of these bacteria. V....
Sat, 07/23/2016 - 10:10
Abstract AimThe aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of domestic cooking in inactivating Manila clams experimentally infected with human hepatitis A virus (HAV). Methods and resultsElectronic temperature probes were positioned to measure the internal temperature of Manila clams during domestic cooking. Two batches were infected with 107 and 105 TCID50 ml-1 of HAV. The infected whole-in-...
Mon, 07/18/2016 - 10:25
Abstract AimsThe objective of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of a new SAM® polymer poly(TBAMS) as packaging material for meat products. Methods and ResultsThe influence of temperature, time, and product factors on the antimicrobial activity of poly(TBAMS) against different bacteria was determined by using a modified test method based on the Japanese Industrial Standard...
Mon, 07/18/2016 - 04:40
Abstract AimsIn order to investigate Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella contamination a survey was conducted at three peanut confectionery processing companies (A, B, and C) in Brazil. Methods and ResultsSamples of different peanut confectionery products (n=59), peanut raw material (n=30), manufacturing environment (n=116), and workers’ hand surfaces (n=12) were...
Mon, 07/18/2016 - 03:01
Abstract AimThe occurrence of virulence markers, serotypes and invasive ability were investigated in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from fecal samples of healthy dairy cattle at Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Methods and ResultsFrom 1,562 stx-positive fecal samples, 105 STEC strains were isolated by immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) or plating onto MacConkey agar (MC)...
Fri, 07/15/2016 - 10:35
Abstract AimsMastitis causes economic losses and antimicrobials are frequently used for mastitis treatment. Antimicrobial resistance surveys are still rare in the ovine field and characterization of strains is important in order to acquire information about resistance and for optimization of therapy. Methods and ResultsBacterial pathogens recovered in milk samples from mastitis-affected ewes were...
Wed, 07/13/2016 - 14:30
Abstract AimsThe objective of this study was a comprehensive characterization of physiological changes of Salmonella enterica induced by intense broad spectrum pulsed light (PL). After exposing the bacteria to this non-thermal decontamination technology on a gel surface, multiple viability parameters beyond culturability were assessed. Methods and ResultsBy applying flow cytometry, a luciferin-...
Tue, 07/05/2016 - 04:10
Abstract AimsTo assess the prevalence of enteric viruses in different irrigation water sources and in the irrigated produce, and the possible links with microbiological and physicochemical water characteristics. Methods and resultsThe prevalence and levels of Escherichia coli, Norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and II (GII), as well as Hepatitis A virus were assessed in three types of water:...

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