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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Wed, 09/23/2015 - 01:23
Aims The main objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of Solanum torvum leaves against different field and storage fungi, and to identify its active compound. Also, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory efficacy on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Methods and Results Leaves of S. torvum were sequentially extracted with...
Sat, 08/22/2015 - 01:27
Aims This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of four phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth and yield of rice under different soil conditions. Methods Bacterial strains were Rahnella aquatillis (KM977991), Enterobacter sp. (KM977992), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. These studies were conducted on different rice cultivars (‘Shiroodi’, ‘Tarom’ and ‘Tarom Hashemi...
Sat, 08/22/2015 - 01:27
Aims The aim of this study was to cost-effectively improve detection of foodborne pathogens in PCR inhibitory samples through the use of alternative DNA polymerases. Methods and Results Commercially available polymerases (n=16) and PCR master mixes (n=4) were screened on DNA purified from bacterial cells in two validated real-time PCR assays for Campylobacter and Salmonella. The five best...
Wed, 08/19/2015 - 01:21
Aims Ileocaecal lymph nodes (ICLNs) of pigs, the key immune inductive site for bacterial systemic invasion, were examined in this study with emphasis on viable and cultivable bacteria. Methods and Results Asymptomatic and pathologically altered ICLNs of slaughter pigs (n = 16) with hyperplasia, purulence or granulomatous formations were aerobically and anaerobically cultivated. In total, 209...
Sat, 08/08/2015 - 01:19
Aims The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of caprylic acid (CA) on pathogens in apple juice having intrinsic organic acids, and to determine any synergistic effects. Methods and Results Bactericidal effects of CA were examined against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium present in apple juice at mild heating temperatures. Apple juice containing each of the pathogens...
Fri, 08/07/2015 - 01:26
Aims To investigate the differential expression of virulence genes and role of gyrA mutations in quinolone resistant and susceptible strains of Salmonella isolated from seafood. Methods and Results Forty Salmonella isolates from seafood were tested for antibiotic sensitivity. MIC was determined and two nalidixic acid resistant isolates, viz Salmonella Weltevreden (SW9) and S. Newport (SN36)...
Wed, 07/29/2015 - 01:24
Aims To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as plant based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Methods and Results Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their...
Tue, 07/21/2015 - 01:27
Aims This study aimed to assess the sanitary situation in agricultural biogas plants regarding pathogenic Clostridium spp.. Methods and Results The incidence of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi, Clostridium haemolyticum, Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei was investigated in 154 plant and animal substrates, digester sludges and digestates from full-...
Wed, 07/15/2015 - 01:27
Tetrodotoxin is a deadly neurotoxin which selectively inhibits Na+ activation mechanism of nerve impulse, without affecting the permeability of K+ ions. Because of this sodium channel blocking action, it is majorly being studied for biomedical applications. Tetrodotoxin is present in taxonomically diverse groups of animals inhabiting terrestrial, marine, fresh water and brackish water...
Wed, 07/15/2015 - 01:27
Aims Epidemiological evidence suggests that hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the most common pathogen transmitted by bivalve mollusks such as clams, cockles, mussels, and oysters. This study aimed to generate thermal inactivation kinetics for HAV as a first step to design adequate thermal processes to control clam-associated HAV outbreaks. Methods and Results Survivor curves and thermal death curves...
Tue, 06/30/2015 - 01:19
Aims To identify lactic acid bacterial isolates that promote IgA production in honeybee products and honeybees (Apis mellifera). Methods and Results Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbiota of honeybee products and honeybees revealed the predominance of Lactobacillus kunkeei in honey, bee pollen, bee bread, and royal jelly. L. kunkeei was isolated from bee pollen, bee bread, and honey stomach...
Mon, 06/29/2015 - 01:25
Aims The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study is to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage....
Fri, 06/26/2015 - 01:21
Aims This work evaluated the antibacterial activity of a water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin (WSMoL) by evaluating its effect on growth, survival and cell permeability of Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumillus, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Serratia marcescens. In addition, the effect of lectin on...
Thu, 06/25/2015 - 01:28
Since their discovery in 1915, bacteriophages have been routinely used within Eastern Europe to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Although initially ignored by the West due to the success of antibiotics, increasing levels and diversity of antibiotic resistance is driving a renaissance for bacteriophage derived therapy, which is in part due to the highly specific nature of bacteriophages as...
Tue, 06/23/2015 - 01:22
Aims The aim of this study was to study inactivation of different pathogenic bacteria on agar model surface using TiO2-UV photocatalysis (TUVP). Methods and Results A unified food surface model was simulated using Bacto™ agar, a routinely used microbial medium. The foodborne pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli K12 (as a surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7), Salmonella Typhimurium,...
Sun, 06/21/2015 - 01:27
Aims Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparisons and evaluated serotype-associated genes for their utility as a multiplex PCR-based method for...
Thu, 06/18/2015 - 01:30
Aims To determine the varieties and concentrations of pesticides by detecting the changes of microalgae components using Raman microspectroscopy technology. Methods and Results Raman microspectroscopy technology was used to detect the internal elements and characteristics of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to build the model between Raman signals of Chlorella...
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 01:28
Aims Few studies have compared the effectiveness of hygienic cleaning under simulated use conditions. This study compares commonly used and novel cleaning methods for food contact and hand contact surfaces in kitchens. Methods and Results We report results from two surveys on Norwegian consumers’ cleaning procedures. Laboratory models involving cutting boards, tap handles and mobile phones...
Thu, 06/04/2015 - 01:33
Aims The effect of milk fat content on ohmic heating compared to conventional heating for inactivation of food-borne pathogens was investigated. Methods and Results Sterile cream was mixed with sterile buffered peptone water and adjusted to 0, 3, 7, 10% (w/v) milk fat content. These samples with varying fat content were subjected to ohmic and conventional heating. The effect of milk fat on...
Sun, 05/31/2015 - 01:23
Aims In the present work the Libyan wild-growing Thymus capitatus essential oil was evaluated for its biological properties. Methods and Results Carvacrol (68.19%) and thymol (12.29%) were found to be the main compounds of the oil. Antioxidant properties, determined by 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, revealed that IC50 values were 119 μg ml-1, 403 μg ml-1and 105 μg ml-1 for oil, thymol...
Sun, 05/31/2015 - 01:23
Aims We investigated the effect of ozone treatment of apple juice at different pH levels for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Methods and Results Apple juice (pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) inoculated with the three pathogens were treated with gaseous ozone (3.0 l min−1 flow rate and 2.0-3.0 g m−3) for up to 4 min. Ozone treatment (4 min) of pH...
Wed, 05/20/2015 - 01:22
Aims To evaluate the antifungal activity of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by 75 different foodborne Bacillus species against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. clavatus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, and Moniliophthora perniciosa and to determine the VOCs responsible for the inhibition. Methods and Results Bacillus strains inhibited fungal growth, although...
Fri, 05/15/2015 - 01:19
Aim In this study, the effectiveness of combining each of seven types of acids with 3% salt as a treatment against pathogens was investigated in laboratory media and acidified food. Methods and Results When 0.5% malic, 0.5% tartaric, 0.5% citric, or 0.25% phosphoric acid was combined with 3% salt, there was a higher reduction of Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium)...
Tue, 05/12/2015 - 01:17
Aims To characterize integron-harbouring Gram-negative bacteria in recreational lakes, with focus on the genetic content of integrons, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and virulence-associated genes. Methods and Results The presence and structure of integrons in coliform bacteria isolated from the water of four recreational lakes located in Poznań, Poland, was determined by PCR method....
Tue, 05/05/2015 - 01:17
Aims To develop a gentle ablation technique to recover Listeria monocytogenes biofilms from stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces by using compressed air and water injection. Methods and Results Biofilms were grown for 4, 24 and 48 h or 7 d and a compressed air and water flow at 2, 3 and 4 bars was applied for the purpose of cell removal. Collected cells were...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 01:22
Aims In the present study, we conducted a quantitative microbial risk assessment forecasting the exposure to Campylobacter jejuni contaminated surfaces during preparation of chicken fillets and how using a disinfectant wipe intervention to clean a contaminated work area decreases the risk of infection following the preparation of raw chicken fillet in a domestic kitchen. Methods and Results...
Sat, 04/25/2015 - 01:20
Aims To develop and evaluate cross-priming amplification (CPA) combined with immuno-blotting for detection of coagulase-positive Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. Methods and Results Twenty-four sets of cross and detection primers were designed according to four sequences of coagulase gene in S. aureus. The most specific primer pair was screened out for the next amplification and...
Sat, 04/18/2015 - 01:21
Aim To examine the occurrence and quantity of potential pathogens and an indicator of microbial contamination in the sediments of municipal drinking water storage tanks (MDWSTs), given the absence of such data across the United States. Methods and Results Sediment samples (87 MDWST) from eighteen locations across ten states of the U.S. were collected and assayed by qPCR for a range of potential...
Sun, 03/29/2015 - 01:18
Aims To develop a mild blanching method with calcium salts to ensure microbiological safety and quality of fresh-cut spinach. Methods and Results The antimicrobial efficacy of eight calcium salts was evaluated on Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 45–65°C and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] showed the greatest synergistic antimicrobial effect with heat. Combinations of low temperature treatments (45, 55,...
Fri, 03/27/2015 - 01:17
Aims The aims of this study were to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of Hesperozygis ringens (HREO), popularly known as “espanta-pulga” and two different species of basil, Ocimum gratissimum (OGEO) and Ocimum americanum (OAEO), as well as, the potential of these products to be used in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila....
Sun, 03/22/2015 - 01:20
Aims Discrimination of Salmonella strains below the species level is very important to trace the source of outbreaks. To this end molecular typing methods can be successfully applied to routine analysis in non-specialized laboratories due to their simplicity and speed. Here, the discriminatory ability of four molecular typing methods was investigated in 74 Salmonella enterica isolates. Methods...
Sat, 03/21/2015 - 01:22
Aim The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lysozyme and antibiotics on zoonotic pathogen shedding in faeces from nursery pigs housed without and with an indirect disease challenge. Methods and Results Two replicates of approximately 650 pigs each were weaned and randomly assigned to one of 24 pens in either a nursery room that had been fully disinfected or a nursery room...
Sat, 03/14/2015 - 01:24
Aims Develop a multiplex real time PCR method to identify Campylobacter jejuni containing mutations commonly associated with macrolide resistance. Methods and Results A multiplex fluorescence real-time PCR assay was developed based on TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probes. The VS1-MGB probe was designed based on the VS1 gene and was used to identify C. jejuni. The 23S rDNA-MGB probe was...
Thu, 03/12/2015 - 01:18
Aims (1) To study the effects of cold shock on E. coli O157:H7 cells. (2) To determine if cold-shocked E. coli O157:H7 cells at stationary and exponential phases are more pressure resistant than their non-cold shocked counterparts. (3) To investigate the baro-protective role of growth media (0.1% peptone water, beef gravy and ground beef). Methods and Results Quantitative estimates of lethality...
Sat, 02/28/2015 - 01:23
Aims Horizontal transfer of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) plays an important role in acquiring pathogenicity. This study aimed to identify novel SaPIs encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and to characterize their SE productivity and replication process. Methods and results Four novel SaPIs (SaPITokyo12413, SaPITokyo11212, SaPITokyo12571, and SaPITokyo12381) were...
Fri, 02/20/2015 - 01:20
Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of bacteriocins against Gram-negative bacteria when associated with others food preservation methods. Methods and Results Salmonella was subjected to heat, cold, acid and chemical (with EDTA and TSP) stresses. Then, the cells were recovered and subjected to treatment with bacteriocins (500 AU ml-1) for 6 h. Heat and cold...
Thu, 02/19/2015 - 01:22
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:16
Aims To isolate bacteria from soil for the purpose of microbial pre-treatment of brown crab (Cancer pagurus) shell waste and the production of chitin. Methods and Results Isolates were screened for protease enzymes and acid production in order to facilitate the removal of protein and calcium carbonate fractions from brown crab shell to yield a chitinous material. Selected isolates were applied...
Wed, 01/28/2015 - 01:18
Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of immunodetection methods and PCR analysis of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus strains. Methods and Results Eighty-eight enterotoxigenic B. cereus group strains linked to foodborne outbreaks and illnesses were studied with 30 exclusivity non-enterotoxigenic strains including B. amyoliquifaciens, B. subtilis, S. aureus, Salmonella, and E...
Sun, 01/11/2015 - 01:18
Aims To investigate the pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil and to compare these strains with other Y. enterocolitica biotypes using ERIC-PCR and PFGE. Methods and Results Forty strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 2 (B2) isolated from humans (5), the environment (34) and animal (1), in Brazil over 19 years were studied....
Sun, 01/11/2015 - 01:18
Aims Listeriosis is a frequent silage-associated disease in ruminants. The slugs Arion vulgaris are invaders in gardens, vegetable crops and meadows for silage production. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to clarify whether slugs could host Listeria monocytogenes and thereby constitute a threat to animal feed safety. Methods and Results Selective culture of L. monocytogenes from 79...
Sat, 01/10/2015 - 01:14
Aim To determine the presence of the T6SS in Campylobacter jejuni from diverse sources. Methods and Results The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial injection machinery that plays a role in virulence, symbiosis, bacterial interactions and environmental stress responses. This system has been recently discovered in the major enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In...
Thu, 01/08/2015 - 01:13
Aims Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in agriculture. Accordingly decontamination of these pesticides and their residual in environment is an important aim of researchers. One of the best approaches is enzymatic detoxification of these compounds with organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH). The immobilization of OPH on environmentally friendly supports is of great importance for developing...
Thu, 08/19/2010 - 15:00
Aims: Microbiological and molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance in Gram‐positive cocci derived from the Italian PDO dairy food product Mozzarella di Bufala Campana (MBC). Methods and Results: 177 coccal colonies were assigned to Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus bovis genera by ARDRA analysis. Among them, 16 Ent. faecalis, 26 L. lactis and 39 Strep. bovis...
Thu, 08/19/2010 - 15:00
Abstract Aims: To assess norovirus (NoV) contamination in aquatic ecosystems in the city of Florianópolis, in Southern Brazil, in order to provide epidemiological data that can support actions for environmental contamination control. Methods and Results: An adsorption‐elution method, followed by ultrafiltration, was performed to concentrate the viruses. NoV were detected using semi‐nested PCR...
Thu, 08/19/2010 - 15:00
Abstract Aims: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of different disinfection methods in eliminating Salmonella contamination from turkey houses. Methods and results: Fifty depopulated turkey houses which had all housed Salmonella‐positive flocks were visited after cleaning and disinfection. A minimum of 45 swab samples from different surfaces were taken per house and analysed for the...
Thu, 08/19/2010 - 15:00
Abstract Aims: To develop simple and rapid PCR‐fingerprinting methods for Vibrio cholerae O1 (El Tor and classical biotypes) and O139 serogroup strains which cause major cholera epidemics, on the basis of the diversity of superintegron (SI) carried by these strains. Methods and Results: PCR‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‐RFLP) assay was developed targeting region between...

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