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Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Mon, 03/19/2018 - 00:00
Processing of Chinese medicines is a pharmaceutical technique that transforms medicinal raw materials into decoction pieces for use in different therapies. Various adjuvants, such as vinegar, wine, honey, and brine, are used in the processing to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Proper processing is essential to ensure the quality and safety of traditional Chinese...
Mon, 03/19/2018 - 00:00
Processing of Chinese medicines is a pharmaceutical technique that transforms medicinal raw materials into decoction pieces for use in different therapies. Various adjuvants, such as vinegar, wine, honey, and brine, are used in the processing to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Proper processing is essential to ensure the quality and safety of traditional Chinese...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 00:00
During the years 2005–2016, a total of 1067 samples for 24 types of herbal materia medica were investigated for the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) using immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC-coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column derivatization. AFs were detected in 373 (35%) out of the total samples. Among them, Platycladi Semen (65% for total AFs and 79% for AFB1), Corydalis...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 00:00
During the years 2005–2016, a total of 1067 samples for 24 types of herbal materia medica were investigated for the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) using immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC-coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column derivatization. AFs were detected in 373 (35%) out of the total samples. Among them, Platycladi Semen (65% for total AFs and 79% for AFB1), Corydalis...
Wed, 01/17/2018 - 00:00
Lycii Fructus, a solanaceous drug, is widely used as functional foods and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Samples collected from different regions of China have been found to be not identical in chemical compositions which might affect the biological activities. Although many chromatographic and spectrometric methods have been reported to determine the concentration of betaine and other...
Wed, 01/17/2018 - 00:00
Lycii Fructus, a solanaceous drug, is widely used as functional foods and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Samples collected from different regions of China have been found to be not identical in chemical compositions which might affect the biological activities. Although many chromatographic and spectrometric methods have been reported to determine the concentration of betaine and other...
Mon, 01/15/2018 - 00:00
The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like...
Mon, 01/15/2018 - 00:00
The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like...
Mon, 12/04/2017 - 00:00
A novel and sensitive assay for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection has been developed by using bio-bar code assay (BCA). The method that relies on polyclonal antibodies encoded with DNA modified gold nanoparticle (NP) and monoclonal antibodies modified magnetic microparticle (MMP), and subsequent detection of amplified target in the form of bio-bar code using a fluorescent quantitative polymerase...
Fri, 11/10/2017 - 00:00
In the present paper, we provide comprehensive information related to labeling claims and standards of identity of milk fat and spread products. By reviewing the standards and regulations for dairy and non-dairy fat products, Codex Alimentarius and several other countries have clearly specified these products and set the requirements for use of the product name to prevent misleading or confusing...
Tue, 09/19/2017 - 00:00
There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker...
Fri, 08/18/2017 - 00:00
Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmental friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrode gap and electric current on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water. Deep ocean water was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-...
Fri, 07/07/2017 - 00:00
Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual...
Wed, 03/15/2017 - 00:00
Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous...
Tue, 02/14/2017 - 00:00
The objective of this study was to ensure and evaluate the safety of imported frozen beef liver traded in supermarkets of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, through detection of Salmonella typhymurium, Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli O157:H7, antibiotic residues, and aflatoxin B1 residue. Fifty samples of imported frozen liver were randomly collected from different shops at Kafr El-...
Tue, 02/14/2017 - 00:00
Salmonella-contaminated foods, especially poultry-derived foods (eggs, chicken meat), are the major source of salmonellosis. Not only in the European Union (EU), but also in the United States, Japan, and other countries, has salmonellosis been an issue of concern for food safety control agencies. In 2005, EU regulation 1003/2005 set a target for the control and reduction of five target Salmonella...
Thu, 12/01/2016 - 00:00
Essential oils from the seed, pulp, and leaf of sea buckthorn were obtained with hydrodistillation, and their phytochemical composition was analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the oils was tested on five food-borne bacteria by spectrometry and evaluated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration. The results indicate that the...
Sat, 11/05/2016 - 00:00
In this paper a method of using the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (GC–MS) was developed for the analysis of five frequently applied pesticides in papaya and avocado. The selected pesticides, ametryn, atrazine, carbaryl, carbofuran, and methyl parathion, represent the most commonly used classes...
Wed, 11/02/2016 - 00:00
Exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids represents a well-documented risk to animal and human health. However, current standards (EP, USP, ISO, YBB concerned with rubber closures) only require testing for Zn in pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers and then using only pure water as a solvent. We extracted and quantified heavy metals and trace elements from pharmaceutical-...
Wed, 11/02/2016 - 00:00
The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection has evolved in recent years, as this species is a major gram-positive pathogen associated with healthcare services. The strong antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus raises an urgent need for new strategies against S. aureus infections. Fruits play important nutritional and economic roles in society, but their biological and pharmacological...
Wed, 11/02/2016 - 00:00
An investigation was carried out to extract polyphenols from the peel of kinnow (Citrus reticulate L.) by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) techniques. The antioxidant potential of these polyphenols was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide radical scavenging assays; and their antimicrobial activity was...
Sat, 09/10/2016 - 00:00
Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread throughout the world and are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form reactive dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro-PAs) that are capable of alkylating cellular DNA and proteins, form (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-DNA and...
Mon, 08/01/2016 - 00:00
Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on the chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water (DOW). DOW was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum...
Sat, 07/16/2016 - 00:00
Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety...
Sat, 07/16/2016 - 00:00
Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety...
Fri, 07/15/2016 - 00:00
In this study, the effect of enzymes involved in degradation of renal adenosine and l-arginine was investigated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd) and treated with curcumin, the principal active phytochemical in turmeric rhizome. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6): control/saline, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 25 ...
Fri, 07/15/2016 - 00:00
In this study, the effect of enzymes involved in degradation of renal adenosine and l-arginine was investigated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd) and treated with curcumin, the principal active phytochemical in turmeric rhizome. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6): saline/vehicle, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 25 ...
Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00
The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of several essential oils (EOs) alone and in combination against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria associated with food products. Parsley, lovage, basil, and thyme EOs, as well as their mixtures (1:1, v/v), were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and...
Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00
The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of several essential oils (EOs) alone and in combination against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria associated with food products. Parsley, lovage, basil, and thyme EOs, as well as their mixtures (1:1, v/v), were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and...
Mon, 06/06/2016 - 00:00
The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively) and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration...
Mon, 06/06/2016 - 00:00
The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively) and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration...
Thu, 06/02/2016 - 00:00
The purpose of this article is to summarize the reported antioxidant activities of a naturally abundant bioactive phenolic acid, caffeic acid (CA, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), so that new avenues for future research involving CA can be explored. CA is abundantly found in coffee, fruits, vegetables, oils, and tea. CA is among the most potential and abundantly found in nature, hydroxycinnamic acids...
Thu, 06/02/2016 - 00:00
Ten milkfish dumpling products purchased from retail stores in southern Taiwan were collected to determine the occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork. This study showed the high contents of aerobic plate count (APC), total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli in tested milkfish dumpling samples, whereas the average content of various biogenic amines in...
Thu, 06/02/2016 - 00:00
The purpose of this article is to summarize the reported antioxidant activities of a naturally abundant bioactive phenolic acid, caffeic acid (CA, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), so that new avenues for future research involving CA can be explored. CA is abundantly found in coffee, fruits, vegetables, oils, and tea. CA is among the most potential and abundantly found in nature, hydroxycinnamic acids...
Thu, 06/02/2016 - 00:00
Ten milkfish dumpling products purchased from retail stores in southern Taiwan were collected to determine the occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork. This study showed the high contents of aerobic plate count (APC), total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli in tested milkfish dumpling samples, whereas the average content of various biogenic amines in...
Mon, 05/02/2016 - 00:00
This study aimed to isolate fungal pathogens and to subsequently quantify aflatoxin (AF; B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) contamination in wheat crops grown in Pakistan. Accordingly, a total of 185 wheat samples were collected from different areas of Pakistan and numerous potent fungal pathogens were isolated. AF contamination attributed to the presence of intoxicating fungal pathogens and resulting metabolic...
Mon, 05/02/2016 - 00:00
This study aimed to isolate fungal pathogens and to subsequently quantify aflatoxin (AF; B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) contamination in wheat crops grown in Pakistan. Accordingly, a total of 185 wheat samples were collected from different areas of Pakistan and numerous potent fungal pathogens were isolated. AF contamination attributed to the presence of intoxicating fungal pathogens and resulting metabolic...
Thu, 04/28/2016 - 00:00
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a toxic metabolite of the fungal product aflatoxin found in milk. For food safety concern, maximum residual limits of AFM1 in milk and dairy products have been differently enforced in many countries. A suitable detection method is required to screen a large number of product samples for the AFM1 contamination. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against AFM1 were...
Thu, 04/28/2016 - 00:00
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a toxic metabolite of the fungal product aflatoxin found in milk. For food safety concern, maximum residual limits of AFM1 in milk and dairy products have been differently enforced in many countries. A suitable detection method is required to screen a large number of product samples for the AFM1 contamination. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against AFM1 were...
Tue, 04/12/2016 - 00:00
The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from...
Tue, 04/12/2016 - 00:00
The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from...
Tue, 03/01/2016 - 00:00
Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are widely cultivated as edible resources and medical materials in China. Characterizing chemical compositions in yam germplasm is crucial to determine their diversity and suitability for food and medicine applications. In this study, a core germplasm containing 25 yam landraces was used to create an effective classification of usage by characterizing their nutritive and...
Tue, 02/23/2016 - 00:00
The object of this study was to evaluate the safety and meat quality criteria in broilers following intramuscular injection of boldenone. Twenty-four broiler chicks, divided into two groups, were used in the present study. Boldenone was injected intramuscularly at a single-dose level of 5 mg/kg body weight into 12 broiler chicks at 2 weeks old; the other 12 chicks were injected with sesame oil...
Tue, 02/23/2016 - 00:00
Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrode gap and electric potential on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water. Deep ocean water was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-...
Tue, 02/23/2016 - 00:00
Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrode gap and electric potential on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water. Deep ocean water was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-...
Mon, 02/22/2016 - 00:00
An effective sample preparation procedure using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure, followed by cleaning with melamine molecularly imprinted polymers solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed. A novel and highly sensitive ASE–MISPE–ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for effective separation and simultaneous determination of dicyandiamide (DCD),...
Mon, 02/22/2016 - 00:00
An effective sample preparation procedure using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure, followed by cleaning with melamine molecularly imprinted polymers solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed. A novel and highly sensitive ASE–MISPE–ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for effective separation and simultaneous determination of dicyandiamide (DCD),...
Thu, 01/07/2016 - 00:00
The recent developments in hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction are reviewed. Applications of these newly emerging developments in extraction and preconcentration of a vast category of compounds including heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and abused drugs in complex matrices (environmental and biological matrices) are reviewed and...