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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Wed, 08/07/2019 - 09:23
Abstract The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the retail fish markets of the Kerala, India was investigated by screening 227 samples comprising of marine finfish (n=97) shellfish (n=19), ready‐to‐cook fish products (n=47), ready‐to‐eat fish products (n=10), dried fish (n=11) and retail ice (n=43). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua was 2.7% and 17.2% respectively. Sample...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:22
Abstract This study evaluated the survival responses of L. monocytogenes strains (individually and mixed) in a soft lactic cheese following acid and salt stress exposures. The Weibull and log‐linear with tail models were used to predict the survival responses of the pathogen in the cheese stored at 4°C for 15 d. Both models showed a good prediction accuracy for stressed L. monocytogenes cells (Af...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 06:29
Abstract Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, two bacterial strains commonly associated with biofilm‐related medical infections and food poisoning, can rapidly colonize biotic and abiotic surfaces. The present study investigates the ability of anodic alumina surfaces with nanoporous surface topography to minimize the attachment and biofilm formation mediated by these pathogenic...
Fri, 07/19/2019 - 12:13
Abstract Contaminated wastewater plays an important role in the transmission of L. monocytogenes in the environment. In the present study, a loop – mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for sensitive detection of L.monocytogenes in wastewater from treatment plants was developed, validated and compared to conventional PCR. The lmo0753 gene which codes for a Crp/Fnr family transcription...
Wed, 07/03/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Efflux mediated multidrug resistance is a well‐known phenomenon facilitated by multidrug resistant (MDR) transporters. One of the approaches to counteract efflux mediated resistance is the use of MDR pump inhibitors, and thus be used in combination with the conventional antibiotics to treat deadly diseases like typhoid fever. We have previously reported that STY4874, an efflux...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 14:39
Abstract Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015–2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 05:19
Abstract The influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the microbial communities was evaluated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) using organic waste from a restaurant as the substrate. The relationship between Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacillus as key‐microorganisms on hydrogen production from organic solid waste was studied. The effect of the HRT (8 to 48 h) on the...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 04:03
Abstract This research aims to compare the culturing conditions for enterohepatic Helicobacter, evaluating culture media, incubation atmosphere and susceptibility to antimicrobials used to generate selective conditions. Four common media for the closely related genus Campylobacter (Columbia, Bolton, Brucella, and CCDA agar), as well as the need for hydrogen in the microaerobic incubation...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 15:54
Abstract The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) Retail Food Surveillance (RFS) Program screens retail meat samples for the presence of Salmonella spp. to track antimicrobial resistance in food. In this study, a laboratory developed real‐time PCR assay that detects Salmonella spp. was evaluated as a screening method to replace the discountinued 3M™...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 15:38
Abstract The present study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of beta‐lactamase and biofilm producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy ducks. A total 202 cloacal swabs were collected from ducks kept in organized (n=92) and backyard (n=110) farms in West Bengal (India). The ducks had no history of antibiotic intake. Among the 87 phenotypically beta‐lactamase producing E. coli, 19 (17·43%), six (...
Tue, 04/30/2019 - 09:59
Abstract Agricultural or food processing wastes cause serious environmental burden and economic losses. Solid‐state fermentation using these wastes is an attractive option to valorize these wastes. However, conventional autoclaving of substrate may degrade nutrients and generate toxins. Unsterilization of the substrate will cause undesired microbial contamination. Therefore, we compared...
Sat, 04/20/2019 - 09:33
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhabits a wide range of hosts, including poultry, and causes acute gastroenteritis in humans that may result in death. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme present in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. Recently, we reported the novel roles of SOD in serum resistance and biofilm formation in S....
Sat, 04/13/2019 - 07:13
Abstract Aeromonas spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria which are associated with various diseases in ornamental fish, aquaculture raised species, and wild fisheries. In our study, antimicrobial resistance patterns, antimicrobial resistance genes, and class 1 integron gene cassettes of 52 guppy‐borne Aeromonas spp. were examined. The isolates were identified as A. veronii (n=34), A....
Wed, 04/03/2019 - 09:22
Abstract Industrialization often causes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal contamination of soil and water. In this study, we isolated a bacterium from bottom mud water around a park of Kawasaki Port, Japan, that degrades the 5‐ring PAH dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA). The strain, Comamonas sp. 3ah48, degraded 29% of DBA (30 μg ml−1) in 7 days, and the degradation level increased...
Mon, 04/01/2019 - 11:26
Abstract Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio parahaemolyticus cannot be detected by the standard cultivation‐based methods. In this study, commonly used viability assessment methods were evaluated for the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a VBNC state. V. parahaemolyticus cells exposed to nutrient‐deficiency at cold temperature were used for epifluorescence microscopy with SYTO9 and...
Mon, 04/01/2019 - 05:44
Abstract The occurrence of E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in solid bovine manure was investigated through a multi‐county survey in California. Solid bovine manure samples (n=91) were collected from 13 dairy farms located in multiple counties in California between June 2016 and August 2017. To quantify pathogens, DNA was extracted from bacteria in manure samples. Afterward, the prevalence and...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 09:53
Abstract This study aimed to analyse the frequency of genes encoding virulence factors and to characterize resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk. Forty‐seven and nine S. aureus isolates were recovered from 150 and 100 raw bovine and ovine milk samples, respectively, in Tunisia. The majority of isolates was resistant to penicillin, and no methicillin‐resistant S....
Sun, 03/24/2019 - 14:20
Significance and Impact of the Study: Clostridioides difficile is a Gram‐positive pathogenic bacteria that caused gastrointestinal illness via toxic production. The emergence of highly virulence and foodborne C. difficile strains has further increased the incident and severity of C. difficile‐infections (CDIs). Numerous studies have reported the immunomodulatory activity of Lactobacillus, a...
Tue, 03/19/2019 - 10:21
Significance and Impact of the Study: PCR screening revealed the significant presence of the genetic markers of Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (stx + /stx + eae + ) on the surfaces of sheep carcasses. Citrobacter braakii (stx 1 + eae + ) was isolated for the first time in this study. The risk of foodborne diseases due to STEC must be taken into account...
Tue, 03/12/2019 - 06:16
Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen. Different strategies to reduce the antimicrobial resistance to conventional antimicrobials (AMBs) have been proposed, including the combined use with essential oils (EOs). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of cinnamon, oregano, common thyme and red thyme EOs and their main components (...
Fri, 03/08/2019 - 07:54
Significance and Impact of the Study: Alkaloids are abundant secondary metabolites in plants and represent one of the most widespread class of compounds endowed with multiple and varied pharmacological properties. In this work, we propose two aporphinoid alkaloids extracted from plants as new antimicrobial agents. Oliveridine and pachypodanthine inhibited Yersinia enterocolitica growth for up to...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 13:04
Abstract Aeromonas spp. are Gram‐negative opportunistic bacteria which have been commonly associated with fish diseases. In this study, antibiogram, antimicrobial resistance genes and integrons of 43 zebrafish‐borne Aeromonas spp. were studied. The isolates were identified as 7 Aeromonas species [A. veronii biovar veronii (n=26), A. veronii biovar sobria (n=3), A. hydrophila (n=8), A. caviae (n=3...
Sun, 02/17/2019 - 11:13
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with potassium dissolution ability on different forms of potassium in soil under the cultivation of wheat. The factorial experiment was conducted as a randomized complete design with three replications in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of bacterium inoculation (without inoculation,...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:50
Significance and Impact of the Study: Single‐chain variable fragments (scFvs) are recombinant antibodies that are difficult to produce as a functional form in Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates the production of functional scFvs against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (scFv‐BM3) using Escherichia coli by extracellular secretion. While periplasmic expression of scFv‐BM3 resulted in formation of...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:50
Significance and Impact of the Study: Using state‐of‐the‐art methods we determined the microbiota composition of dadih, an artisanal, traditional fermented buffalo milk of West Sumatra with health benefits. We show that the artisanal practice leaves room for standardization and optimization with respect to the presence of potential pathogenic species in the final product. The Dadih Initiative in...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:50
Significance and Impact of the Study: Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) is an important forage crop throughout the world. Despite the abiotic nutritional components of alfalfa having been extensively studied, there is only limited information available on alfalfa endophytes. Beneficial bacteria residing in the host intestine have been shown to affect host longevity. However, there is limited...
Sat, 03/03/2018 - 03:03
Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a worldwide concern. Cattle are their main reservoir and may contaminate watercourses through manure. We characterized a collection of 38 STEC O157:H7 strains isolated from surface water in feedlots areas (puddles inside pens formed after the rainfall or by spill around drinking troughs, and small water courses and lagoons, formed...
Wed, 02/28/2018 - 08:20
Abstract Fresh-cut produce is at greater risk of Salmonella contamination. Detection and early warning systems play an important role in reducing the dissemination of contaminated products. One-step Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting Salmonella tmRNA with or without a 6-h enrichment was evaluated for the detection of Salmonella in fresh-cut vegetables after 6-h...
Mon, 02/19/2018 - 02:15
Abstract Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The...
Wed, 02/14/2018 - 13:25
Abstract We produced a Pseudomonas veronii biofilm on the surface of stainless steel that is inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7. P. veronii strain KACC 81051BP, isolated from lettuce, readily formed biofilm on the surface of stainless steel coupons (SSCs) immersed in tryptic soy broth at 25°C. Cells showed significantly (P ≤ 0∙05) enhanced tolerance to desiccation stress (43% relative...
Sat, 02/03/2018 - 14:50
Abstract Salmonella pathogenicity relies on virulence factors many of which are clustered within the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). Salmonella also harbors mobile genetic elements such as virulence plasmids, prophage-like elements and antimicrobial resistance genes which can contribute to increase its pathogenicity. Here, we have genetically characterized a selected S. Typhimurium...
Tue, 01/30/2018 - 06:48
Abstract Iron availability plays an important role in the virulence of microorganisms, which develop different systems for iron acquisition. The expression of genes involved in iron uptake systems is usually regulated by Fur, a transcriptional regulator. Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative food- and water-borne enteropathogen. Even though the mechanisms involved in the pathogenicity of...
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 09:15
Abstract The bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites is not running smoothly, because of the lower activity of PAH-degrading bacteria in actual bioremediation applications. The phenomenon of “viable but non culturable” (VBNC) state may be a main limiting factor for their poor biodegradation capabilities of PAHs. Due to their abilities of entering into the VBNC...
Tue, 01/16/2018 - 17:11
Abstract Acetoacetate (AAA) was identified as a biofilm inhibitor in a previous study, where the effect of 190 carbon and nitrogen sources on biofilm amounts by Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined. With this study, we tested the effect of AAA on growth and biofilm amounts of Cronobacter sakazakii, Serratia marcescens, and Yersinia enterocolitica. AAA reduced growth and biofilm amounts of the...
Sat, 01/13/2018 - 04:25
Abstract This study aimed to assess anthropogenic impact of surrounding population in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage at Pantanal, the world's largest freshwater wetland ecosystem located in the center of South America. Viral etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis as rotavirus A (RVA), noroviruses (NoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV), klassevirus (KV) and of hepatitis, as hepatitis A virus...
Thu, 12/28/2017 - 09:41
Abstract Extraction of pigments from endophytes is an uphill task. Up till now, there are no efficient methods available to extract the maximum amount of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens. This is one of the important endophytes of Beta vulgaris L. The present work was carried out for the comparative study of six different extraction methods such as homogenization, ultrasonication, freezing...
Wed, 12/27/2017 - 18:50
Abstract Seafood has often been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes but the source of contamination is usually not known. In this study we investigated the possibility that this pathogen could survive in seawater for an extended time period. Freshly collected seawater samples were inoculated with 1 x 108 CFU ml−1 of L. monocytogenes EGD-e and survival...
Fri, 12/22/2017 - 20:25
Abstract This study assess the quality of wastewater through the detection and quantification of important causing gastroenteritis viruses at different stages of the wastewater treatment process in an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant with ultraviolet disinfection. Ten sampling events were carried out in a campaign along a period of 18 months collecting wastewater samples from the...
Sun, 12/17/2017 - 21:15
Abstract The importance of wild birds as potential vectors of disease has received recent renewed empirical interest, especially regarding human health although information regarding the enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey continue to be scant. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp. Escherichia coli, Salmonella...
Mon, 12/11/2017 - 02:00
Abstract In this work, fungi present in the grapevine's phyllosphere collected from the main demarcated wine regions of Portugal were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. A total of 46 vine samples (leaves and berries) were collected from different parts of the country, being isolated a total of 117 fungal colonies that were identified to the genus level and sequenced...
Wed, 11/29/2017 - 03:01
Abstract The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of a polyphenolic fraction, composed of mainly catechin and isorhamnetin, previously isolated from Kombucha, a 14-day fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against the enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae N16961. Bacterial growth was found to be seriously impaired by the polyphenolic fraction in dose-...
Mon, 11/13/2017 - 10:05
Abstract The bacterial diversity and community structure involved in Chinese sauerkraut is one of the most important factors shaping the final characteristics of traditional foods. In this research, Lactobacillus casei 11MZ-5-1 was applied in Chinese sauerkraut fermentation as a starter culture. Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis was used to reveal the bacterial diversity and community structure...
Sat, 11/11/2017 - 08:45
Abstract The Andrias davidianus has been known as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Its blood is considered as a waste or by-product of the meat production industry. Although there are reports on isolation of the antimicrobial peptides from different resources, there are no reports of their isolation from Andrias davidianus blood. In this work, an antimicrobial peptide, andricin B,...
Thu, 10/26/2017 - 05:20
Abstract The application of essential oils in form of nanoemulsions has been proposed as a method to improve their solubility in aqueous solutions, and hence their antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of citral, applied directly or in combined treatments with heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF), as a function of the inoculation procedure...
Tue, 10/24/2017 - 03:45
Abstract Fruit extracts from different tissues (pulp, seed and peel) have shown antimicrobial and prebiotic activities related to their phenolic profile, although structure-specific evaluations have not been reported yet. The effect of five phenolic compounds (catechin and gallic, vanillic, ferulic, and protocatechuic acids) identified in different fruits, particularly in mango, was evaluated on...
Wed, 09/27/2017 - 04:10
Abstract The aim of this research was to optimize two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that could simultaneously detect six non–O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as well as the three virulence genes. We also investigated the potential of combining the FTA™ card-based DNA extraction with the multiplex PCR assays. Two multiplex PCR assays were optimized using six...
Tue, 09/19/2017 - 21:35
Abstract A Strain DDB001 having an ability to remove deoxynivalenol (DON) was successfully isolated from wheat field soil. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, the strain DDB001 was identified as Paradevosia shaoguanensis. Strain DDB001 could grow well and thoroughly eliminate 200 mg l−1 of DON in complete growth medium, but it could not utilize DON as the sole carbon...
Sun, 09/03/2017 - 23:50
Abstract The current study is aimed to evaluate the mechanism of anthracene degradation by a bacterial strain isolated from fly ash deposition site near Jamadoba Coal Preparation Plant, Jharkhand, India. The Bushnell-Haas media cultured (containing anthracene as sole carbon source) bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence coding as the Bacillus thuringiensis strain, which showed...
Wed, 08/16/2017 - 05:30
Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate possible antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of a bacteriocin, nisin with two essential oil components linalool and p-coumaric acid in combination against foodborne bacteria Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium. Their inhibition effects on planktonic cells and pre-formed biofilms were evaluated using microbroth dilution and checkerboard...
Sat, 08/12/2017 - 10:00
Abstract The presence of Salmonella spp. in halva has been associated with foodborne illnesses and product recalls from the markets. This study investigated the effect of environmental stresses on the survival of Salmonella spp. in halva during storage for 12 months at 10 and 25°C. Halva samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four strains of unstressed, desiccation stressed or heat stressed...

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