mBio

Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The underlying molecular mechanisms of flavin-dependent amine oxidases remain relatively poorly understood, even though many of these enzymes have been reported. The nicotine oxidoreductase NicA2 is a crucial enzyme for the first step of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas putida S16 (DSM 28022). Here, we present the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising NicA2 residues 21 to...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Microbial syntrophy is universal in nature, profoundly affecting the composition and function of microbiomes. We have recently reported data suggesting direct cell-to-cell interactions leading to electron and material exchange between the two microbes in the syntrophy between Clostridium ljungdahlii and C. acetobutylicum. Here, transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae replicates to high cell density in the human small intestine, leading to the diarrheal disease cholera. During infection, V. cholerae senses and responds to environmental signals that govern cellular responses. Spatial localization of V. cholerae within the intestine affects nutrient availability and metabolic pathways required for replicative success. Metabolic processes...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri forms a mutually beneficial symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, in which the bacteria, housed inside a specialized light organ, produce light used by the squid in its nocturnal activities. Upon hatching, E. scolopes juveniles acquire V. fischeri from the seawater through a complex process that requires, among other...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a recently emerged respiratory coronavirus that has infected >23 million people worldwide with >800,000 deaths. Few COVID-19 therapeutics are available, and the basis for severe infections is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of type I (β), II...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Since both the Agr (accessory gene regulator)-like quorum sensing (QS) system and VirS/VirR (VirS/R) two-component regulatory system of Clostridium perfringens positively regulate production of several toxins, including C. perfringens beta toxin (CPB), it has been hypothesized the VirS membrane sensor protein is an Agr-like QS signaling peptide (SP) receptor. To begin evaluating whether...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The ability of diarrheagenic bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), to modulate the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival has been suggested to benefit bacterial colonization and infection. However, our understanding of the mechanisms by which EPEC modulate these functions is incomplete. In this study, we show that the...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) is the most frequent tumor of the biliary tract. Despite epidemiological studies showing a correlation between chronic infection with Salmonella enterica Typhi/Paratyphi A and GBC, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this fatal connection are still uncertain. The murine serovar Salmonella Typhimurium has been shown to promote transformation of...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The interaction and communication between bacteria and their hosts modulate many aspects of animal physiology and behavior. Dauer entry as a response to chronic exposure to pathogenic bacteria in Caenorhabditis elegans is an example of a dramatic survival response. This response is dependent on the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, suggesting the involvement of small RNAs (sRNAs) as...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae has a remarkable ability to cause a wide range of human diseases. It is divided into two broad classes: classical strains that are a notable problem in health care settings due to multidrug resistance, and hypervirulent (hv) strains that are historically drug sensitive but able to establish disease in immunocompetent hosts. Alarmingly, there has been an increased...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The magnitude of the morbidity and mortality inflicted upon the global population in less than 1 year has driven the inescapable conclusion that the discovery and development of effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are urgent and should be prioritized. The antiviral drug discovery programs that emerged for HIV and hepatitis C virus have enabled technology and expertise to accelerate...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of multidrug-resistant infections worldwide. Understanding the virulence mechanisms of K. pneumoniae is a priority and timely to design new therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate that K. pneumoniae limits the SUMOylation of host proteins in epithelial cells and macrophages (mouse and human) to subvert cell innate immunity. Mechanistically, in lung...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Regulated macrophage death has emerged as an important mechanism to defend against intracellular pathogens. However, the importance and consequences of macrophage death during bacterial infection are poorly resolved. This is especially true for the recently described RIPK3-dependent lytic cell death, termed necroptosis. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), the main product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, is an important metabolite in protozoan parasites since its sugar moiety is incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipids and N- and O-linked glycans. Apicomplexan parasites have a hexosamine pathway comparable to other eukaryotic organisms, with the exception of the...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The role of the gut microbiota during coinfection with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Plasmodium spp. is poorly understood. We examined peripheral blood and fecal samples from 130 individuals who were either infected with Plasmodium vivax only, coinfected with P. vivax and STH, infected with STH alone, or not infected with either P. vivax or STH. In addition to a complete blood...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Microbial probiotics are intended to improve functions in diverse ecosystems, yet probiotics often fail to establish in a preexisting microbiome. This is a species invasion problem. The relative importance of the two major factors controlling establishment in this context—propagule pressure (inoculation dose and frequency) and biotic interactions (composition of introduced and...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, like many related Firmicutes, uses the nucleotide second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) to adapt to changes in nutrient availability, osmotic stress, and the presence of cell wall-acting antibiotics. In rich medium, c-di-AMP is essential; however, mutations in cbpB, the gene encoding c-di-AMP binding protein B, suppress...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents the medical community with a significant challenge. COVID-19 is an entirely new disease with disparate clinical manifestations that are difficult to reconcile with a single pathogenic principle. Here, we explain how the flexible paradigm of the "damage-...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The soil microbiome represents one of the most complex microbial communities on the planet, encompassing thousands of taxa and metabolic pathways, rendering holistic analyses computationally intensive and difficult. Here, we developed an alternative approach in which the complex soil microbiome was broken into components ("functional modules"), based on metabolic capacities, for...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli strain Nissle has been used as a probiotic and therapeutic agent for over a century. Reports suggest that Nissle protects mice from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strains; however, mice are not very susceptible to O157:H7 and are not accurate models for O157:H7 infection in humans. Also, Nissle is closely related to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain CFT073,...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics of respiratory disease in humans, often complicated by secondary coinfection with bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that the S. aureus secreted protein lipase 1 enhances IAV replication in vitro in primary cells, including human lung fibroblasts. The proviral activity of lipase 1 is dependent on its...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The apparent rarity of sex in many fungal species has raised questions about how much sex is needed to purge deleterious mutations and how differences in frequency of sex impact fungal evolution. We sought to determine how differences in the extent of recombination between populations of Aspergillus flavus impact the evolution of genes associated with the synthesis of aflatoxin, a...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT To date, limited genetic changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome have been described. Here, we report a 382-nucleotide (nt) deletion in SARS-CoV-2 that truncates open reading frame 7b (ORF7b) and ORF8, removing the ORF8 transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) and eliminating ORF8 transcription. The earliest 382-nt deletion variant was detected...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Active efflux of antibiotics preventing their accumulation to toxic intracellular concentrations contributes to clinically relevant multidrug resistance. Inhibition of active efflux potentiates antibiotic activity, indicating that efflux inhibitors could be used in combination with antibiotics to reverse drug resistance. Expression of ramA by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Colicins are toxins produced and released by Enterobacteriaceae to kill competitors in the gut. While group A colicins employ a division of labor strategy to liberate the toxin into the environment via colicin-specific lysis, group B colicin systems lack cognate lysis genes. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm), the group B colicin Ib (ColIb) is released by temperate phage-...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is the leading cause of fungal meningitis, a deadly disease with limited therapeutic options. Dissemination to the central nervous system hinges on the ability of Cn to breach the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is considered an attribute of Cn virulence. Targeting virulence instead of growth for antifungal drug development has not been fully exploited despite...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Bacterial lipoproteins (Lpps) are a class of membrane-associated proteins universally distributed among all bacteria. A characteristic N-terminal cysteine residue that is variably acylated anchors C-terminal globular domains to the extracellular surface, where they serve numerous roles, including in the capture and transport of essential nutrients. Lpps are also ligands for the Toll-like...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT There is high mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases, like obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. A cytokine storm in some patients after infection contributes to this mortality. In addition to lungs, the intestine is targeted during COVID-19 infection. The intestinal membrane serves as a barrier to prevent leakage of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT DNA supercoiling (DS) is essential for life because it controls critical processes, including transcription, replication, and recombination. Current methods to measure DNA supercoiling in vivo are laborious and unable to examine single cells. Here, we report a method for high-throughput measurement of bacterial DNA supercoiling in vivo. Fluorescent evaluation of DNA supercoiling (FEDS)...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process in which bacteria use the production, release, and detection of signal molecules called autoinducers to orchestrate collective behaviors. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae requires quorum sensing to infect the small intestine. There, V. cholerae encounters the absence of oxygen and the presence of bile salts. We show that these two...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT A multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin plays an essential role in the virulence of many pathogens, including a fulminating human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. H-NS and HlyU repress and derepress expression of the MARTX toxin gene rtxA in V. vulnificus, respectively. However, little is known about other regulatory proteins and environmental signals involved in rtxA...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Infections with Trypanosoma cruzi are usually lifelong despite generating a strong adaptive immune response. Identifying the sites of parasite persistence is therefore crucial to understanding how T. cruzi avoids immune-mediated destruction. However, this is a major technical challenge, because the parasite burden during chronic infections is extremely low. Here, we describe an...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Indirect transmission via a contaminated environment can occur for a number of pathogens, even those typically thought of as being directly transmitted, such as influenza virus, norovirus, bovine tuberculosis, or foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Indirect transmission facilitates spread from multiple sources beyond the infectious host, complicating the epidemiology and control of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Severe systemic bacterial infections result in colonization of deep tissues, which can be very difficult to eliminate with antibiotics. It remains unclear if this is because antibiotics are not reaching inhibitory concentrations within tissues, if subsets of bacteria are less susceptible to antibiotics, or if both contribute to limited treatment efficacy. To detect exposure to...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Proponents of the use of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments with pathogens with pandemic potential (PPP) have argued that such experiments are necessary because they reveal important facets of pathogenesis and can be performed safely. Opponents of GOF experiments with PPP have argued that the risks outweigh the knowledge gained. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the vulnerability of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the greatest pandemic of our generation, with 16 million people affected and 650,000 deaths worldwide so far. One of the risk factors associated with COVID-19 is secondary bacterial pneumonia. In recent studies on COVID-19 patients, secondary bacterial infections were significantly associated with worse outcomes and death despite antimicrobial...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT We assessed various newly generated compounds that target the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and various previously known compounds reportedly active against SARS-CoV-2, employing RNA quantitative PCR (RNA-qPCR), cytopathicity assays, and immunocytochemistry. Here, we show that two indole-chloropyridinyl-ester derivatives, GRL-0820...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The crust is the outermost spore layer of most Bacillus strains devoid of an exosporium. This outermost layer, composed of both proteins and carbohydrates, plays a major role in the adhesion and spreading of spores into the environment. Recent studies have identified several crust proteins and have provided insights about their organization at the spore surface. However, although...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Cereulide-producing members of Bacillus cereus sensu lato group III (also known as emetic B. cereus) possess cereulide synthetase, a plasmid-encoded, nonribosomal peptide synthetase encoded by the ces gene cluster. Despite the documented risks that cereulide-producing strains pose to public health, the level of genomic diversity encompassed by emetic B. cereus has never been evaluated at...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Membrane bound acyltransferase-3 (AT3) domain-containing proteins are implicated in a wide range of carbohydrate O-acyl modifications, but their mechanism of action is largely unknown. O-antigen acetylation by AT3 domain-containing acetyltransferases of Salmonella spp. can generate a specific immune response upon infection and can influence bacteriophage interactions. This study...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their residency in the gut. To survive oxidative stress encountered during infection, salmonellae employ several mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves the multidrug efflux pump MacAB, although the natural substrate of this pump has not been identified. MacAB homologs in pseudomonads secrete products...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The fungal kingdom includes at least 6 million eukaryotic species and is remarkable with respect to its profound impact on global health, biodiversity, ecology, agriculture, manufacturing, and biomedical research. Approximately 625 fungal species have been reported to infect vertebrates, 200 of which can be human associated, either as commensals and members of our microbiome or as...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a complex cell envelope that includes two membranes. The outer membrane prevents many drugs from entering these cells and is thus a major determinant of their intrinsic antibiotic resistance. This barrier function is imparted by the asymmetric architecture of the membrane with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet and phospholipids in the...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Cell-autonomous immunity relies on the rapid detection of invasive pathogens by host proteins. Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) have emerged as key mediators of vertebrate immune defense through their ability to recognize a diverse array of intracellular pathogens and pathogen-containing cellular compartments. Human and mouse GBPs have been shown to target distinct groups of microbes,...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a major cause of urinary and bloodstream infections. Its association with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) significantly complicates treatment. Its best-described component is the rapidly expanding H30Rx clade, containing allele 30 of the type 1 fimbrial adhesin gene fimH. This lineage appears to have emerged in the United States...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) undergo conformational changes upon interaction of the gp120 exterior glycoprotein with the CD4 receptor. The gp120 inner domain topological layers facilitate the transition of Env to the CD4-bound conformation. CD4 engages gp120 by introducing its phenylalanine 43 (Phe43) in a cavity ("the Phe43 cavity") located at the interface between the inner...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT The most direct route by which microbes might assimilate sulfur would be by importing cysteine. However, alone among the amino acids, cysteine does not have well-characterized importers. We determined that Escherichia coli can rapidly import cysteine, but in our experiments, it did so primarily through the LIV ATP-driven system that is dedicated to branched-chain amino acids. The...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Efflux is an important mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria conferring multidrug resistance. Inhibition of efflux is an encouraging strategy to restore the antibacterial activity of antibiotics. Chlorpromazine and amitriptyline have been shown to behave as efflux inhibitors. However, their mode of action is poorly understood. Exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Many bacteria use flagellum-driven motility to swarm or move collectively over a surface terrain. Bacterial adaptations for swarming can include cell elongation, hyperflagellation, recruitment of special stator proteins, and surfactant secretion, among others. We recently demonstrated another swarming adaptation in Escherichia coli, wherein the chemotaxis pathway is remodeled to decrease...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major public health threat in part due to the spread of antibiotic resistance and repeated failures to develop a protective vaccine. Infection is associated with production of virulence factors that include exotoxins that attack host barriers and cellular defenses, such as the leukocidin (Luk) family of bicomponent pore-forming toxins. To investigate...

Pages