mSystems

Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance (AR) remains a major threat to public and animal health globally. However, AR ramifications in developing countries are worsened by limited molecular diagnostics, expensive therapeutics, inadequate numbers of skilled clinicians and scientists, and unsanitary environments. The epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria, their AR genes, and geographical distribution in...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT RpoN, an alternative sigma factor commonly known as 54, is implicated in persistent stages of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in which genes associated with this regulator are upregulated. We here combined phenotypic and genomic assays to provide insight into its role and function in this pathogen. RpoN was found essential for Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence in mice, and in vitro...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Fermented foods have been the focus of ever greater interest as a consequence of purported health benefits. Indeed, it has been suggested that consumption of these foods helps to address the negative consequences of "industrialization" of the human gut microbiota in Western society. However, as the mechanisms via which the microbes in fermented foods improve health are not understood, it...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections, high in morbidity and mortality, pose serious clinical challenges due to limited treatment options. A previous CRE surveillance study on 1,507 patients from 43 hospitals in Osaka, Japan, revealed that 12% of patients carried CRE and that 95% of the CRE isolates were IMP-type carbapenemase producers. Here, the mechanisms for this...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Large-scale metagenome assemblies of human microbiomes have produced a vast catalogue of previously unseen microbial genomes; however, comparatively few microbial genomes derive from other vertebrates. Here, we generated 5,596 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the gut metagenomes of 180 predominantly wild animal species representing 5 classes, in addition to 14 existing animal gut...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) depends on a class of host proteins called host dependency factors (HDFs) to facilitate its infection. So far experimental efforts have detected a certain number of HDFs, but the gene inventory of HIV-1 HDFs remains incomplete. Here, we implemented an existing network-based gene discovery strategy to predict HIV-1 HDFs. First, an encoding...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Prokaryotic genome annotation is heavily dependent on automated gene annotation pipelines that are prone to propagate errors and underestimate genome complexity. We describe an optimized proteogenomic workflow that uses ribosome profiling (ribo-seq) and proteomic data for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to identify unannotated proteins or alternative protein forms. This data...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been linked to animal-based diets, which are a major source of trimethylamine (TMA), a precursor of the proatherogenic compound trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Human gut bacteria in the genus Bilophila have genomic signatures for genetic code expansion that could enable them to metabolize both TMA and its precursors without production of TMAO. We uncovered...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Ambient temperature (Ta) is an important factor in shaping phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity is generally beneficial for animals in adapting to their environments. Gut microbiota are crucial in regulating host physiological and behavioral processes. However, whether the gut microbiota play a role in regulating host phenotypic plasticity under the conditions of repeated fluctuations in...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Many viruses possess temporally unfolding gene expression patterns aimed at subverting host defenses, commandeering host metabolism, and ultimately producing a large number of progeny virions. High-throughput omics tools, such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), have dramatically enhanced the resolution of expression patterns during infection. Less studied have been viral satellites, mobile...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The membrane-anchored spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a pivotal role in directing the fusion of the virus particle mediated by the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). The fusion peptide region of the S protein S2 domain provides SARS-CoV-2 with the biological machinery needed for direct fusion to the host lipid...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The bacterial and fungal community involved in ambrosia beetle fungiculture remains poorly studied compared to the famous fungus-farming ants and termites. Here we studied microbial community dynamics of laboratory nests, adults, and brood during the life cycle of the sugarcane shot hole borer, Xyleborus affinis. We identified a total of 40 fungal and 428 bacterial operational taxonomic...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Microorganisms and their communities on foods are important determinants and indicators of food safety and quality. Despite growing interests in studying food and food-related microbiomes, how effective and practical it is to glean various food safety and quality information from food commodity microbiomes remains underinvestigated. Microbiomes of retail chicken breast from 4 processing...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Gene essentiality is altered during polymicrobial infections. Nevertheless, most studies rely on single-species infections to assess pathogen gene essentiality. Here, we use genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to explore the effect of coinfection of the diarrheagenic pathogen Vibrio cholerae with another enteric pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Model predictions showed...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Marine oil spills can impact both coastal and offshore marine environments, but little information is available on how the microbial response to oil and dispersants might differ between these biomes. Here, we describe the compositional and functional response of microbial communities to different concentrations of oil and chemically dispersed oil in coastal and offshore surface waters...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 17:37
ABSTRACT Wastewater surveillance represents a complementary approach to clinical surveillance to measure the presence and prevalence of emerging infectious diseases like the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This innovative data source can improve the precision of epidemiological modeling to understand the penetrance of SARS-CoV-2 in specific vulnerable communities. Here, we tested wastewater...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 17:37
ABSTRACT Due to its fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of the immune system, it is critical to include characterizations of the gut microbiome in clinical trials and studies that aim to broaden our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the "gut-lung axes," where gut microbiome composition influences the lung’s susceptibility to viral...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Methylmercury is a potent bioaccumulating neurotoxin that is produced by specific microorganisms that methylate inorganic mercury. Methylmercury production in diverse anaerobic bacteria and archaea was recently linked to the hgcAB genes. However, the full phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of mercury-methylating microorganisms has not been fully unraveled due to the limited number of...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogen. Strain-level investigations are beginning to reveal the molecular mechanisms used by VREfm to colonize regions of the human bowel. However, the role of commensal bacteria during VREfm colonization, in particular following antibiotic treatment, remains largely unknown. We employed amplicon 16S...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT N6-Adenine DNA methyltransferases associated with some Type I and Type III restriction-modification (R-M) systems are able to undergo phase variation, randomly switching expression ON or OFF by varying the length of locus-encoded simple sequence repeats (SSRs). This variation of methyltransferase expression results in genome-wide methylation differences and global changes in gene...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Dietary composition and antibiotic use have major impacts on the structure and function of the gut microbiome, often resulting in dysbiosis. Despite this, little research has been done to explore the role of host diet as a determinant of antibiotic-induced microbiome disruption. Here, we utilize a multi-omic approach to characterize the impact of Western-style diet consumption on...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT We recently reported the recovery of a conjugative virulence plasmid, p15WZ-82_Vir, from a clinical Klebsiella variicola strain. In this study, we found that several new plasmid types were generated due to genetic rearrangement. Partial integration of plasmid p15WZ-82_Vir with existing plasmids such as resistance plasmids by different homologous recombination events was observable in...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus causes persistent clinical and subclinical bovine intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information regarding genetic diversity, the presence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and virulence genes for S. aureus in bovine milk in Canada. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 119 Canadian bovine milk S. aureus...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Research into the evolution and pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae has benefited greatly from the generation of high-throughput sequencing data to drive molecular analyses. The steady accumulation of these data sets now provides a unique opportunity for in silico hypothesis generation via coexpression analysis. Here, we leverage all published V. cholerae RNA sequencing data, in combination...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Stool-based proteomics is capable of significantly augmenting our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions. However, compared to competing technologies, such as metagenomics and 16S rRNA sequencing, it is underutilized due to its low throughput and the negative impact sample contaminants can have on highly sensitive mass spectrometry equipment. Here, we present a new stool...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:37
ABSTRACT Widespread use of antibiotics has enhanced the evolution of highly resilient pathogens and poses a severe risk to human health via coselection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors (VFs). In this study, we rigorously evaluate the abundance relationship and physical linkage between ARGs and VFs by performing a comprehensive analysis of 9,070 bacterial genomes...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:37
ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes severe diarrheal disease and is present globally. EPEC virulence requires a bacterial type III secretion system to inject >20 effector proteins into human intestinal cells. Three effectors travel to mitochondria and modulate apoptosis; however, the mechanisms by which effectors control apoptosis from within mitochondria are unknown. To...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Consumer demand for "fresh food" with no chemical preservatives has prompted researchers to pay more attention to natural antimicrobial peptides such as bacteriocins. Nisin is currently the most widely used food biopreservative among the bacteriocins; however, its applications are restricted due to its low stability at neutral and alkaline pH values. Circular bacteriocins have potent...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:34
ABSTRACT Polymyxins are used as treatments of last resort for Gram-negative bacterial infections. Their increased use has led to concerns about emerging polymyxin resistance (PR). Phenotypic polymyxin susceptibility testing is resource intensive and difficult to perform accurately. The complex polygenic nature of PR and our incomplete understanding of its genetic basis make it difficult to...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:29
ABSTRACT Microorganisms from the environment can enter the dairy supply chain at multiple stages, including production, milk collection, and processing, with potential implications for quality and safety. The ability to track these microorganisms can be greatly enhanced by the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS). Here HTS, both 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:23
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen and has recently gained particular notoriety because it causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp, which has caused significant economic loss in the shrimp industry. Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 233 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from humans, diseased shrimp, and environmental samples...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT The reactive intermediate deaminase RidA (EC 3.5.99.10) is conserved across all domains of life and deaminates reactive enamine species. When Salmonella enterica ridA mutants are grown in minimal medium, 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) accumulates, damages several pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, and elicits an observable growth defect. Genetic studies suggested that damage to...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT Even high-quality collection and reporting of study metadata in microbiome studies can lead to various forms of inadvertently missing or mischaracterized information that can alter the interpretation or outcome of the studies, especially with nonmodel organisms. Metabolomic profiling of fecal microbiome samples can provide empirical insight into unanticipated confounding factors that are...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:28
ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a major cause of soft tissue infections in dogs and occasionally infects humans. Hypervirulent multidrug-resistant (MDR) MRSP clones have emerged globally. The sequence types ST71 and ST68, the major epidemic clones of Europe and North America, respectively, have spread to other regions. The genetic factors underlying the...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:28
ABSTRACT Here, the role of the dairy-processing chain as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AR) determinants and a source of novel biocontrol quorum-sensing inhibitors is assessed through a functional metagenomics approach. A metagenomic library comprising ~22,000 recombinant clones was built from DNA isolated from raw milk, raw milk cheeses, and cheese-processing environment swab samples....
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 03:23
ABSTRACT Flagellin, the agent of prokaryotic flagellar motion, is very widely distributed and is the H antigen of serology. Flagellin molecules have a variable region that confers serotype specificity, encoded by the middle of the gene, and also conserved regions encoded by the two ends of the gene. We collected all available prokaryotic flagellin protein sequences and found the variable region...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT Machine learning has proven to be a powerful method to predict antimicrobial resistance (AMR) without using prior knowledge for selected bacterial species-antimicrobial combinations. To date, only species-specific machine learning models have been developed, and to the best of our knowledge, the inclusion of information from multiple species has not been attempted. The aim of this study...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:23
ABSTRACT Salmonella is responsible for many nontyphoidal foodborne infections and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans. Of the two Salmonella species, Salmonella enterica is highly diverse and includes 10 known subspecies and approximately 2,600 serotypes. Understanding the evolutionary processes that generate the tremendous diversity in Salmonella is important in reducing and controlling the...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:27
ABSTRACT Hydrothermal vents release reduced compounds and small organic carbon compounds into the surrounding seawater, providing essential substrates for microbial growth and bioenergy transformations. Despite the wide distribution of the marine benthic group E archaea (referred to as Hydrothermarchaeota) in the hydrothermal environment, little is known about their genomic repertoires and...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:49
ABSTRACT Accidental oil spills from shipping and during extraction can threaten marine biota, particularly coral reef species which are already under pressure from anthropogenic disturbances. Marine sponges are an important structural and functional component of coral reef ecosystems; however, despite their ecological importance, little is known about how sponges and their microbial symbionts...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Interactions between the gut microbiome and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the gut during infancy are important for future health. IgM and IgG are also present in the gut; however, their interactions with the microbiome in the developing infant remain to be characterized. Using stool samples sampled 15 times in infancy from 32 healthy subjects at 4 locations in 3 countries, we characterized...
Wed, 11/27/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT The 7th cholera pandemic began in 1961 in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and then spread around the world in at least three waves. However, the lack of genome sequences for Vibrio cholerae strains under long-term surveillance in East Asia, especially in China, has restricted our understanding of the dynamics of the intracountry and intercountry evolution and transmission of the 7th-pandemic clones...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:43
ABSTRACT The microbiome in fermentation has direct impacts on the quality of fermented foods and is of great scientific and commercial interest. Despite considerable effort to explain the microbial metabolism associated with food fermentation, the role of the microbiome in pu-erh tea fermentation remains unknown. Here, we applied integrated meta-omics approaches to characterize the microbiome in...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:26
ABSTRACT Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung condition in preterm infants that results in abnormal lung development and leads to considerable morbidity and mortality, making BPD one of the most common complications of preterm birth. We employed RNA sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile gene expression in blood and the composition of the fecal microbiota in...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:29
ABSTRACT To further our understanding of one-carbon metabolism in the protozoan parasite Leishmania, we conducted genomic screens to study how the parasite responded to sinefungin (SNF) selection. SNF is a structural analogue of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), a key methyl group donor to a number of biomolecules. One screen consisted of sequencing SNF-resistant mutants generated by stepwise...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 16:54
ABSTRACT To visualize the personalized distributions of pathogens and chemical environments, including microbial metabolites, pharmaceuticals, and their metabolic products, within and between human lungs afflicted with cystic fibrosis (CF), we generated three-dimensional (3D) microbiome and metabolome maps of six explanted lungs from three cystic fibrosis patients. These 3D spatial maps revealed...