mSystems

Wed, 03/03/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Neonatal calf diarrhea is a common disease leading to a major economic loss for cattle producers worldwide. Several infectious and noninfectious factors are implicated in calf diarrhea, but disease control remains problematic because of the multifactorial etiology of the disease. Here, we conducted diagnostic multiplex PCR assay and meta-omics analysis (16S rRNA gene-based metataxonomics...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Validated methods are needed to detect spoilage microbes present in low numbers in foods and ingredients prior to defect onset. We applied propidium monoazide combined with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, qPCR, isolate identification, and pilot-scale cheese making to identify the microorganisms that cause slit defects in industrially produced Cheddar cheese. To investigate milk as the source...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The global spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes is a critical issue that is no longer restricted to hospital settings, but also represents a growing problem involving environmental and food safety. In this study, we have performed a microbiological and genomic investigation of critical priority pathogens resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and showing...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Competition between nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for resources in anoxic environments is generally thought to be governed largely by thermodynamics. It is now recognized that intermediates of nitrogen and sulfur cycling (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, nitrite, etc.) can also directly impact NRB and SRB activities in freshwater, wastewater, and sediment and...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Sprouts are the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks globally, mainly because the specialized conditions required to germinate seed sprouts for human consumption contribute to an environment that allows pathogenic bacteria to flourish. To reduce risk of illness, current food safety guidelines in the United States and Canada recommend hypochlorite treatment for seed sanitation....
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Diverse bacterial pathogens employ effector delivery systems to disrupt vital cellular processes in the host (N. M. Alto and K. Orth, Cold Spring Harbor Perspect Biol 4:a006114, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a006114). The type III secretion system 1 of the marine pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus utilizes the sequential action of four effectors to induce a rapid,...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Our ability to predict evolutionary trajectories of pathogens is one of the promising leverages to fight against the pandemic disease, yet few studies have addressed this question in situ, due to the difficulty in monitoring the milestone evolutionary events for a given pathogen and in understanding the evolutionary strategies. In this study, we monitored the real-time evolution of...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is becoming the leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis, but its population dynamics in aquafarms have received limited attention. To address this research gap, we selected three shellfish farms to examine the impacts of ocean currents and the transport of live aquatic animals on the transmission and microevolution of V. parahaemolyticus by using...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT An outer membrane protein A (OmpA) from Acinetobacter sp. strain SA01 was identified and characterized in-depth based on the structural and functional characteristics already known of its homologues. In silico structural studies showed that this protein can be a slow porin, binds to peptidoglycan, and exhibits emulsifying properties. Characterization of the recombinant SA01-OmpA, based...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky is frequently associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and has gained epidemiological importance globally. A retrospective screening was performed to understand the national prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky in China. S. enterica strains (n = 15,405) were collected within the frame of two national surveillance networks...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Iron (Fe) availability has well-known effects on plant and microbial metabolism, but its effects on interspecies interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolite exchange between the grass Brachypodium distachyon strain Bd21 and the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25::gfp/lux (SBW25) during Fe limitation under axenic conditions. We...
Wed, 01/06/2021 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Pullorum disease is one of the most common diarrhea-related diseases caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum); it negatively affects the poultry industry. However, limited studies have explored the association between the gut microbiota and S. Pullorum infection in chickens. In the present study, we performed a microbiome...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella has increased dramatically in the past decade. To track the evolutionary trend of ciprofloxacin resistance-encoding genetic elements during this period, we surveyed the prevalence of Salmonella in food products in Shenzhen, China, during the period of 2012 to 2017 and performed whole-genome sequencing and genetic analysis of 566...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 10:00
ABSTRACT Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective weight loss surgery, resulting in a characteristic increase of fecal Gammaproteobacteria. The contribution of this compositional change to metabolic benefits of RYGB is currently debatable. Therefore, this study employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic profiling to monitor the dynamic colonization of the RYGB microbial consortium and...
Wed, 12/09/2020 - 10:00
ABSTRACT Genotyping of 2,882 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates that had been collected during the last 40 years identified the ExoU-positive lineages PA14 (ST253) and ST235 as the second and third most frequent clones in the P. aeruginosa population. Both clones were approximately 2-fold more frequently detected in animate habitats than in soil or aquatic habitats. While ST253 clone isolates were...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance (AR) remains a major threat to public and animal health globally. However, AR ramifications in developing countries are worsened by limited molecular diagnostics, expensive therapeutics, inadequate numbers of skilled clinicians and scientists, and unsanitary environments. The epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria, their AR genes, and geographical distribution in...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT RpoN, an alternative sigma factor commonly known as 54, is implicated in persistent stages of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in which genes associated with this regulator are upregulated. We here combined phenotypic and genomic assays to provide insight into its role and function in this pathogen. RpoN was found essential for Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence in mice, and in vitro...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Fermented foods have been the focus of ever greater interest as a consequence of purported health benefits. Indeed, it has been suggested that consumption of these foods helps to address the negative consequences of "industrialization" of the human gut microbiota in Western society. However, as the mechanisms via which the microbes in fermented foods improve health are not understood, it...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections, high in morbidity and mortality, pose serious clinical challenges due to limited treatment options. A previous CRE surveillance study on 1,507 patients from 43 hospitals in Osaka, Japan, revealed that 12% of patients carried CRE and that 95% of the CRE isolates were IMP-type carbapenemase producers. Here, the mechanisms for this...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Large-scale metagenome assemblies of human microbiomes have produced a vast catalogue of previously unseen microbial genomes; however, comparatively few microbial genomes derive from other vertebrates. Here, we generated 5,596 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the gut metagenomes of 180 predominantly wild animal species representing 5 classes, in addition to 14 existing animal gut...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) depends on a class of host proteins called host dependency factors (HDFs) to facilitate its infection. So far experimental efforts have detected a certain number of HDFs, but the gene inventory of HIV-1 HDFs remains incomplete. Here, we implemented an existing network-based gene discovery strategy to predict HIV-1 HDFs. First, an encoding...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Prokaryotic genome annotation is heavily dependent on automated gene annotation pipelines that are prone to propagate errors and underestimate genome complexity. We describe an optimized proteogenomic workflow that uses ribosome profiling (ribo-seq) and proteomic data for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to identify unannotated proteins or alternative protein forms. This data...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been linked to animal-based diets, which are a major source of trimethylamine (TMA), a precursor of the proatherogenic compound trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Human gut bacteria in the genus Bilophila have genomic signatures for genetic code expansion that could enable them to metabolize both TMA and its precursors without production of TMAO. We uncovered...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Ambient temperature (Ta) is an important factor in shaping phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity is generally beneficial for animals in adapting to their environments. Gut microbiota are crucial in regulating host physiological and behavioral processes. However, whether the gut microbiota play a role in regulating host phenotypic plasticity under the conditions of repeated fluctuations in...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Many viruses possess temporally unfolding gene expression patterns aimed at subverting host defenses, commandeering host metabolism, and ultimately producing a large number of progeny virions. High-throughput omics tools, such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), have dramatically enhanced the resolution of expression patterns during infection. Less studied have been viral satellites, mobile...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The membrane-anchored spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a pivotal role in directing the fusion of the virus particle mediated by the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). The fusion peptide region of the S protein S2 domain provides SARS-CoV-2 with the biological machinery needed for direct fusion to the host lipid...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT The bacterial and fungal community involved in ambrosia beetle fungiculture remains poorly studied compared to the famous fungus-farming ants and termites. Here we studied microbial community dynamics of laboratory nests, adults, and brood during the life cycle of the sugarcane shot hole borer, Xyleborus affinis. We identified a total of 40 fungal and 428 bacterial operational taxonomic...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Microorganisms and their communities on foods are important determinants and indicators of food safety and quality. Despite growing interests in studying food and food-related microbiomes, how effective and practical it is to glean various food safety and quality information from food commodity microbiomes remains underinvestigated. Microbiomes of retail chicken breast from 4 processing...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Gene essentiality is altered during polymicrobial infections. Nevertheless, most studies rely on single-species infections to assess pathogen gene essentiality. Here, we use genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to explore the effect of coinfection of the diarrheagenic pathogen Vibrio cholerae with another enteric pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Model predictions showed...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Marine oil spills can impact both coastal and offshore marine environments, but little information is available on how the microbial response to oil and dispersants might differ between these biomes. Here, we describe the compositional and functional response of microbial communities to different concentrations of oil and chemically dispersed oil in coastal and offshore surface waters...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 17:37
ABSTRACT Wastewater surveillance represents a complementary approach to clinical surveillance to measure the presence and prevalence of emerging infectious diseases like the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This innovative data source can improve the precision of epidemiological modeling to understand the penetrance of SARS-CoV-2 in specific vulnerable communities. Here, we tested wastewater...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 17:37
ABSTRACT Due to its fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of the immune system, it is critical to include characterizations of the gut microbiome in clinical trials and studies that aim to broaden our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the "gut-lung axes," where gut microbiome composition influences the lung’s susceptibility to viral...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Methylmercury is a potent bioaccumulating neurotoxin that is produced by specific microorganisms that methylate inorganic mercury. Methylmercury production in diverse anaerobic bacteria and archaea was recently linked to the hgcAB genes. However, the full phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of mercury-methylating microorganisms has not been fully unraveled due to the limited number of...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogen. Strain-level investigations are beginning to reveal the molecular mechanisms used by VREfm to colonize regions of the human bowel. However, the role of commensal bacteria during VREfm colonization, in particular following antibiotic treatment, remains largely unknown. We employed amplicon 16S...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT N6-Adenine DNA methyltransferases associated with some Type I and Type III restriction-modification (R-M) systems are able to undergo phase variation, randomly switching expression ON or OFF by varying the length of locus-encoded simple sequence repeats (SSRs). This variation of methyltransferase expression results in genome-wide methylation differences and global changes in gene...
Wed, 07/29/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Dietary composition and antibiotic use have major impacts on the structure and function of the gut microbiome, often resulting in dysbiosis. Despite this, little research has been done to explore the role of host diet as a determinant of antibiotic-induced microbiome disruption. Here, we utilize a multi-omic approach to characterize the impact of Western-style diet consumption on...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT We recently reported the recovery of a conjugative virulence plasmid, p15WZ-82_Vir, from a clinical Klebsiella variicola strain. In this study, we found that several new plasmid types were generated due to genetic rearrangement. Partial integration of plasmid p15WZ-82_Vir with existing plasmids such as resistance plasmids by different homologous recombination events was observable in...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus causes persistent clinical and subclinical bovine intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information regarding genetic diversity, the presence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and virulence genes for S. aureus in bovine milk in Canada. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 119 Canadian bovine milk S. aureus...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 10:01
ABSTRACT Research into the evolution and pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae has benefited greatly from the generation of high-throughput sequencing data to drive molecular analyses. The steady accumulation of these data sets now provides a unique opportunity for in silico hypothesis generation via coexpression analysis. Here, we leverage all published V. cholerae RNA sequencing data, in combination...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Stool-based proteomics is capable of significantly augmenting our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions. However, compared to competing technologies, such as metagenomics and 16S rRNA sequencing, it is underutilized due to its low throughput and the negative impact sample contaminants can have on highly sensitive mass spectrometry equipment. Here, we present a new stool...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:37
ABSTRACT Widespread use of antibiotics has enhanced the evolution of highly resilient pathogens and poses a severe risk to human health via coselection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors (VFs). In this study, we rigorously evaluate the abundance relationship and physical linkage between ARGs and VFs by performing a comprehensive analysis of 9,070 bacterial genomes...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:37
ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes severe diarrheal disease and is present globally. EPEC virulence requires a bacterial type III secretion system to inject >20 effector proteins into human intestinal cells. Three effectors travel to mitochondria and modulate apoptosis; however, the mechanisms by which effectors control apoptosis from within mitochondria are unknown. To...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Consumer demand for "fresh food" with no chemical preservatives has prompted researchers to pay more attention to natural antimicrobial peptides such as bacteriocins. Nisin is currently the most widely used food biopreservative among the bacteriocins; however, its applications are restricted due to its low stability at neutral and alkaline pH values. Circular bacteriocins have potent...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:34
ABSTRACT Polymyxins are used as treatments of last resort for Gram-negative bacterial infections. Their increased use has led to concerns about emerging polymyxin resistance (PR). Phenotypic polymyxin susceptibility testing is resource intensive and difficult to perform accurately. The complex polygenic nature of PR and our incomplete understanding of its genetic basis make it difficult to...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:29
ABSTRACT Microorganisms from the environment can enter the dairy supply chain at multiple stages, including production, milk collection, and processing, with potential implications for quality and safety. The ability to track these microorganisms can be greatly enhanced by the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS). Here HTS, both 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:23
ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen and has recently gained particular notoriety because it causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp, which has caused significant economic loss in the shrimp industry. Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 233 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from humans, diseased shrimp, and environmental samples...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT The reactive intermediate deaminase RidA (EC 3.5.99.10) is conserved across all domains of life and deaminates reactive enamine species. When Salmonella enterica ridA mutants are grown in minimal medium, 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) accumulates, damages several pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, and elicits an observable growth defect. Genetic studies suggested that damage to...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:24
ABSTRACT Even high-quality collection and reporting of study metadata in microbiome studies can lead to various forms of inadvertently missing or mischaracterized information that can alter the interpretation or outcome of the studies, especially with nonmodel organisms. Metabolomic profiling of fecal microbiome samples can provide empirical insight into unanticipated confounding factors that are...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:28
ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a major cause of soft tissue infections in dogs and occasionally infects humans. Hypervirulent multidrug-resistant (MDR) MRSP clones have emerged globally. The sequence types ST71 and ST68, the major epidemic clones of Europe and North America, respectively, have spread to other regions. The genetic factors underlying the...
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:28
ABSTRACT Here, the role of the dairy-processing chain as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AR) determinants and a source of novel biocontrol quorum-sensing inhibitors is assessed through a functional metagenomics approach. A metagenomic library comprising ~22,000 recombinant clones was built from DNA isolated from raw milk, raw milk cheeses, and cheese-processing environment swab samples....

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