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Mycotoxin Research

Thu, 07/11/2019 - 00:00
Abstract The effect of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal permeability was investigated. Two hundred 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments of 5 replicates each (10 birds per replicate), which were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks with the following treatments: control, chickens fed an AFB1-free diet...
Mon, 06/03/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus strains has emerged as one of the practical strategies for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn, peanut, and tree nuts. The actual mechanism that results in aflatoxin reduction is not fully understood. Real-time RT-PCR and relative quantification of gene expression protocol...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Degradation of the mycotoxin patulin (PAT) and the generation of (less toxic) breakdown products, such as (E/Z)-ascladiol (ASC-E/Z) and desoxypatulinic acid (D-PAT), can occur due to chemical, physical and biological treatments. Our study focused on the chemical degradation of PAT in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) both for pure PAT standard in acidified aqueous...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed. The aim of this research was to assess the levels of total AFs in samples of feedingstuff for dairy cows (n = 193) and the levels of AFM1 in raw bulk tank milk samples (n = 375), in order to estimate the ratio of “...
Fri, 05/10/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with nephrocarcinogenic potential found in a broad spectrum of food commodities. The mode of action of this compound, as well as its metabolism, is still not fully understood. To determine whether the conjugation of OTA with glutathione plays an important role in human OTA metabolism, an ochratoxin-glutathione conjugate (OTB...
Thu, 04/25/2019 - 00:00
Abstract 1-Octen-3-ol is one of the most abundant volatile compounds associated with fungi and functions as a germination and growth inhibitor in several species. By investigating its effect on the biosynthesis of patulin, a mycotoxin made by Penicillium expansum, it was found that a sub-inhibitory level of volatile 1-octen-3-ol increased accumulation of patulin on a medium that...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi. ZEN has endocrine disruptor effects and could impair the hormonal balance. Here, we aimed at investigating possible effects of ZEN on metabolism-related pathways and its relation to epigenetic mechanisms in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and breast epithelial (MCF10F) cells. Using the...
Thu, 04/04/2019 - 00:00
Abstract This study attempts to evaluate the potential aflatoxin binder activity of a molecularly imprinted polymer (TMU95) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule in comparison to a commercial toxin binder (CTB). Adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability to bind to AFB1 at various pH values. The strength of binding was investigated by...
Tue, 03/26/2019 - 00:00
Abstract A study was conducted to investigate the frequency and levels of AFM1 and AFM2 in urine from children who attended the emergency service of a pediatric referral hospital in Bogota, Colombia. A survey on the consumption of foods likely to be a source of aflatoxins and on sociodemographic variables was conducted as well. The frequency of AFM1 in urine was found to be 41.7...
Thu, 03/21/2019 - 00:00
Abstract This work characterizes the adsorption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) by dry micronized olive pomace (OliPom) and grape stems (GrapStem). Their performance was compared with that of three other materials, activated carbon (ActCarb), bentonite (Bent), and a commercial product (ComProd). Experiments were conducted in vitro at several pH...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Edible insects as additional food and/or feed source may represent one important component to solve the problem of food security for a growing human population. Especially for covering the rising demand for protein of animal origin, seven insect species currently allowed as feed constituents in the European Union are gaining more interest. However, before considering...
Tue, 03/12/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Aspergilli section Flavi, originally isolated from air samples collected from inhabited apartments (AP), unoccupied basements (BS), and processing facilities of a grain mill (GM), were analyzed for their potential to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on solid media. The isolates were further characterized with regard to their cytotoxic, genotoxic, and pro-inflammatory...
Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr, an opportunistic ear-rot pathogen of maize (Zea mays L. subsp. Mays). Prior to the discovery of aflatoxin, A. flavus was considered a minor pathogen and was not a priority for maize breeders or pathologists. Aflatoxin was discovered in England in 1961 following an epidemic in poultry. By the early 1970s...
Tue, 11/27/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Mycotoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that can negatively affect animal productivity when ingested through feed. In order to assess mycotoxin contamination of poultry feed and feed ingredients vis-a-vis source tracking of feed contamination in Nigeria, 102 samples of feed (n = 30) and feed ingredients (n = 72) were collected from in-house mills of poultry...
Tue, 11/20/2018 - 00:00
Abstract A total of 172 different salamis were purchased from farms and small salami factories located in four Italian regions (Piedmont, Veneto, Calabria, and Sicily) and analyzed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA). Analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FLD). The detection limit (LOD) for the method used...
Thu, 11/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (...
Thu, 11/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. ZEN mainly appears in cereals and related foodstuffs, causing reproductive disorders in animals, due to its xenoestrogenic effects. The main reduced metabolites of ZEN are α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL). Similarly to ZEN, ZELs can also activate estrogen receptors; moreover, α-ZEL is the most...
Thu, 11/01/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The presence of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains is due to the growth of toxigenic Penicillium mold on stored crops. Human exposure to OTA is higher in infants, toddlers, and children than in adolescents and adults, based on exposure assessments of ng OTA consumed/kg body weight/day. Ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, but its...
Sat, 10/20/2018 - 00:00
Abstract The applicability of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) to analyse these toxins in donkey milk (Equus asinus) was studied. For AFM1 and OTA analysis, milk could be analysed by EIA without sample pretreatment. For ZEN, heat treatment at 78 °C for 30 min prior EIA analysis was required to avoid false positives. To...
Thu, 10/11/2018 - 00:00
Abstract A survey was conducted on Guyana’s main staple foods, rice, cassava meal and cassava bread to determine the presence and concentration of aflatoxins (AFs) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for concurrence. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Aspergillus and can be...
Fri, 09/21/2018 - 00:00
Abstract A limited survey was conducted to assess the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisins (FB) B1 and B2; ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize food (N = 26) and animal feed (N = 45) collected from 21 small-scale farms from the states of São Paulo (SP) and Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Samples evaluated were maize...
Thu, 09/13/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Samples (n = 485) of raw (n = 394) or heat-treated (n = 91) milk of three different species (cow, n = 170; sheep, n = 133; donkey, n = 84), collected 2013–2016 in Western Sicily (Southern Italy), were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive ELISA results were further analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Both...
Thu, 09/13/2018 - 00:00
Abstract A comprehensive definition introducing the term “modified mycotoxins” to encompass all possible forms in which mycotoxins and their modifications can occur was recently proposed and has rapidly gained wide acceptance within the scientific community. It is becoming increasingly evident that exposure to such modified mycotoxins due to their presence in food and feed has...
Mon, 08/13/2018 - 00:00
Abstract Aspergillus fresenii and Aspergillus sulphureus produce ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with nephrotoxic effects and potential carcinogenic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature (20, 30, and 37 °C), water activity (0.82, 0.86, 0.90, 0.94, and 0.98 aw), incubation period (5...
Mon, 08/07/2017 - 00:00
Abstract The staple crops, maize, sorghum, bambara nut, groundnut, and sunflower common in semi-arid agro-pastoral farming systems of central Tanzania are prone to aflatoxin contamination. Consumption of such crop produce, contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), affects growth and health. In this paper, aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested and stored crop...
Wed, 11/09/2016 - 00:00
Abstract Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance at the onset of lactation which results in an enhanced vulnerability for infectious diseases. Any dietary imbalances, including Fusarium toxin contamination, might therefore exacerbate this situation. The aim of the present investigations was to study the effects of increasing dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON...
Thu, 08/01/2013 - 00:00
Abstract Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011–2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol–water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol–water were made. Extracts were cleaned...