Natural toxins

Fri, 03/05/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Sabina Moser Tralamazza, Karim Cristina Piacentini, Geovana Dagostim Savi, Lorena Carnielli-Queiroz, Lívia de Carvalho Fontes, Camila Siedlarczyk Martins, Benedito Corrêa, Liliana Oliveira Rocha We assessed the mycobiota diversity and mycotoxin levels present in wild rice (Oryza latifolia) from the Pantanal region of Brazil; fundamental aspects of which are severely understudied as an...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 02:03
The heat shock protein (Hsp70) level was assessed after 14 days of oral gavage-exposure to fumonisin B1 (FB1: 150 µg/animal/day), deoxynivalenol (DON: 30 µg/animal/day) and zearalenone (ZEN: 150 µg/animal/day), alone or in combinations (in additive manner: FD = FB1 + DON, FZ = FB1 + ZEN, DZ = DON + ZEN and FDZ = FB1 + DON + ZEN) in the liver, kidneys and lung of 24 adult male Wistar rats (n = 3/...
Fri, 03/05/2021 - 00:00
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that has been reported to damage various types of cells/tissues, yet its effects on endothelial cells (ECs) have never been investigated. Therefore, this study investigates the potential effects of ZEN using bovine aortic ECs (BAECs). In this study, we found that ZEN induced apoptosis of BAECs through increased cleavage of caspase 3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase...
Thu, 03/04/2021 - 06:14
Author(s): Guangming Li, Chen Liu, Xingcai Zhang, Pengjie Luo, Guimiao Lin, Wenxiao Jiang Here, a facile hydrothermal method was used to synthesize highly photoluminescent N-doped carbon dots, and the quantum yields reached 97.1%. Then, a label-free immunosensor based on the inner filter effect of carbon dots was developed for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk. The...
Thu, 03/04/2021 - 06:12
LWT
Author(s): Durmuş Sert, Emin Mercan The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ozone treatment (OT) to milk concentrate (MC) and whey concentrate (WC) on the physicochemical and textural properties, as well as, on the microbial, antibiotic, and aflatoxin content. For that purpose, OT was applied to MC and WC samples 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 30, or 60 min. OT (60 min) achieved 18.9...
Thu, 03/04/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxins (AFs) are some of the most agriculturally important and harmful mycotoxins. At least 20 AFs have been identified to this date. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent fungal toxin, can cause toxicity in many species, including humans. AFs are produced by 22 species of Aspergillus section Flavi, 4 species of A. section Nidulantes, and 2 species of A. section Ochraceorosei. The most...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 22:11
Journal of Food Safety, EarlyView. Aflatoxin B1 is a mycotoxin that can be present in peanut‐based products, such as fried peanut biscuits, if Good Agricultural Practices are not respected. Impact of plant powder presence on aflatoxin B1 levels was investigated in contaminated peanut biscuits. It was observed that adding 2% of Moringa oleifera powder led to a significant (p < .05) reduction of...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
Project Aquafluosense is designed to develop prototypes for a fluorescence-based instrumentation setup for in situ measurements of several characteristic parameters of water quality. In the scope of the project an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (ELFIA) method has been developed for the detection of several environmental xenobiotics, including mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON). ZON, produced by...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
With the growing diversity and complexity of diet, humans are at risk of simultaneous exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which are well-known contaminants in dairy and other agricultural products worldwide. The intestine represents the first barrier against external contaminants; however, evidence about the combined effect of AFB1 and AFM1 on intestinal integrity is lacking...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 00:00
The removal of mycotoxins from contaminated feed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been proposed as an inexpensive, safe, and promising mycotoxin decontamination strategy. In this study, viable and heat-inactivated L. acidophilus CIP 76.13T and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CIP 101027T cells were investigated for their ability to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (...
Mon, 03/01/2021 - 22:11
Journal of Food Safety, EarlyView. The research was designed to investigate the amount of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in animal feed (corn, wheat bran, peanut cake, soybean meal, and cotton seed meal) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw milk of animals (cow milk, buffalo milk, goat milk and sheep milk), from Punjab, Pakistan collected March 2017 till February 2018. The samples were examined with liquid...
Sun, 02/28/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Tiago Centeno Einloft, Patrícia Bolzan de Oliveira, Lauri Lourenço Radünz, Rafael Gomes Dionello In this study, we aimed to evaluate the biocontrol capabilities of Bacillus safensis RF69, Bacillus sp. RP103 and Bacillus sp. RP242 towards Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producer Aspergillus flavus. All Bacillus strains were able to reduce A. flavus mycelial growth rate, conidial germination, and...
Sun, 02/28/2021 - 06:08
LWT
Author(s): Giti Paimard, Reza Mohammadi, Roya Bahrami, Kianoush Khosravi‐Darani, Zahra Sarlak, Milad Rouhi In this study, novel selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) were synthesized based on cross-linked Se-chitosan/l-cysteine nanoparticles and used for the efficient removal of patulin from an aqueous solution. Different functional groups at the surface of these cross-linked Se NPs interacted with...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 10:04
Pseudoalteromonas species produce a diverse range of biologically active compounds, including those biosynthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). Here, we report the biochemical and genomic analysis of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain HM-SA03, isolated from the blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena sp. Genome mining for secondary metabolite pathways revealed...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 06:15
Author(s): Yingpan Song, Lina He, Shuai Zhang, Xiao Liu, Kun Chen, Qiaojuan Jia, Zhihong Zhang, Miao Du Iron-based metal-organic framework, NH2-MIL-101(Fe), was doped with different dosages of cobalt phthalocyanine nanoparticles (CoPc) to synthesize a series of NH2-MIL-101(Fe)@CoPc nanocomposites. The NH2-MIL-101(Fe)@CoPc nanocomposites were then employed to construct novel impedimetric...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 06:13
Author(s): Yun Ren, Man Yao, Peipei Chang, Yemei Sun, Rui Li, Di Meng, Xiaoshuang Xia, Yun Wang Patulin, one of the most common mycotoxins produced primarily by the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys species, is often associated with fruits and fruit-based products. Biodegradation by microbes is an effective method to remove or detoxify mycotoxins. In this study, a bacterial strain with...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 02:03
A simple and effective approach for HPLC-MS/MS based multi-mycotoxin analysis in human urine samples was developed by application of dried urine spots (DUS) as alternative on-site sampling strategy. The newly developed method enables the detection and quantitation of 14 relevant mycotoxins and mycotoxin metabolites, including citrinin (CIT), dihydrocitrinone (DH-CIT), deoxynivalenol (DON),...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 00:00
The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrocarcinogen, mainly in male rats. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of gene expression (GeneChip® Rat Gene 2.0 ST Array, Affymetrix) in kidney samples from male and female F344 rats, treated daily (p.o) with 0.50 mg/kg b.w. (body weight) of OTA for 7 or 21 days, and evaluate if there were differences between both sexes. After...
Thu, 02/25/2021 - 16:00
Thymol, a secondary plant metabolite possessing antifungal and chemosensitizing activities, disrupts cell wall or membrane integrity and interferes with ergosterol biosynthesis. Thymol also functions as a redox-active compound inducing generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in fungal cells. Previously, we showed thymol significantly enhanced the in vitro growth inhibitory...
Thu, 02/25/2021 - 14:04
Patulin and Trichothecene as the main groups of mycotoxins in significant quantities can cause health risks from allergic reactions to death on both humans and animals. Accordingly, rapid and highly sensitive determination of these toxics agents is of great importance. This review starts with a comprehensive outlook regarding the characteristics, occurrence and toxic effects of Patulin and...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 16:00
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a human foodborne syndrome caused by the consumption of shellfish that accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, saxitoxin group). In PST-producing dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium spp., toxin synthesis is encoded in the nuclear genome via a gene cluster (sxt). Toxin production is supposedly associated with the presence of a 4th domain in the sxtA gene...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 10:03
ABSTRACT In filamentous fungi, asexual development involves cellular differentiation and metabolic remodeling leading to the formation of intact asexual spores. The development of asexual spores (conidia) in Aspergillus is precisely coordinated by multiple transcription factors (TFs), including VosA, VelB, and WetA. Notably, these three TFs are essential for the structural and metabolic integrity...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Antonia Susca, Pamela Anelli, Miriam Haidukowski, Crystal E. Probyn, Filomena Epifani, Antonio F. Logrieco, Antonio Moretti, Robert H. Proctor Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins that frequently occur as contaminants in agricultural commodities and foods, including dry-cured meats and cheeses. The fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae is frequently isolated from aged foods and can produce...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 00:00
This review aimed to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxins, their toxic effects, and the detoxifying agents discussed in scientific publications that are related to pig production. Mycotoxins that are of major interest are aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol and fumonisins, because of their elevated frequency at a global scale and high occurrence in corn, which is the main...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 00:00
Consumption of cereals contaminated by mycotoxins poses health risks. For instance, Fumonisins B, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusariumproliferatum, and the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol, typically produced by Fusarium graminearum, are highly prevalent on cereal grains that are staples of many cultural diets and known to represent a toxic risk hazard. In Peru, corn and...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 02:03
This study reports a robust and sensitive method for rapid testing of patulin in apple and apple juice. The method involved extraction of homogenised samples (10 g) with ethyl acetate (10 mL) and clean up by dispersive-solid phase extraction using primary secondary amine (25 mg/mL). Prior to the LC-MS/MS analysis, the cleaned extract was reconstituted in methanol/water (2:8). The optimised LC-MS...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxin contamination of feed does not only cut across food and feed value chains but compromises animal productivity and health, affecting farmers, traders and consumers alike. To aid in the development of a sustainable strategy for mycotoxin control in animal-based food production systems, this study focused on smallholder farming systems where 77 dairy cattle feed samples were collected from...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 00:00
Shellfish toxin monitoring programs often use mussels as the sentinel species to represent risk in other bivalve shellfish species. Studies have examined accumulation and depuration rates in various species, but little information is available to compare multiple species from the same harvest area. A 2-year research project was performed to validate the use of mussels as the sentinel species to...
Sun, 02/21/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Bunyamin Tras, Hatice Eser Faki, Zeynep Ozdemir Kutahya, Emre Bahcivan, Burak Dik, Banu Bozkurt, Kamil Uney This study was conducted to investigate the effects of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors dexamethasone and minocycline administrations —both single and in combination with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E—on the tissue distribution and lethal dose (LD)50 of aflatoxin...
Sun, 02/21/2021 - 02:02
Abstract Background and aim Plant pathogenic and mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species are globally widespread and lead to large annual yield losses in maize production (ecosystem disservice). Systems with reduced tillage and mulching are particularly under threat. In the present study, the bioregulatory performance (ecosystem service) of the common earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris was...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 06:20
Author(s): Kizito Nishimwe, Isaac Agbemafle, Manju B. Reddy, Kevin Keener, Dirk E. Maier Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and is a known carcinogen in humans and animals. High voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) technology has already shown promise to decontaminate AFB1 in food and feed. This study aimed to investigate the...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 06:20
Author(s): Sabah Ali, Mariam Hassan, Tamer Essam, Marwa A. Ibrahim, Khaled Al-Amry Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced by certain Aspergillus spp and naturally contaminate poultry rations. Exposure to low levels of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in poultry feeds is the second most threatening issue facing the poultry industry in Egypt; it can cause a reduction in growth, egg production, and...
Fri, 02/19/2021 - 22:13
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, Accepted Article. This study investigated the impacts of selected and broadband infrared (IR) wavelength treatments with tempering step on inactivation of aflatoxigenic molds and the treatments’ effects on head rice yield (HRY). Rough rice was treated with different IR intensities, product‐to‐emitter gaps, and heating durations. Afterward, the samples...
Fri, 02/19/2021 - 00:00
The frequency of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has increased in China in recent years. Information about harmful dinoflagellates and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is still limited in China, especially in the Beibu Gulf, where PSTs in shellfish have exceeded food safety guidelines on multiple occasions. To explore the nature of the threat from PSTs in the region, eight Alexandrium strains were...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 06:30
Author(s): Dan Xu, Mengqi Wei, Shurui Peng, Haizhen Mo, Lin Huang, Lishan Yao, Liangbin Hu The contamination of food with Aspergillus flavus has caused serious economic losses and posed a great threat to human and animal health. Cumin, a condiment and flavoring in many dishes, was showed to have great potential to prevent A. flavus contamination in the present study. By using cumin essential oil...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 06:29
Author(s): Jianglin Xiong, Xiaofang Zhang, Hualin Zhou, Mengqi Lei, Yulan Liu, Chun Ye, Wenxuan Wu, Chong Wang, Lingying Wu, Yinsheng Qiu This study aimed to investigate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in pasteurized, extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk in central China in winter and summer, and to assess the risk of exposure to milk AFM1 in 10 different age groups....
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 00:00
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mycotoxin binders in reducing the adverse effects of co-occurring dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) on laying hens. Three hundred and sixty 26-week-old Roman laying hens were randomly allocated into four experimental groups with 10 replicates of nine birds each. The four groups received either a...
Wed, 02/17/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Hongxia Tan, Hongyuan Zhou, Ting Guo, Yuhao Zhang, Liang Ma Hidden mycotoxins have been reported to be “protected” by macromolecular substances to escape routine determination, but release to free mycotoxins under gastrointestinal conditions. Nowadays, the hidden zearalenone (ZEN) that binding with macromolecular zein has been found in maize. However, the binding mechanism of ZEN with...
Wed, 02/17/2021 - 00:00
Toxic effects among fumonisins B (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) administered alone and combined were investigated in 84-day-old ducks during force-feeding. 75 male ducks, divided into five groups of 15 animals, received daily during the meal a capsule containing the desired among of toxin. Treated animals received dietary levels of toxins equivalent to 20 mg FB1+FB2/kg (FB), 5...
Tue, 02/16/2021 - 02:02
Abstract The study deals with first time report on encapsulation of chemically characterized Anethum graveolens essential oil within chitosan nanomatrix (Nm-AGEO) using ionic gelation technique to enhance the antimicrobial, antiaflatoxigenic, antioxidant, and in situ efficacy against stored rice biodeterioration. GC-MS analysis of AGEO revealed dill apiol (33.79%), carvone (27.19%), and limonene...
Tue, 02/16/2021 - 00:00
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a byproduct mixture derived from grapeseed and sea buckthorn oil industry to mitigate the harmful damage produced by ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 at hepatic and renal level in piglets after weaning. Forty cross-bred TOPIGS-40 hybrid piglets after weaning were assigned to three experimental groups (E1, E2, E3) and one control group (C...
Tue, 02/16/2021 - 00:00
In this study, we present, for the first time in Spain, the levels of 19 mycotoxins in plasma samples from healthy and sick children (digestive, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders) (n = 79, aged 2–16). The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole) (LC-MS/MS). To detect Phase II metabolites, the samples...
Sat, 02/13/2021 - 14:05
Ochratoxin A is a highly toxic mycotoxin and has posed great threat to human health. Due to its serious toxicity and wide contamination, great efforts have been made to develop reliable determination methods. In this review, analytical methods are comprehensively summarized in terms of sample preparation strategy and instrumental analysis. Detailed method is described according to the food...
Sat, 02/13/2021 - 04:02
B-series fumonisins (FBs) are a family of carcinogenic mycotoxins that commonly occur in maize. These mycotoxins cause multiple diseases in animals and are epidemiologically associated with several human diseases in populations for which maize is a dietary staple. FBs are produced by multiple genera of the fungi Aspergillus, Fusarium and Tolypocladium, but the plant pathogen Fusarium...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 16:00
Mycotoxins are a prevalent problem for stored fruits, grains, and vegetables. Alternariol, aflatoxin, and patulin, produced by Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp., are the major mycotoxins that negatively affect human and animal health and reduce fruit and produce quality. Control strategies for these toxins are varied, but one method that is increasing in interest is through...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 16:00
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane receptors involved in transducing signals from the external environment inside the cell, which enables fungi to coordinate cell transport, metabolism, and growth to promote their survival, reproduction, and virulence. There are 14 classes of GPCRs in fungi involved in sensing various ligands. In this paper, the synthesis of mycotoxins that are...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Mehmet Burak Ates, Mustafa Ortatatli The primary pathway of the detoxification of aflatoxin (AF) metabolites occurring at the end of phase-1 biotransformation is glutathione (GSH) conjugation via glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme in phase-2. In this study, the activity of Nigella sativa seeds (NS) and thymoquinone (TQ) on phase-2 detoxification pathways of AF was investigated in...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Shuangshuang Zhai, Yongwen Zhu, Peishi Feng, Macheng Li, Wence Wang, Lin Yang, Ye Yang Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin, that has strong thermal stability, and is difficult to remove from feed. OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic and enterotoxic to several species of animals. The gut is the first defense barrier against various types of mycotoxins...
Fri, 02/12/2021 - 00:00
Dried fig is susceptible to infection by Aspergillus flavus, the major producer of the carcinogenic mycotoxins. This fruit may be contaminated by the fungus throughout the entire chain production, especially during natural sun-drying, post-harvest, industrial processing, storage, and fruit retailing. Correct management of such critical stages is necessary to prevent mould growth and mycotoxin...
Thu, 02/11/2021 - 06:30
Author(s): Adriana Raquel Persson da Silva, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Josué José Silva, Ligia Manoel Martins, Marta Hiromi Taniwaki, Beatriz Thie Iamanaka Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties, produced by several species of Aspergillus, mainly those belonging to the A. section Circumdati and A. section Nigri. Although this...

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