Natural toxins

Sat, 06/19/2021 - 06:22
Author(s): R.H.A. Pereira, W.J. Keijok, A.R. Prado, J.P. Oliveira, M.C.C. Guimarães
Fri, 06/18/2021 - 00:00
This study assessed the impact of increasing seawater surface temperature (SST) and toxic algal abundance (TAA) on the accumulation, tissue distribution and elimination dynamics of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in mussels. Mytilus coruscus were fed with the PSTs-producing dinoflagellate A. catenella under four simulated environment conditions. The maximum PSTs concentration was determined to...
Thu, 06/17/2021 - 06:29
Author(s): Mantana Maman, Somsiri Sangchote, Onuma Piasai, Wiphawee Leesutthiphonchai, Henik Sukorini, Netnapis Khewkhom
Thu, 06/17/2021 - 06:23
Author(s): Di Sun, Jin Mao, Zhijian Wang, Hui Li, Liangxiao Zhang, Wen Zhang, Qi Zhang, Peiwu Li
Mon, 06/14/2021 - 00:00
Spain is a relevant producer of oats (Avena sativa), but to date there has been no study on the occurrence/co-occurrence of mycotoxins in oats marketed in Spain. The present study is addressed to overcome this lack of knowledge. One hundred oat kernel samples were acquired across different Spanish geographic regions during the years 2015–2019 and analyzed for mycotoxin content using an ultra-high...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 06:32
Author(s): Shengjia Xu, Yanxia Wang, Junqiang Hu, Xinran Chen, Yufeng Qiu, Jianrong Shi, Gang Wang, Jianhong Xu Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen related to Fusarium head blight (FHB) which causes mycotoxin contamination of grains, mainly involving zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol. The present work aimed to isolate a bacterium capable of antagonizing various phytopathogenic...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 06:27
Author(s): Ziwei Wang, Yanan Gao, Xin Huang, Shengnan Huang, Xue Yang, Jiaqi Wang, Nan Zheng Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are pernicious mycotoxins widely co-existing in the environment. However, nephrotoxicity and underlying mechanism induced by AFM1 coupled with OTA still remain to be explored. In this study, CD-1 mice were treated with 3.5 mg/kg b.w. AFM1, OTA, and AFM1 + OTA for...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 02:03
Peanut and its processed products are recurrently contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs) which are of potential public health concern. Among the different types of AFs, Aflatoxin B1 (B1) is the most frequently detected in peanuts over the maximum level (ML), and thus has warranted considerable research interest in the domain of food safety. In this study, we investigated the decontamination of B1 in...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 02:03
The study explores the antioxidant activity, volatile chemical profile and antifungal potential of Pimenta dioica leaf essential oil (EO) against toxin producing Aspergillus flavus. GC–MS analysis of EO revealed the presence of 41 compounds with eugenol (54%), as the major compound followed by myrcene (16.0%) and chavicol (12.5%). It exhibited the strong antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 19...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 00:00
In the course of assessing the human exposure to mycotoxins, biomarker-based approaches have proven to be important tools. Low concentration levels, complex matrix compositions, structurally diverse analytes, and the large size of sample cohorts are the main challenges of analytical procedures. For that reason, an online solid phase extraction-ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 14:08
AFB1 and OTA are produced in food products due to climatic conditions like temperature and humidity. In Lebanon, few studies address AFB1 and OTA contamination in wheat and wheat products. In this study, a total of 312 samples of wheat and wheat products were collected from different sites, including port, silos, mills, and supermarkets were analysed. Wheat and wheat products consumption in...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 00:00
Fungal spoilage is one of the main reasons of economic losses in the food industry, especially in the wine sector. Consequently, the search for safer and new preservation techniques has gained importance in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic activity from 28 microorganisms (MO) isolated from red grape. The antifungal activity of a...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 00:00
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) poses a significant threat to ecosystem services and fishery resources in coastal communities. The CP-causative ciguatoxins (CTXs) are produced by benthic dinoflagellates including Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp., and enter reef food webs via grazing on macroalgal substrates. In this study, we report on a 3-year monthly time series in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands where...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 06:24
Author(s): Jamras Lerdsri, Chidkamon Thunkhamrak, Jaroon Jakmunee A sensitive colorimetric aptasensor for rapid quantification of aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) has been successfully developed. The sensing strategy is based on the aggregation and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that involves interactions of a specific aptamer, positively charged perylene diimide (...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 06:21
Author(s): Online Supporting Material, Ling Zhao, Yue Feng, Zi-Jian Xu, Ni-Ya Zhang, Wan-Po Zhang, Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil, Lv-Hui Sun The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanism of selenium (Se)-mediated detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced cardiotoxicity in chicks. A Se-deficient, corn-soybean meal-basal diet (36 μg Se/kg, BD) and three test diets (BD+1.0 mg...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 06:18
Author(s): Elif Darbuka, Can Gürkaşlar, Ibrahim Yaman Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a food contaminant mycotoxin with hazardous effects on human and animal health, primarily affecting the kidneys. OTA’s mode of action is not well understood. OTA activates both MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which play role in apoptosis and cell survival, respectively. OTA is also known to induce toxicity by...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 00:00
Mycotoxin exposure assessments through biomonitoring studies, based on the analysis of amniotic fluid, provides useful information about potential exposure of mothers and fetuses to ubiquitous toxic metabolites that are routinely found in food and the environment. In this study, amniotic fluid samples (n = 86) were collected via abdominal amniocentesis at 15–22 weeks of gestation from pregnant...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 00:00
Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-producing bacteria have attracted great interest as a model system for study of the TTX biosynthetic route. Here, we report the complete genome of the TTX-producing bacterium Bacillus sp. 1839. The genome of the strain Bacillus sp. 1839, previously isolated from the TTX-bearing marine ribbon worm Cephalothrix cf. simula, was obtained using second generation Illumina and third...
Wed, 06/09/2021 - 02:02
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered as one of the most hazardous mycotoxins commonly occurring in grains. Thus, the monitoring of OTA is extremely significant. Herein, a synergistic strategy to detect OTA in grains based on the combination of DNA tetrahedron-structured aptamer (DTA) and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) was proposed. Briefly, DTA was assembled on the gold electrode. In the presence...
Tue, 06/08/2021 - 22:09
Letters in Applied Microbiology, Accepted Article. The study aimed to develop and evaluate a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (mPCR) for the concurrent detection of three major mycotoxin metabolic pathway genes, viz. tri8 (T-2 toxin), tri6 (trichothecene), and pks4 (zearalenone) along with competitive internal amplification control. Specific primers for each of the aforementioned genes...
Tue, 06/08/2021 - 22:09
Environmental Microbiology, Accepted Article. Ras subfamily proteins are molecular switches in signal transduction pathways of many eukaryotes that regulate a variety of cellular processes. Here, the Ras subfamily, encoded by six genes, was identified in Aspergillus flavus: rasA, rasB, rasC, rab-33, rheb and rsr1. The rsr1 deletion mutant (∆rsr1), rheb deletion mutant (∆rheb), and double deletion...
Tue, 06/08/2021 - 06:15
LWT
Author(s): Chao Yang, Min Li, Bangzhu Peng Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium expansum, that exists in apple and cider, and threatens human health and food safety. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) can inhibit and degrade patulin during cider fermentation. Nonetheless, the specific patulin metabolic mechanism is still unclear. Thus, Illumina RNA-Seq technology was applied in...
Tue, 06/08/2021 - 00:00
Recent surveys report the occurrence of Aspergillus and Penicillium metabolites (aflatoxins (AFLs), ochratoxin A (OTA), cyclopiazonic and mycophenolic acids (MPA), sterigmatocystin (STC), citrinin), Fusarium (trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs), enniatins (ENNs)) and Alternaria (alternariol (AOH), its methyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TE), and tenuazonic acid (TNZ)) toxins in dry...
Sun, 06/06/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Harvey E. Indyk, Jackie E. Wood, Brendon D. Gill A preliminary investigation of the potential binding interaction of isolated whey proteins and casein proteins with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) using a surface plasmon resonance optical biosensor is described. The experimental conditions were restricted to facilitate a qualitative analysis that, for the first time, has demonstrated that AFM1...
Sun, 06/06/2021 - 00:00
The first part of this study evaluates the occurrence of mycotoxin patterns in feedstuffs and fish feeds. Results were extrapolated from a large data pool derived from wheat (n = 857), corn (n = 725), soybean meal (n = 139) and fish feed (n = 44) samples in European countries and based on sample analyses by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the period between 2012–2019...
Sat, 06/05/2021 - 04:03
Study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of mycobiota and contamination of AFB 1  in sesame seeds from rainfed and irrigated zones of the Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, 100 sesame seed samples were collected directly from the fields of major sesame-producing areas of the rainfed and irrigated zone. Samples were subjected to the Agar Plate Method for the isolation of mycobiota and thin...
Fri, 06/04/2021 - 00:00
In the early 1960s the discovery of aflatoxins began when a total of 100,000 turkey poults died by hitherto unknown turkey “X” disease in England. The disease was associated with Brazilian groundnut meal affected by Aspergillus flavus. The toxin was named Aspergillus flavus toxin—aflatoxin. From the point of view of agriculture, aflatoxins show the utmost importance. Until now, a total of 20...
Fri, 06/04/2021 - 00:00
Drying optimization, to mitigate fungal growth and Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is a key topic for raisin and currant production. Specific indicators of environmental conditions and drying properties were analyzed using two seedless grape varieties (Crimson—red and Thompson—white), artificially inoculated with Aspergillus carbonarius under open air and tunnel drying. The air temperature (T),...
Fri, 06/04/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic mycotoxin that causes severe suppression of the immune system of humans and animals, as well as enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, causing oxidative damage. However, the mechanisms underlying the ROS formation and immunotoxicity of AFB1 are poorly understood. This study used the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cell line and whole-transcriptome...
Thu, 06/03/2021 - 02:02
Grapevine cultivars are distributed worldwide, nevertheless the fermentation of its grape berries renders distinct wine products that are highly associated to the local fungal community. Despite the symbiotic association between wine and the fungal metabolism, impacting both the terroir and mycotoxin production, few studies have explored the vineyard ecosystem fungal community using both...
Thu, 06/03/2021 - 00:00
The carry-over of zearalenone (ZEN) to the myocardium and its effects on coronary vascular reactivity in vivo have not been addressed in the literature to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low ZEN doses (MABEL, NOAEL and LOAEL) administered per os to prepubertal gilts for 21 days affect the accumulation of ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL in the myocardium and the...
Thu, 06/03/2021 - 00:00
Wild yeasts isolated from the surface of apples were screened for antagonistic activity against Penicillium expansum, the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. Three antagonistic yeasts (Y33, Y29 and Y24) from a total of 90 were found to inhibit P. expansum growth. Identification by ITS region sequence and characterization showed that three selected isolates of yeast should be different strains...
Wed, 06/02/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Armando Mendoza-Flores, Ignacio Leyva-Valencia, Francisco E. Hernández-Sandoval, Clara E. Galindo-Sánchez, Christine J. Band-Schmidt, José J. Bustillos-Guzmán Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) content in the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum changes with culture age, with a higher toxin concentration in the logarithmic phase that decreases when the culture ages. The gene copy number (...
Tue, 06/01/2021 - 08:06
Author(s): Deepika, Anand Kumar Chaudhari, Akanksha Singh, Somenath Das, Nawal Kishore Dubey (Source: Food Bioscience) The present study explores the practical efficacy of chitosan (CS) nanoemulsion loaded with Petroselinum crispum essential oil (CS-PEO). Since, nanoencapsulation of EO is an emerging field in food science, the PEO was encapsulated into CS nanoemulsion and investigated their...
Sun, 05/30/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Moein Bashiry, Fardin Javanmardi, Ehsan Sadeghi, Sajad Shokri, Hedayat Hossieni, Carlos A.F. Oliveira, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah Background Aflatoxins are groups of mycotoxins that can be generally found in foods, particularly cereals and nuts. Cereal-based baby foods are important energy supplement sources, though the possibility of mycotoxin contamination in these products have been...
Sun, 05/30/2021 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin that contaminates numerous crops pre- and post-harvest. To protect foods and feeds from such toxins without resorting to pesticides, the use of plant extracts has been increasingly studied. The most interesting candidate plants are those with strong antioxidative activity because oxidation reactions may interfere with AFB1 production. The...
Sat, 05/29/2021 - 14:06
A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in raw coffee samples. Mycotoxins were extracted using a modified QuEChERS method with little sample preparation excluding clean-up and enrichment procedures. Linearity was demonstrated for the five mycotoxins in the...
Sat, 05/29/2021 - 06:17
Author(s): Peirong Cai, Zhiheng Feng, Nannan Feng, Hui Zou, Jianhong Gu, Xuezhong Liu, Zongping Liu, Yan Yuan, Jianchun Bian Zearalenone, which is ubiquitous in grains and animal feed, is a mycotoxin that can cause serious damage to animals and humans. Sertoli cells (SCs) can be used to study ZEA male reproductive toxicity in vitro. SCs provide energy for germ cells, where AMPK regulates...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 14:05
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is an antagonistic yeast for which our research team has recently reported interesting biocontrol activities against blue mould decay of apples and a strong ability to decrease the patulin concentration in vivo. However, the possible mechanisms of patulin degradation by R. mucilaginosa and the toxicity of patulin degradation products remain unclear. In this study, the...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Mohammad Raza Rezaie, Neda Zareie In this research with the effect of radioactive granite gamma radiation, the reduction of aflatoxin B1 in pistachios was examined in three steps. In the first step, the aflatoxin reduction in small packets by granite bed was tested. In this step, the aflatoxin level of 300 g pistachios packets was reduced up to 81.3 ± 1.5 percent by 4 kg granite bed...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 00:00
This study aimed to detect and monitor total Zearalenone (ZEN) and its five homologs (ZENs) in cereals and feed. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with a high affinity and broad class specificity against ZENs were prepared, and the conditions of a heterologous indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) were preliminarily optimized based on the ZEN mAbs. The immunogen ZEN-BSA was synthesized using the...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 00:00
It is now recognized that additional exposure to mycotoxins may occur through inhalation of contaminated dust at a workplace. The aim of this study was to characterize the multi-mycotoxin exposure of French grain elevator workers using biomonitoring and airborne measurements. Eighteen workers participated in the study. Personal airborne dust samples were analyzed for their mycotoxin...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 00:00
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure have been recognized as independent risk factors for the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their combined impacts and the potential metabolic mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here, a comprehensive non-targeted metabolomic study was performed following AFB1 exposed to Hep3B cells at two...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 00:00
Pistachio nuts are an important economic tree nut crop which is used directly or processed for many food-related activities. They can become colonized by mycotoxigenic spoilage fungi, especially Aspergillus flavus, mainly resulting in contamination with aflatoxins (AFs), especially aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The prevailing climate in which these crops are grown changes as temperature and atmospheric...
Thu, 05/27/2021 - 06:21
Author(s): Jamras Lerdsri, Jittrapun Soongsong, Pornpun Laolue, Jaroon Jakmunee The development of a label-free colorimetric aptasensor has been accomplished for rapid quantification of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The sensor utilizes competitive interactions of the aptamer to the AFM1 or the AuNPs under a...
Thu, 05/27/2021 - 06:17
LWT
Author(s): Elham Sarmast, Aziz A. Fallah, Tina Jafari, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah In this study, alterations in aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels during the manufacturing of cheese were assessed through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall result based on weighted response ratio (R*) demonstrated an increase of 77.2% (R* = 1.772, P < 0.001) in AFM1 level of cheese compared to milk after...
Thu, 05/27/2021 - 00:00
Plant materials can be contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives, whose toxic effects on humans and animals may remain subclinical. Zearalenone (ZEN), a low-molecular-weight compound, is produced by molds in crop plants as a secondary metabolite. The objective of this study will be to analyze the in vivo correlations between very low monotonic doses of ZEN (5, 10, and 15 μg ZEN/...
Wed, 05/26/2021 - 02:04
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced by some species of Aspergillus, especially those belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi. Their occurrence in food may start in the field, in the post-harvest, or during storage due to inadequate handling and storage. Because cassava is a staple food for a high percentage of the Brazilian population, we evaluated the presence of aflatoxin-producing...
Tue, 05/25/2021 - 22:10
Environmental Microbiology, Accepted Article. The use of microorganisms for Aflatoxin B1 elimination has been studied as a new alternative tool and it is known that cell wall carried out a critical role. For that reason, cell wall and soluble intracellular fraction of 8 yeasts with AFB1 detoxification capability was analysed. The quantitative and qualitative comparative label-free proteomic...
Tue, 05/25/2021 - 06:21
Author(s): Jingming Zhou, Yanghui Li, Zhanxiang Liu, Wenjing Qian, Yumei Chen, Yanhua Qi, Aiping Wang Zearalenone (ZEN), a type of non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by several species of Fusarium molds. It is ubiquitous in contaminated grains and grain products all over the world, posing a serious threat to animal and human health. This study aims to screen the mimotopes of...

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