Natural toxins

Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:29
In this study, triethylene tetramine–modified water‐insoluble corn flour caged in magnetic chitosan resin (TETA‐WICF/MCR) was firstly prepared, which indicates novel aspects for immobilization and chemically modification of mycotoxin adsorbents. The TETA‐WICF/MCR was characterized using zoom stereo microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X‐...
Wed, 04/01/2020 - 03:25
Beauvericin (BEA) and zearalenone derivatives, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), are produced by several Fusarium species. Considering the impact of various mycotoxins on human’s health, this study determined and evaluated the cytotoxic effect of individual, binary, and tertiary mycotoxin treatments consisting of α-ZEL, &...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:31
Here, molecular docking simulation was used to predict and compare interactions between a recombinant Trametes sp. C30 laccase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and four aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) as well as their degradation at a molecular level. The computational result of docking simulation indicates that each of the aflatoxins tested can interact with laccase with a binding ability...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:27
Twenty-two mycotoxins were investigated in bread and biscuits samples (n = 115) purchased from Tunisia. Deoxynivalenol (DON), enniatin B (ENB), ENB1, and zearalenone (ZEA) occurred in the samples with ENB detected in all the samples. Whole bread was the most contaminated matrix showing the highest amounts of DON (25.2 ng/g), ENB (10.7 ng/g), and ENB1 (5.4 ng/g). However, biscuits showed a maximum...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:26
Aflatoxins are the highly toxic secondary metabolites of certain fungi, being mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are classified as group 1 category carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A large number of food commodities are reported to be contaminated with aflatoxins. Tea is the world’s second most consumed beverage and...
Mon, 03/30/2020 - 03:34
Penicillium verrucosum survives in soil and on cereal debris. It colonises grain during harvesting, drying and storage. There is no information on the relative tolerance of P. verrucosum to solute and matric stress in terms of colonisation, or on the biosynthetic toxin gene clusters or ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The objectives were to examine the effect of ionic and non-ionic solute and...
Mon, 03/30/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Gültekin Gökçe, Sondes Ben Aissa, Katarína Nemčeková, Gaëlle Catanante, Noureddine Raouafi, Jean-Louis Marty Ochratoxin A (OTA), a widespread food contaminant, is considered as one of the most hazardous mycotoxins commonly occurring in beer. Herein, we describe a novel impedimetric aptasensor based on Pencil Graphite Electrodes (PGE) for the analysis of OTA. Taking advantage of its...
Mon, 03/30/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Kelly C. Massarolo, Cláudia F.J. Ferreira, Carolina C. Collazzo, Andréia Bianchini, Larine Kupski, Eliana Badiale-Furlong The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydrothermal treatment on the residual levels of aflatoxins (G2, G1, B2, B1) and fumonisin B1 in cornmeal, and to investigate the chemical constituents of cornmeal that could affect potential...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:42
A survey on 120 cereal samples (barley, maize, rice and wheat) from Algerian markets has been carried out to evaluate the presence of 15 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, fusarenon X, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, enniatins A, A1, B and B1, and beauvericin). With this purpose, a QuEChERS-based extraction and ultra-high performance...
Thu, 03/26/2020 - 03:35
Fusarium verticillioides is the primary fungus that causes Fusarium ear rot (FER) of maize. Infection results in reduced grain yield and quality due to moulding and the contamination of grain with toxic compounds namely fumonisins. Resistance to fungal infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize and maize grain is governed at different levels. In this study, the structural, physico-chemical and...
Wed, 03/25/2020 - 03:34
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a common mycotoxin, has attracted great concern as many foodstuffs can suffer from OTA contamination; OTA causes harmful effects on human and animals. Rapid and sensitive detection of OTA is demanded in many fields for agricultural product quality, food safety, and health. Aptamer fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) assays integrate advantages of nucleic acid aptamers...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 04:04
by Monika Słupecka-Ziemilska, Paulina Szczurek, Maria Boryczka, Małgorzata Gajewska, Piotr Wychowański, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Ikuo Kato, Żaneta Dzięgelewska, Jarosław Woliński A 23-amino acid peptide named obestatin is derived from the ghrelin gene. The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of enteral obestatin administration for a 6-day period on intestinal contractility in piglets fed...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
Exposure to aflatoxin is considered to be one of the causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With the development of bioinformation, we sought to reveal the occurrence and development of aflatoxin-induced HCC through data research. We identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of datasets GSE127791 (Aflatoxin-treated pluripotent stem cell derived human hepatocytes vs. controls) and...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
The objective of this work was the development of a methodology capable of simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in mixed feed rations collected in 20 dairy farms. A sample preparation methodology based on a combination of (d)SPE and QuEChERS extractions was used. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was employed for both identification and quantification purposes. To this...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:33
LWT
Author(s): A.S. Fochesato, A. Cristofolini, V.L. Poloni, A. Magnoli, C.I. Merkis, C.A. Dogi, L.R. Cavaglieri The objective was to study the influence of culture medium and gastrointestinal environment on Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC016 cell wall polysaccharides profile and the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) adsorption. Probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC016, isolated from the pig small intestine, has...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:29
Aims This study aimed to apply the volatile organic compounds from S. philanthi RL‐1‐178 (VOCs RL‐1‐178) as a fumigant to protect soybean seeds against the two aflatoxin‐producing fungi in stored soybean seeds. Methods and Results The antifungal bioassay tests on PDA dishes showed that 30 g L‐1 wheat seed inoculum of S. philanthi RL‐1‐178 exhibited total (100 %) inhibition on A. parasiticus TISTR...
Mon, 03/23/2020 - 03:27
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) is commonly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and is associated with increased proliferation, metastases and androgen independence. Zearalenone (ZEA) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating food, which might mimic estrogens and bind to estrogen receptors (ERs). The ratio of androgens to estrogens in...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Naoual Alahlah, Mohammed El Maadoudi, Nourredine Bouchriti, Reda Triqui, Hajar Bougtaib Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some species belonging to Aspergillus genus. They are considered as natural contaminants in feed and food products. The present study investigates the presence of mycotoxins in milk; it offers an evaluation of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) occurrence in UHT and...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Fengyu Tian, Jing Zhou, Ruijie Fu, Yongliang Cui, Qiyang Zhao, Bining Jiao, Yue He Colorimetric aptasensors have been intensively studied for the ochratoxin A (OTA) detection, but they mostly exhibit just one-color change, resulting in poor visual resolution and limited use for semi-quantitative analysis. Thus, we designed a high-resolution colorimetric assay on the basis of aptamer...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Xenia Pascari, Ronald Maul, Sabine Kemmlein, Sonia Marin, Vicente Sanchis Cereal-based baby food production process is expected to have an impact on the initial level of Fusarium mycotoxins that can contaminate the raw materials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of some of these toxins during roasting and the treatment with amylolytic enzymes, usually applied...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Vladimir Ostry, Marcela Dofkova, Jitka Blahova, Frantisek Malir, Radek Kavrik, Irena Rehurkova, Jiri Ruprich A dietary exposure assessment to sum of deoxynivalenol (DON) forms, sum of T-2/HT-2 toxins (T2/HT2) and zearalenone (ZEA) was conducted for Czech children 4–6 years and Czech men and women 18–59 years. Retail foods (25 different commodities, n = 336) were assessed by LC-MS/MS...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Fadia Ben Taheur, Chalbia Mansour, Khawla Ben Jeddou, Yasmine Machreki, Bochra Kouidhi, Jawaher Abdualbaqi Abdulhakim, Kamel Chaieb Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin. Aflatoxin occurrence in tea makes this beverage unsuitable for consumption and presented risks to human health. Therefore, researches in aflatoxin microbial degradation are necessary to overcome this...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:25
A variety of mycotoxins from different sources frequently contaminate farm products, presenting a potential toxicological concern for animals and human. Mycotoxin exposure has been the focus of attention for governments around the world. To date, biomarkers are used to monitor mycotoxin exposure and promote new understanding of their role in chronic diseases. The goal of this research was to...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:34
Aspergillus flavus may colonise hazelnuts and produce aflatoxins in field and during storage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of drying temperature and exposure times on the viability and ability of A. flavus to produce aflatoxins during the drying process and storage. Hazelnuts were inoculated with A. flavus and dried at different temperatures to reach 6% moisture...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:28
Aim To evaluate biological control agents (BCA) against Fusarium graminearum on infected maize stalks as a means to reduce Fusarium head blight (FHB) in subsequently grown wheat. Methods and Results In the laboratory, BCAs were applied against F. graminearum on maize stalk pieces. Clonostachys rosea inhibited the perithecia development and ascospore discharge when applied before, simultaneously...
Tue, 03/17/2020 - 03:26
Aflatoxins are among the most hazardous natural cereal contaminants. These mycotoxins are produced by Aspergillus spp. as polyketide secondary metabolites. Aflatoxigenic fungi including A. flavus express the alternative oxidase (AOX), which introduces a branch in the cytochrome-based electron transfer chain by coupling ubiquinol oxidation directly with the reduction of O2 to H2O. AOX is closely...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 04:01
Author(s): Doris Klingelhöfer, Markus Braun, Norman Schöffel, Gerhard M. Oremek, Dörthe Brüggmann, David A. Groneberg Ochratoxin, especially Ochratoxin A, is assumed to be one of the five most important mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Primarily developing countries are affected due to the climate conditions and poorer modes of production. The overall adverse health effects on humans are...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:43
Plants and medicinal herbs that are available on the market do not always meet quality and safety standards. One particular concern is the risk of contamination with mycotoxins. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A are the most frequently described mycotoxins in herbal products and have repeatedly been reported to occur at concentrations which exceed regulatory levels set by the European Union (EU)....
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:33
This study describes the colorimetric detection of aflatoxin M1 (Afl M1) in milk samples using a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD). Fabrication of µPADs was done using a simple and quick approach. Each μPAD contained a detection zone and a sample zone interconnected by microchannels. The colorimetric assay was developed using unmodified AuNPs as a probe and 21-mer aptamer as a...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Yifeng Lan, Guojie Qin, Yanli Wei, Li Wang, Chuan Dong A fluorescence aptasensor for the highly specific and sensitive determination of tetrodotoxin was established with tetrodotoxin-aptamer as the recognition unit, berberine as the signal reporter and exonuclease I as the elimination agent for the background. Berberine has a weak fluorescence emission at 540 nm, and it can form the...
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:26
Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp., known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic activity in humans and animals. AF contamination of staple food commodities is a global concern due to their toxicity and the economic losses they cause. Different strategies have been applied to reduce fungal contamination and AF production. Among them, the use of...
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:26
In this study, we investigated a novel aflatoxin biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and developed electrochemical biosensors based on a sodium alginate biopolymer as a new matrix for acetylcholinesterase immobilization. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed as a convenient transduction method to evaluate the AChE activity through the...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Micaela Álvarez, Alicia Rodríguez, Félix Núñez, Antonio Silva, María J. Andrade Penicillium nordicum, an ochratoxin A (OTA) producer, widely contaminates the surface of dry-cured fermented sausages. Although the meat industry uses antifungal synthetic compounds during ripening, consumers' preferences currently stand up for natural preservatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Ana Juan-García, Saverio Carbone, Maissa Ben-Mahmoud, Gianni Sagratini, Jordi Mañes The co-presence of more than one mycotoxin in food is being evidenced in last food surveys as reported in the literature. Beauvericin (BEA) is a non-legislated emergent mycotoxin while Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been widely studied and legislated. Concentration range individually studied was from 2.5 to 0.3...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:26
Periods of unfavorable storing conditions can lead to changes in the quality of fish feeds, as well as the development of relevant mycotoxins. In the present study, a commercial fish feed was stored under defined conditions for four weeks. The main findings indicate that even storing fish feeds under unsuitable conditions for a short duration leads to a deterioration in quality. Mycotoxin and...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:35
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin which is one of the most abundant food contaminants. It can be normally monitored and detected by immunochromatographic assays (ICG) which have a good sensitivity and specificity and easy to operate. However, the development of normal ICG is based on traditional OTA-conjugates or chemosynthetic mimotope peptides, which are very high-cost...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:35
This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of 16 well recognized and emerging mycotoxins in black and white sesame seed samples being commercialized in Thailand, and to evaluate health risk assessment in consumers. Samples were extracted and cleaned up by a modified QuEChERS based procedure. Multi-mycotoxins in sesame seed samples were analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-...
Sun, 03/08/2020 - 04:32
Author(s): Weiran Zhu, Liubo Li, Zhou Zhou, Xiaodi Yang, Nan Hao, Yingshu Guo, Kun Wang Colorimetric biosensors have been widely applied to mycotoxins testing. However, the colorimetric assay previously reported used a single color to detect one mycotoxin, and there were few reports on the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins. In this work, a colorimetric biosensor for dual mycotoxins...
Sun, 03/08/2020 - 04:31
Author(s): Juan Chang, Tao Wang, Ping Wang, Qingqiang Yin, Chaoqi Liu, Qun Zhu, Fushan Lu, Tianzeng Gao In order to alleviate toxic effects of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) on broiler production performance and gut microbiota, three kinds of compound probiotics (CP) were selected. The optimal ratios of Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei and Candida utilis in broiler diets were 7,...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:46
Ochratoxins were important secondary metabolites secreted by fungi, and OTA and OTB are mainly significant mycotoxin, having toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to establish a rapid, sensitive, and precise method for ochratoxins detection and quantification in real samples. In this study, a stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizing both OTA and OTB toxins was...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:45
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of aflatoxin B1, one of the most toxic contaminants of food and feed. With global warming, climate conditions have become favourable for aflatoxin contamination of agricultural products in several European countries, including Serbia. The infection of maize with A. flavus, and aflatoxin synthesis can be controlled and reduced by application of a biocontrol...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
Risk characterisation of dietary exposure of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) in maize from Shandong Province was conducted in this study. A total of 520 maize samples were collected after harvesting in 2014 and 2015 from 26 selected villages in Shandong Province, China. A deterministic approach was used in the current study. The dietary intake data of...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
In 2017, 236 rice samples were collected from 42 counties in Jiangsu province, China, and analysed for Fusarium mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analyses showed that deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenone X (FUS-X), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (including FB1, FB2, and FB3), and beauvericin (BEA) were present in unhusked rice...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The effect of heating (roasting and microwave radiation heating) along with a traditional pistachio flavouring mixture (containing verjuice, thyme extract, and sodium chloride) was investigated on reducing aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in pistachios. The naturally and artificially contaminated samples were soaked in the flavouring mixture (for 5, 10 and 24 h) and then subjected to...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
In the present study, a method for screening non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in soil samples collected from major peanut-growing regions of China was developed. The single colonies were picked and cultured on Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA). If the reverse side of the colony on AFPA was orange-coloured, it was considered A. flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus. After the genomic...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The present work aimed to establish the prevalence of mycobiota and occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin A) in spices and spice-based products, and correlate these to their manufacturers’ sizes. A total of 90 spice, sauce and paste samples were purchased; 3 manufacturer sizes (small, medium, large) × 3 types of samples (spices, sauces, pastes) × 5 brands × 2 replicates. The...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The occurrence of mycotoxins differs greatly from year to year and this variation has been attributed to climate variability. The aim of this study was to consider the variability of fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination on a small geographic scale as a possible result of local weather conditions. The presence of Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. and their related mycotoxins was...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
This review summarises developments on the analysis of various matrices for mycotoxins that have been published in the period from mid-2018 to mid-2019. Analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone are covered in individual sections. Advances in sampling strategies are also discussed in a...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:37
The importance of plant pigments as natural food colourants has been increasing globally in order to avoid from environmental problems and health hazards associated with synthetic colours. The current consumer prefers the naturally derived food colourants due to their health promoting properties. The present investigations were carried out to establish the safety and nutritional value of natural...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): YanYan Yi, ShuangXiu Wan, YaXin Hou, Jia Cheng, JianHua Guo, Shaoyu Wang, Ajab Khan, Na Sun, Hongquan Li Zearalenone (ZEA), a toxic substance produced by Fusarium fungi, accumulated in cereals grain and animal feed, causes injury to humans and animals. ZEA can induce obvious reproductive toxicity with the ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) as the main target. However, the study on exploring...

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