Natural toxins

Thu, 09/17/2020 - 04:02
Maize is mainly affected by two fungal pathogens, Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus, causing Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus ear rot (AER), respectively. Both fungi are of concern to stakeholders as they affect crop yield and quality, contaminating maize grains with the mycotoxins fumonisins and aflatoxins. The easiest strategy to prevent pre-harvest contamination by F....
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 04:02
Contamination of food and feed items with mycotoxins causes extensive economic damage. It is therefore important to explore environmentally friendly approaches to manage these toxins with less drawbacks. Phytochemicals can provide a safe alternative to synthetic chemicals. This study was designed to investigate the detoxification potential of water-based extracts of Acacia nilotica against...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 00:00
In 2015, tetrodotoxins (TTXs) were considered a potential threat in Europe since several studies had shown the presence of these toxins in European bivalve molluscs. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of TTXs in 127 bivalve samples (mussels and oysters) and in 66 gastropod samples (whelks) collected all along the French mainland coasts in 2017 and 2018. Analyses were carried out after...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 00:01
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary AFB1 on growth performance, health, intestinal microbiota communities and AFB1 tissue residues of turbot and evaluate the mitigation efficacy of yeast cell wall extract, Mycosorb® (YCWE) toward AFB1 contaminated dietary treatments. Nine experimental diets were formulated: Diet 1 (control): AFB1 free; Diets 2–5 or Diets 6...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 22:22
PEF treatment of sesame seeds provides significant reduction on aflatoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus paraciticus, as well as decomposition of aflatoxins with reduced mutagenity with preservation of physical properties and reduced acid number and peroxide value. Abstract Seed processing technologies are essential for seed safety and functionality through protection of physicochemical quality,...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 00:00
We investigated ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in raisin samples purchased from Slovak markets and determined the diversity of black-spored aspergilli as potential OTA and fumonisin (FB1 and FB2) producers. The taxonomic identification was performed using sequences of the nuclear ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region, the calmodulin and beta-tubulin genes. We obtained 239 isolates from eight fungal genera, of...
Mon, 09/14/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Miao Li, Haiming Wang, Jiadi Sun, Jian Ji, Yongli Ye, Xin Lu, Yinzhi Zhang, Xiulan Sun Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a frequently occurring mycotoxin in milk and dairy products, causes acute and chronic poisoning. In this study, we developed a time-resolved fluorescence microsphere immunochromatographic test strip (TRFM–ICTS) combined with ultraviolet light for the rapid and quantitative...
Sun, 09/13/2020 - 00:00
There are limited data on exposure to mycotoxins in Pakistan. Here, we measured exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a known contaminant of rice, using biomarkers of exposure. Wheat (n = 195) and rice (n = 62) samples were analyzed for AFB1 and DON levels, and the corresponding urinary biomarkers were analyzed in urine samples from a rural...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 08:03
by Yanan Li, Ren Wang, Zhengxing Chen, Xiuping Zhao, Xiaohu Luo, Li Wang, Yongfu Li, Fei Teng The liquid foodstuffs such as edible oil products remain a problem of excessive aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) content. This paper focused on the preparation of magnetic mesoporous silica (MMS) from rice husk ash for the removal of AFB1 in oil system. The MMS preparation process, adsorption conditions, structural...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 10:04
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produce carcinogenic aflatoxins during crop infection, with extensive variations in production among isolates, ranging from atoxigenic to highly toxigenic. Here, we report draft genome sequences of one A. parasiticus isolate and nine A. flavus isolates from field environments for use in comparative, functional, and phylogenetic studies.
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 06:26
Author(s): Nail Altunay, Konstantin P. Katin, Nevcihan Gürsoy, Adil Elik, Selçuk Şimşek, Savaş Kaya A green, simple, and cheap analytical approach for extraction, preconcentration, and determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in food samples based on vortex-assisted room temperature ionic liquid-based microextraction (VA-RTIL-ME) was presented. Important parameters including pH, metal amount, ligand...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 00:00
The feed supplementation of probiotic microorganisms is a promising method for detoxification of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of newly elaborated synbiotics on the turkey performance, the intestinal microbiota and its enzymatic activity in turkeys (0–15 weeks) fed OTA contaminated feed (198.6–462.0 µg/kg) compared...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 14:06
Aspergillus flavus is the main aflatoxin producer in food and feed and has wide ecological niches. Contamination of food products such as pistachio nuts and aflatoxin secretion directly affects food safety and international food product trades. Abilities of 13 yeast strains isolated from 200 soil and pistachio nut samples collected in Iranian orchards to reduce the growth of A. flavus as well as...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 22:14
BACKGROUND Corn, a main feed ingredient in the livestock industry, is one of the most susceptible crops to fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination. Livestock feeding on aflatoxin‐contaminated feed have been shown to cause feed refusal, and decreased growth rate, milk production and feed efficiency. In poultry, aflatoxin poisoning causes weight loss, poor feed efficiency, and reduced egg...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 06:23
Author(s): Tomoki Imaoka, Jade Yang, Lu Wang, Matthew G. McDonald, Zahra Afsharinejad, Theo K. Bammler, Kirk Van Ness, Catherine K. Yeung, Allan E. Rettie, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Edward J. Kelly Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most abundant mycotoxin contaminants in food stuffs and possesses carcinogenic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic properties. Specifically, a major concern is severe...
Mon, 09/07/2020 - 14:08
The majority of crops can be contaminated by aflatoxins mainly due to the insufficiency of cultivation or storage techniques. Therefore, the possible presence of aflatoxins in edible oil is inevitable which can cause some health problems for consumers. Due to the possible degradation of aflatoxins to the other toxicant compound and its interaction with the food components, it is necessary to...
Mon, 09/07/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Homa Arak, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Mehdi Hedayati, Shaban Rahimi To evaluate the effect of molecularly imprinted polymers as a synthetic polymer (TMU95) and commercial toxin binder (CTB) on aflatoxins (AFs) toxic effects on hepatic gene expression, and the biochemical and immunological parameters in ducklings, 240 four-day-old ducklings were randomly allocated into six groups...
Sun, 09/06/2020 - 22:15
BACKGROUND Patulin is a mycotoxin that mainly contaminates apple juice which is a typical high sugar matrix. Many different adsorbents have been utilized to develop sample pretreatment method to minimize the matrix interferences from apple juice. RESULTS A simple and reliable extraction method for the determination of patulin in apple juice has been developed. The sample preparation involves a...
Sun, 09/06/2020 - 22:15
BACKGROUND The toxicity and health risks of mycotoxins have encouraged increased awareness and strict monitoring of these contaminants in agricultural byproducts. In this paper, we developed and tested a sensitive, selective, and self‐assembling immunochromatographic (IC) strip for on‐site detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). We were able to demonstrate semi‐quantitative and quantitative detection of...
Sun, 09/06/2020 - 04:02
Zearalenone (ZEA), a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum, induces hyperestrogenic responses in mammals and can cause reproductive disorders in farm animals. In this study, a transcriptome analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H6, which was previously identified as a ZEA-degrading bacterium, was conducted with high-throughput sequencing technology, and the...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 06:20
Author(s): Jiangbing Qiu, Ying Ji, Yuan Fang, Mingyue Zhao, Shuqin Wang, Qinghui Ai, Aifeng Li Bivalve mollusks accumulate diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) from toxigenic microalgae, thus posing a threat to human health by acting as a vector of toxins to consumers. In bivalves, free forms of DSTs can be esterified with fatty acids at the C-7 site to form acyl esters (DTX3), presumably a...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 04:02
Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium expansum, is of high concern with regard to human food safety. This study examined the stability of PAT in artificially contaminated cloudy apple juice (CAJ) produced on a semi-industrial scale using an innovative technology allowing degassing and pressing under low-oxygen conditions (VaculIQ 1000). The effects of adding ascorbic acid (AA...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:23
Use of plant‐based ingredients in aquafeeds, especially for carnivorous species, is likely to increase in view of concerns regaridng the sustainability, price, and availability of fishmeal. As mycotoxins are a common problem associated with the use of plant ingredients, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of two levels of fumonisins (168 μg/kg feed and 333 μg/kg) and compared with...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 08:02
This work aimed at assessing the presence of total aflatoxins (AFs) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in fish farmed in two Cameroonian localities and the possible origin of that contamination through analysis of fish feeds as well as water and mud collected from the fish farming ponds. Four fish species (kanga, tilapia, catfish, and carp) were collected from two fish farming sites (Mfou and Batié). Mud...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 04:02
Almonds rejected as inedible are often used for production of almond oil. However, low-quality almonds are frequently contaminated with aflatoxins, and little is known regarding transfer of aflatoxins to almond oil during processing. In this study, oil was produced from reject almonds by hexane extraction. Of 19 almond samples that were naturally contaminated with aflatoxins, 17 oil samples...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 04:02
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Chinese liquid milk products. A total of 190 liquid milk samples, including 168 ultra-high temperature treated (UHT) milk samples and 22 pasteurized milk (PM) samples were collected in August 2019. A screening assay with the Charm Rapid Test Kit and a confirmation method with high-performance liquid...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): Pradeep Kumar, Dipendra Kumar Mahato, Bharti Sharma, Rituraj Borah, Shafiul Haque, M.M. Chayan Mahmud, Ajay Kumar Shah, Deepaksshi Rawal, Himashree Bora, Sukni Bui Ochratoxins (OTs) are a group of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. which are ubiquitous. They infect the crops during pre- and post-harvest conditions and contaminate various food and feed. Among all...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products has posed serious health hazards and brought huge economic loss in the food and feed industries. Monitoring aflatoxins in various foods and feeds has become a crucial means to protect public health. This study aimed to report an immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (iLAMP) assay by using an anti-idiotypic nanobody-phage for on-site and...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Nasrin Rashidi, Ali Khatibjoo, Kamran Taherpour, Mohammad Akbari-Gharaei, Hassan Shirzadi Probiotics, toxin binders and plant extracts improve health and immunity of broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin. The effects of licorice extract (LE), Protexin probiotic, toxin binder (Agrabound) and poultry litter biochar (PLB) in experimental aflatoxicosis were evaluated. In a completely...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
The efficacy of eleven essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 was investigated. The highest antifungal activity against this aflatoxigenic fungus was exhibited by cinnamon, oregano and lemongrass, which showed low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values under vapor conditions. Interactions of the three EOs were evaluated by the fractional inhibition concentration index (...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
Species of the dinophyte genus Alexandrium are widely distributed and are notorious bloom formers and producers of various potent phycotoxins. The species Alexandrium taylorii is known to form recurrent and dense blooms in the Mediterranean, but its toxin production potential is poorly studied. Here we investigated toxin production potential of a Mediterranean A. taylorii clonal strain by...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 04:02
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that colonise various crops around the world and cause major damage to the agro-industrial sector on a global scale. Considering the estimative of population growth in the next decades, it is of fundamental importance the implementation of practices that help prevent the economics and social impacts of aflatoxin contamination....
Sun, 08/30/2020 - 00:00
In this paper, a study of fungal and multi-mycotoxin contamination in 140 Camellia sinensis and 26 herbal teas marketed in Latvia is discussed. The analysis was performed using two-dimensional liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D-LC-TOF-MS) and MALDI-TOF-MS. In total, 87% of the tea samples tested positive for 32 fungal species belonging to 17 genera, with the total...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 22:20
Penicillium expansum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen with a wide range of fruit hosts. It causes blue mold rot during fruit storage, transport, and sale, resulting in huge economic losses to the fruit industry. Moreover, this pathogen is also the main producer of patulin, a toxic secondary metabolite that contaminates fruit and fruit‐derived products and impairs human health. Therefore,...
Sat, 08/29/2020 - 02:03
Ochratoxins are possible human carcinogens. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive competitive immunofluorescent analysis for determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the base of immobilized polyclonal antibody against ochratoxin and immobilized F(ab′)2 fragment on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). F(ab′)2 fragment of anti-OTA antibody was obtained by pepsin hydrolysis of polyclonal...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Komal Azam, Saeed Akhtar, Yun Yun Gong, Michael N. Routledge, Amir Ismail, Carlos A.F. Oliveira, Shahzad Zafar Iqbal, Hassan Ali Coffee is among one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is also susceptible to contamination by mycotoxins and heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of aflatoxins and selected heavy metals were quantified in roasted and ground coffee bean...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 06:21
Author(s): Peipei Pan, Yingfen Ying, Feifei Ma, Cheng Zou, Yige Yu, Yang Li, Zengqiang Li, Yinghui Fang, Tongliang Huang, Ren-Shan Ge, Yiyan Wang Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by a variety of Fusarium fungi. There is evidence that exposure to zearalenone can cause intrauterine growth restriction, but little is known about the mechanism in the rat placenta caused by zearalenone....
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT The apparent rarity of sex in many fungal species has raised questions about how much sex is needed to purge deleterious mutations and how differences in frequency of sex impact fungal evolution. We sought to determine how differences in the extent of recombination between populations of Aspergillus flavus impact the evolution of genes associated with the synthesis of aflatoxin, a...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Mahror Norlia, Selamat Jinap, Mahmud Ab Rashid Nor-Khaizura, Son Radu, Joshua Mark John, Mohd Azuar Hamizan Rahman, Mshelia Ladi Peter, Zawiyah Sharif Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species that produce aflatoxins in stored peanuts under favourable conditions. This study aimed to describe the growth and aflatoxin production by two A. flavus strains isolated from imported raw...
Sat, 08/22/2020 - 00:00
As a class of mycotoxins with regulatory and public health significance, aflatoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2) have attracted unparalleled attention from government, academia and industry due to their chronic and acute toxicity. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of various Aspergillus species, which are ubiquitous in the environment and can grow on a variety of crops whereby...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 02:03
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins, found in various foodstuffs and in animal feed, and may cause adverse effects on animal and human health. Previous biomonitoring data indicate a frequent co-exposure of Bangladeshi adults to these mycotoxins. However, since such data are not yet available for young children, a vulnerable part of the population, we conducted this...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 00:01
With high fat and protein content, maize germ is easily infected with fungus and mycotoxins during its storage. The qualities and safety of germ and its processing products may be affected by the storage. However, studies on the effect of storage on quality and polluted mycotoxin level of maize germ are limited. In this study, maize germ was stored with different initial moisture contents (5.03,...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 22:18
In the current study; the presence and the level of total aflatoxin concentrations in corn and corn based products (namely, corn fiber, corn gluten and corn starch) obtained from a corn wet‐milling industry in Turkey, were analyzed by ELISA method. The samples were collected during the years 2018 and 2019. Among the samples the total aflatoxin concentrations were the least in the corn starch and...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 22:16
Mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and known to play crucial roles in the regulation of various cellular processes. However, compared with kinase‐mediated phosphorylation, dephosphorylation catalyzed by phosphatases has not been well characterized in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified five MAPK pathway‐related phosphatases (Msg5...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 00:00
Sodium channels play a critical role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable tissues, such as nerves, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle, and are the primary targets of toxins found in animal venoms. Here, two novel peptide toxins (Cl6a and Cl6b) were isolated from the venom of the spider Cyriopagopus longipes and characterized. Cl6a and Cl6b were shown to be...
Wed, 08/19/2020 - 22:16
Push‐pull involves intercropping of cereals with Desmodium as a ‘push’ crop and planting Napier grass/Brachiaria as the ‘pull’ crop at the border. The technology has been reported to effectively control stemborers, striga weed and fall armyworm (FAW), and to improve soil nutrition resulting in increased grain yield. This study evaluated the impact of stemborer and FAW management using this...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria species which produce toxic metabolites, create a big problem in terms of the production of reliable human food and animal feeds. This study was conducted to determine the mycotoxin contents of foodstuff collected uniformly in each year of 2017, 2018, and 2019 in Şebinkarahisar, Turkey by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. The highest total...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:19
In this study, the effectiveness of ACP in inactivating Aspergillus flavus inoculated to military rations snack using response surface methodology (RSM) was investigated. Additionally, the effect of this treatment on the total count and yeast–mold count, as well as some quality properties of military rations snack, was examined. RSM was applied to study the voltage effects (5–15 kV), the distance...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 14:06
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in grape products and oxidative stress has been reported as an important mechanism involved in its toxicity, classified as possible carcinogenic to humans. Conversely, phenolics are known bioactive compounds in grapes and display great antioxidant properties. However, the biological effects of the concomitant presence of phenolic compounds and OTA remains...

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