Natural toxins

Mon, 07/06/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Qianchun Zhang, Yanqun Yang, Changbo Zhang, Yuguo Zheng, Yun Wun, Xingyi Wang Patulin is a type of mycotoxin that can compromise both food quality and human health, and its potential toxic effects on human health are concerning. Therefore, strict monitoring of patulin content in food systems is necessary. However, discrimination and quantification of this toxin are difficult because of...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): James Ledo, Kasper A. Hettinga, Jamal B. Kussaga, Pieternel A. Luning The varying performance of safety and hygiene control practices by chain actors can influence the consistent production of milk of good quality and safety in dairy chains. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate if differences in safety and hygiene control practices translate into distinctions in milk quality and...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 02:03
The aim of this study was to determine dietary exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) in Turkish adults. In this study, 500 food samples (50 rice, 50 wheat bread, 50 pasta, 50 raisins, 50 dried figs, 50 pistachios, 50 hazelnuts, 50 almonds, 50 chilli, 25 coffee, and 25 cocoa) collected from Turkey were analysed with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Moreover, a total of 370...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 02:02
QuEChERS combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed to analyze multi-class mycotoxins including aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and Alternaria toxins in apples and tomatoes. Using apples and tomatoes as the research models, the method performance had been evaluated, showing great convenience, high sensitivity, and good reliability. The...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 00:00
Pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or saxitoxins (STXs), but the toxin ratio differs, depending on the genus or species. In the present study, to clarify the distribution profile of TTX and STXs in Tetraodontidae, we investigated the composition and intra-body distribution of the toxins in Canthigaster valentini. C. valentini specimens (four male and six female...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:15
The study aimed to establish a automated versatile sample preconcentration method based on the modified immunomagnetic beads, which was utilized to enrich for aflatoxin B1 from the matrices. The critical main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as usage amount of immunomagnetic beads, reaction time, elution time, blending way was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Pauline Christ Ledur, Janio M. Santurio Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungus which cause worldwide concern regarding food and feed safety. Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are some of the main mycotoxins and oxidative stress is the main mechanism of toxicity. Thereby, this study investigates the in vitro cytoprotective effects of...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
Several studies have reported a wide range of severe health effects as well as clinical signs, when livestock animals are exposed to high concentration of mycotoxins. However, little is known regarding health effects of mycotoxins at low levels. Thus, a long-term feeding trial (between May 2017 and December 2019) was used to evaluate the effect of low doses of mycotoxin mixtures on performance of...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:16
Yellow corn kernels were subjected to gamma (γ) irradiation (1.0–10.0 kGy), post packaging in polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminium foil trilamellate. These packaged‐irradiated corn grits were stored under ambient conditions (23 ± 2°C, 80% R.H.) and their shelf lives were ascertained chiefly w.r.t. lutein and aflatoxin contents. Among all samples investigated, 3 kGy‐irradiated...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:16
Black tea (BTE) or curcumin (CMN) ameliorated hepatorenal changes induced by aflatoxin‐B1 (AFB1) with high improvement when combined BTE/CMN was used. Forty eight adult male rats were used into 8 groups: G1; control, G2, G3, and G4 were; olive oil, BTE and CMN, respectively, G5 was; olive oil‐dissolved AFB1. G6, G7 and G8 were; AFB1 along with BTE, CMN and BTE plus CMN, respectively. Liver/kidney...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Guannan Le, Xin Yuan, Lili Hou, Lei Ge, Shuiping Liu, Muhmood Azhar, Kai Liu, Ziman Lin, Dandan Liu, Fang Gan, Suquan Song, Cuilin Pan, Xingxiang Chen, Kehe Huang Ochratoxin A (OTA) was reported to induce proximal tubules nephrotoxicity in humans and animals. However, the toxicity of OTA on glomeruli has rarely been studied. We investigated OTA-induced glomerular injury and the...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 00:00
Food contamination with mycotoxins is a worldwide concern, because these toxins produced by several fungal species have detrimental effects on animal and/or human health. In maize, fumonisins are among the toxins with the highest threatening potential because they are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which is distributed worldwide. Plant breeding has emerged as an effective and...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Selamawit Tadesse, Tarekegn Berhanu, Ashagrie Zewdu Woldegiorgis Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) or milk toxin is a hydroxilated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 from a contaminated feed. This study investigated the occurrence of AFM1 in milk and milk products collected from Bishoftu town (one of the major milk producing place in Ethiopia). Milk (n = 108), cheese (82), yogurt (93) and butter (82)...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxins, and particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), are toxic mycotoxins to humans and farm animal species, resulting in acute and chronic toxicities. At present, AFB1 is still considered a global concern with negative impacts on health, the economy, and social life. In farm animals, exposure to AFB1-contaminated feed may cause several untoward effects, liver damage being one of the most...
Mon, 06/29/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Shao-Yan Zheng, Ze-Shun Wei, Shuang Li, Shi-Jia Zhang, Chun-Fang Xie, Dong-Sheng Yao, Da-Ling Liu Aflatoxins (AFs) are potent carcinogens present in numerous crops. Access to accurate methods for evaluating contamination is a critical factor in aflatoxin risk assessment. Versicolorin A (Ver A), a precursor of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), can be used as an indicator for the presence of AFB1,...
Mon, 06/29/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Akshay Kumar, Prem Pratap Singh, Vishal Gupta, Bhanu Prakash The aim of the study was to explore the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory efficacy of nanoencapsulated antifungal formulation. Mixture design response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to design the antifungal formulation (SBC 4:1:1) based on the combination of chemically characterized Ocimum sanctum (S), O....
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 00:00
Grape pomace (GP) is the residue of grapes after wine making and is a valuable source of dietary polyphenol and fiber for health promotion. However, studies found the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in GP at very high concentrations, which raises a safety issue in the value-added utilization of GP. This study evaluated the effects of thermal pressure, baking, acid and enzymatic treatments on OTA...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Ahmed Tabarani, Abdellah Zinedine, Nourredine Bouchriti, El Hassane Abdennebi Previous studies reported the contamination of cereals products with OTA in Morocco. Given bread, pasta and semolina are staple consumed food in the country, this study aims to assess the OTA exposure levels for the adult consumers in the country through cereal derivatives intake, by using a deterministic...
Sat, 06/27/2020 - 00:00
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most important cereals and is used in both the food and feed industries. It is produced mainly in a belt extending from Russia through Poland to Germany. Despite the great economic importance of this cereal, there is little research on rye contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, the occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyl-...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 02:03
In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil from Monarda citriodora (MCEO) with possible mode of action was evaluated against A. flavus (AF-LHP-SH1) and 15 other storage molds for controlling postharvest deterioration of stored functional food samples. The chemical profiling of MCEO as done through GC–MS analysis revealed caryophyllene (19.15%) as the major component. The MCEO showed broad...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin that has various toxicological impacts on mammalian health. Here, we found that ZEN significantly affected the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A promoter analysis using 5′-serially deleted human eNOS promoter revealed that the proximal region (...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:12
Aflatoxins as the remarkable food safety issues are toxic compounds produced by some of the fungus among variety of food and feed products while their decontamination has been investigated through some proposed kinetics based on the various conversion factors. Among them, in terms of the chemical based decontamination techniques, the zero, first, and second‐order reaction mechanisms are utilized...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:02
Animal feed is a potential route for contaminants like mycotoxins to enter into the human food chain. Hence, close monitoring is fundamental and should be performed with adequate analytical methods. In this study, a commercial ELISA kit for aflatoxin B1 detection in feed corn samples, RIDASCREEN® Aflatoxin B1 30/15, was assessed by the evaluation of some performance parameters. Basically, the...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 22:14
Mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) fumonisins (FMN), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and patulin are stable at regular food process practices. Ozone (O3) is a strong oxidizer and generally considered as a safe antimicrobial agent in food industries. Ozone disrupts fungal cells through oxidizing sulfhydryl and amino acid groups of enzymes or attacks the...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 08:02
by Hansen Murcia, Gonzalo J. Diaz Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase (AFAR) enzyme activity has been associated to a higher resistance to the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxicity in ethoxyquin-fed rats. However, no studies about AFAR activity and its relationship with tolerance to AFB1 have been conducted in poultry. To determine the role of AFAR in poultry tolerance, the hepatic in vitro enzymatic activity...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Stoycho Stoev Carcinogenic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) on liver, kidneys, intestine, muscles and subcutaneous tissue of BALB/c albino mice divided in three experimental and one control groups (30 mice in each group - 15 males and 15 females) and exposed to 10 ppm OTA and/or 50–60 ppm penicillic acid (PA) in the diet were seen. A total 22 neoplasias were found to be induced in the...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 00:00
The toxicokinetics (TK) of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 (HFB1) were evaluated in 16 broiler chickens after being fed either a control or a fumonisins-contaminated diet (10.8 mg fumonisin B1, 3.3 mg B2 and 1.5 mg B3/kg feed) for two weeks, followed by a single oral (PO) or intravenous (IV) dose of 1.25 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of HFB1. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), its partially hydrolyzed metabolites pHFB1a and...
Sun, 06/21/2020 - 06:09
Author(s): Muhammad Asif Asghar, Aftab Ahmed, Muhammad Arif Asghar Aspergillus and their associated metabolites like aflatoxins (AFs) are one of the extremely significant contaminants that affect food production around the world. This species decreases yield and grains quality under suitable environmental conditions. AFs were identified in various food commodities, have been recognized as...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 00:00
Ruminal microbiota of cattle are not able to detoxify all mycotoxins. In addition, detoxification can be hampered by adverse ruminal conditions (e.g., low ruminal pH). Hence, in the cattle husbandry, mycotoxin binders and modifiers could be used to prevent animal exposure to mycotoxins. In this study, an in vitro rumen model, including feed matrix, was established as first screening tool to test...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 00:00
Many communities in Southeast Alaska harvest shellfish such as mussels and clams as an important part of a subsistence or traditional diet. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of phytoplankton such as Alexandrium spp. produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish tissues to concentrations that can pose a hazard for human health. Since 2013, several tribal governments and communities have pooled...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 22:15
Nyjer and flax seeds are important oilseeds that are used for both human and animal consumption. Aspergilluscarbonariusproduced ochratoxin A (OTA) up to 271 μg/kg on ground nyjer seeds incubated with 0.98 awat 20°C, while A. carbonarius produced the highest OTA (146 μg/kg) on ground flax seeds incubated with 0.94 awat 20°C. Overall, ground nyjer seed is better than flax seed to support growth and...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Xiaohui Xiong, Yafei Li, Yichen Lu, Xiong Xiong, Wei Yuan, Yi Li, Yuanjian Liu, Lixia Lu A novel strategy for AFB1 detection in grains was proposed based on DNA tetrahedron-structured probe (DTP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) triggered polyaniline (PANI) deposition. Briefly, the DNA tetrahedron nanostructures were assembled on the gold electrode, with carboxylic group designed on...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 14:05
In the present study, a simple and fast method for simultaneous detection of zearalenone, citrinin, and ochratoxin A utilising capillary zone electrophoresis with an ultraviolet detector was developed. The optimised approach was validated and applied using pepper samples. The proposed method yielded satisfactory linearity between the signal and the mycotoxin concentration in the range of 1.5–150...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 00:00
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a complex class of analogs of the potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX). Since calibration standards are not available for many PSTs, including C-11 hydroxyl analogs called M-toxins, accurate quantitation by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be challenging. In the absence of standards, PSTs are often semiquantitated using standards of...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Chaochao Chen, Xuezhi Yu, Diangang Han, Jun Ai, Yuebin Ke, Zhanhui Wang, Geng Meng New developing gold nanorods (AuNRs) is a promising alternative of gold nanospheres in the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the rapid screening of mycotoxins in cereals because of its unique three-dimensional structure. Nevertheless, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to prepare of AuNRs...
Sun, 06/14/2020 - 00:00
Ochratoxins, patulin, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin are mycotoxins, and common contaminants in food and drinks. Human serum albumin (HSA) forms complexes with certain mycotoxins. Since HSA can affect the toxicokinetics of bound ligand molecules, the potential interactions of ochratoxin B (OTB), ochratoxin C (OTC), patulin, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin with HSA were examined, employing...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Almond is a desirable and high-quality food source where the presence of nut allergens and a vulnerability to aflatoxin and Salmonella contamination represent threats to consumer safety. In 2019, over 1 billion kg. of almonds, representing over 80% of the world total, were produced in California from a relatively few varieties with a very narrow genetic base. To address emerging needs mandated by...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 04:02
The aim of the study was to determine the levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in durum wheat samples collected over six period of time, from two official warehouses A and B in Lebanon. The concentrations of AFB 1 in wheat samples taken from warehouses A and B were ranging from 1.05 to 7.36 µg/kg. Results showed that 23.3% and 25.3% of samples taken from warehouse A and B...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 00:00
An increasing number of studies have found that modified mycotoxins, such as free mycotoxins, naturally occur in food, and severely impact food safety. The present study investigated concentrations of trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN), together with their modified forms, nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV-3G), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), and zearalenone-...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 16:00
Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that detrimentally influence profitability of agriculture and the health of humans and domestic animals. Several phylogenetically distinct fungi within Aspergillus section Flavi have S-morphology (average sclerotial size < 400 μm), and consistently produce high concentrations of aflatoxins in crops. S-morphology fungi have been implicated as important...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Abdullah A. AlKahtane, Ahmed Abdeen, Hany M.R. Abdel-Latif, Hoda H. Senousy, Lotfi Aleya, Saad Alkahtani Aflatoxicosis is one of the threats that cause severe mortalities in fish farms. The dietary functional additives are a friendly approach attributed to beneficial effects on aquatic animals. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:14
In warm regions, agricultural fields are occupied by complex Aspergillus flavus communities composed of isolates in many vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) with varying abilities to produce highly toxic, carcinogenic aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination is reduced with biocontrol products that enable atoxigenic isolates from atoxigenic VCGs to dominate the population. Shifts in VCG frequencies...
Mon, 06/08/2020 - 00:00
One of the concerns when using grain ingredients in feed formulation for livestock and poultry diets is mycotoxin contamination. Aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin, trichothecene (deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins that have been frequently reported in animal feed. ZEN, which has raised additional concern due to its estrogenic response in animals, is mainly produced...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 00:00
The monitoring and control of mycotoxins has caused widespread concern due to their adverse effects on human health. In this research, a simple, sensitive and non-label fluorescent aptasensor has been reported for mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) detection based on high selectivity of aptamers and amplification of non-enzyme hybridization chain reaction (HCR). After the introduction of OTA, the...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:03
Aflatoxins represent one of the biggest public health problems in food safety, due to their toxic potential for humans and animals. They can lead to serious threats, such as hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and immunotoxicity. Maize is the most important cereal consumed in Mexico, with which tortillas, tamales, flours, toasts and other products are elaborated. The elaboration of tortillas begins...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:03
Zearalenone is a mycotoxin widely found worldwide that is produced by several fungal species. Due to its similarity to estradiol, it has been shown to have toxic effects on the reproductive system. Although various animal studies have been conducted to investigate the toxic effects of zearalenone, the mechanisms of toxicity have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate...
Sat, 06/06/2020 - 04:03
During grape cultivation and wine production, the most effective way to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes and wine is the control of ochratoxigenic fungal species, and especially Aspergillus carbonarius, using the appropriate cultivation techniques. In this study, the influence of Organic (OFS) and Integrated (IFS) farming systems, on the incidence of A. carbonarius on grapes,...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:44
The adverse effect of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the beneficial effects of gallic Acid (GA) against AFB1 induced toxicity in vitro have been published. Here we present in vivo findings on AFB1 and GA on hepatorenal function in rats, exposed to AFB1 only or co‐treated with GA for 28 successive days. AFB1 significantly increased pro‐inflammatory biomarkers, suppressed IL‐10 levels, and increased...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:39
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are each known to adversely affect hepatic tissue individually, but their combined hepatic effects have never been previously investigated. HepG2 cell viability, oxidative status, and genetic impairment were examined after exposing HepG2 cells to: (1) CPF alone, (2) AFB1 alone, and (3) CPF and AFB1 combined (20:1). CPF exposure decreased cell viability,...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:38
Mycotoxins are toxic compounds for humans and animals that are produced by fungi. Mycotoxin contamination in feed is a global safety concern and effective control of these compounds in this matrix is needed. This study proposes a simple, cost-effective analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector, which is suitable for the routine monitoring of some of the...

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