Natural toxins

Fri, 11/27/2020 - 00:01
Some nemertean species from the genus Cephalothrix accumulate tetrodotoxin (TTX) in extremely high concentrations. The current study is the first to provide high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) data on tetrodotoxin and its analogues (TTXs) profile and concentration in different regions and organs of Cephalothrix cf. simula, and its...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 22:11
This study aimed to observe the effects of Selenium (Se) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)‐induced uterine injury in female mice and necrosis of human endometrial microvascular endothelial cells (HEMECs). Fifty female mice were randomly divided into control group; AFB1 group; Se group (0.2 mg/kg each day); AFB1 + Se group; and positive control group. After continuous treatment for 30 days, uterine tissues...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 06:26
Author(s): Tong Bu, Feier Bai, Xinyu Sun, Yongming Tian, Meng Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Kunyi He, Xin Wang, Pei Jia, Li Wang A prussian blue nanocubes decomposition-assisted signal amplification strategy for competitive lateral flow immunoassay (PBNCD-SALFIA) was innovatively proposed to analyze aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foodstuffs. The signal was amplified on account of the PBNCs can degrade and fade...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 00:00
According to the EU legislation, ochratoxin A contamination is controlled in wines. Tokaj wine is a special type of sweet wine produced from botrytized grapes infected by “noble rot” Botrytis cinerea. Although a high contamination was reported in sweet wines and noble rot grapes could be susceptible to coinfection with other fungi, including ochratoxigenic species, no...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 00:00
The I–L ring system found in all the Pacific ciguatoxins has been prepared from a tricyclic precursor in a highly stereoselective manner. Subtle differences in the reactivity of the enones present in the seven- and eight-membered rings of the tricyclic ether starting material have been exploited to allow selective protection of the enone in the eight-membered ring. Subsequent...
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 00:00
Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is a carcinogenic and nephrotoxic mycotoxin, which may cause health problems in humans and animals, and it is a contaminant in foods and feeds. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of oral OTA exposure on the antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in the kidney. In vivo administration of OTA in CD1, male mice (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight in a single oral...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 22:15
Various fruits are involved in food models, including fresh‐cut fruit, fruit salad, and juices. Toxigenic fungi in horticulture have attracted interest in order to the food safety requirements and their illnesses relation. This study aimed to apply grape by‐products (Gbps) that contain bioactive compounds to reduce mycotoxin and limit toxigenic fungal‐activity in fresh‐cut fruit and juice. The...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Yongpeng Guo, Lihong Zhao, Qiugang Ma, Cheng Ji Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus fungi, posing high carcinogenic potency in humans and animals. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is a global problem in both developed and developing countries especially where there is poor regulation of their levels in food and feed. Thus, academics have been...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 14:05
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a variety of crops worldwide. Acute exposure can cause liver failure, and chronic exposure can lead to stunting in children and liver cancer in adults. We estimated aflatoxin exposure across Uganda by measuring a serum biomarker of aflatoxin exposure in a subsample from the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a nationally representative...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 02:03
In the present study, a total of 112 raw milk samples were collected between October and December of 2018 from dairy farming households in Malawi and analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) using VICAM aflatest fluorometry procedure. These data together with the consumption data obtained through a milk consumption frequency questionnaire were used for the calculation of AFM1 exposure and its association...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 00:00
A paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) episode developed in summer 2018 in the Rías Baixas (Galicia, NW Spain). The outbreak was associated with an unprecedentedly intense and long-lasting harmful algal bloom (HAB) (~one month) caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were analyzed in extracts of 45 A. minutum strains isolated from the bloom by...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:15
Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), a hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin, is one of the fundamental supporters of the high pace of carcinoma hepatocellular. This investigation intended to decide the capacity of ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species in expelling or restricting AFG1 from MRS stock media and to assess the solidness of LAB/AFG1 complex through storage at 4 and 37 ºC for 72 and 48h individually. The...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 06:25
Author(s): Qian Chu, Shaopeng Wang, Liping Jiang, Yuhang Jiao, Xiance Sun, Jing Li, Ling Yang, Yunfeng Hou, Ningning Wang, Xiaofeng Yao, Xiaofang Liu, Cong Zhang, Guang Yang Patulin (PAT), a kind of mycotoxin, is produced by many common fungi in fruit and vegetable-based products. It has been shown to cause hepatotoxicity. However, the possible mechanisms are not completely elucidated. The...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:02
Patulin (PAT) is a natural mycotoxin that commonly contaminates fruits and their derivative products and has been proven to induce cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in renal cells. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of apocynin, a potent phenolic antioxidant isolated from plants, on PAT-induced cell injury in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Compared with 7.5 μM PAT...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:02
Aflatoxin producing fungi cause contamination of food and feed resulting in health hazards and economic loss. It is imperative to develop workable control measures throughout the food chain to prevent and reduce aflatoxin contamination. This is a critical review of contemporary published papers in the field. It is a review of reports from the original aflatoxin researches conducted on foods, from...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 04:02
The present study describes using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology for determination of patulin (PAT) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in beverages by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array (UPLC-PDA). PAT (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2-c]pyran-2(6H)-one) is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium fungi and Penicillium expansum is probably the most commonly...
Sun, 11/15/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Fengyang Wu, Jia Cui, Xinyu Yang, Shudong Liu, Shuaijuan Han, Baojiang Chen The study aimed to examine the effects of zearalenone on genital organ development, serum immunoglobulin, antioxidant capacity, sex hormones and liver function of prepubertal gilts. Forty-eight prepubertal gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly divided into three treatment (T1, T2 and T3) groups and a...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 00:01
In this study, a rapid and sensitive immunoassay method has been established based on calibration curve implanted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) for the simultaneously quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in cereal samples, soybean and peanut. The C-ELISA avoids using the standard substances during the detection. The principle of the C-ELISA is...
Sat, 11/14/2020 - 00:01
The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription process is coordinated by the reversible phosphorylation of its largest subunit-carboxy terminal domain (CTD). Ssu72 is identified as a CTD phosphatase with specificity for phosphorylation of Ser5 and Ser7 and plays critical roles in regulation of transcription cycle in eukaryotes. However, the biofunction of Ssu72 is still unknown in Aspergillus...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 22:17
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring fungal metabolites that are associated with health hazards and are widespread in cereals including maize. The most common mycotoxins in maize that occur at relatively high levels are fumonisins (FBs), zearalenone, and aflatoxins; furthermore, other mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A are frequently present in maize. For these toxins, maximum...
Thu, 11/12/2020 - 04:03
Fumonisin contamination of maize damaged by Fusarium verticillioides and related species is a major problem when it is grown under warm and dry conditions. Consumption of fumonisin contaminated food and feed is harmful to both humans and livestock. Novel tools for reducing or eliminating fumonisin toxicity may be useful to the agri-feed sector to deal with this worldwide problem. Enzymes capable...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 06:17
Peanuts in China are heavily contaminated with aflatoxin, which pose a threaten to human health. To compare the dietary exposure risk of aflatoxins (AFT) in peanuts and peanut oil in different areas of China, the spatial distribution of AFT contamination levels in peanuts and peanut oil from different areas was analyzed. The dietary exposure was calculated by simple distributed risk assessment...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 06:29
Author(s): Somenath Das, Vipin Kumar Singh, Abhishek Kumar Dwivedy, Anand Kumar Chaudhari, Deepika, Nawal Kishore Dubey Application of synthetic preservatives to control the contamination of stored food commodities with aflatoxin B1 causing considerable loss in nutritional value is a major challenge. However, employment of essential oils for protecting food commodities is much limited due to high...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 04:02
Mycotoxins are one of the most common types of chemical hazards related to edible oils. Although the refining process can remove such contaminations, they may still be present in the final oils due to defects during the refining steps. In addition, most oils produced in local manufactories are not refined and as such may be contaminated with mycotoxins. However, the effect of various cooking...
Mon, 11/09/2020 - 22:20
The current research was performed to assess the fungal contamination in oils extracted from wild almonds (Alok) during 60 days of storage. To assess the influence of storage temperature on fungal growth and aflatoxins production, three batches of wild almond nuts were kept at 25, 30, and 35 °C for 60 days, and extracted oils from nuts were evaluated at six periods of intervals. Storage at 25 °C...
Mon, 11/09/2020 - 00:00
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium, capable of contaminating several foodstuffs. OTA damages primarily the kidneys, and is suspected to be a carcinogenic substance, thus maximum levels for OTA in foodstuffs have been established in the EU. Italian Ministry of Health suggested a maximum level of 1 μg/kg OTA in pork meat and derived products. In this...
Sat, 11/07/2020 - 06:32
Author(s): Helina Marshall, Julie P. Meneely, Brian Quinn, Yueju Zhao, Paula Bourke, Brendan F. Gilmore, Guangtao Zhang, Christopher T. Elliott Aflatoxin is considered to be the most important mycotoxin in the world for human food and animal feed. Current strategies for the reduction of mycotoxins in food and feed includes both prevention and removal. It is clear that the development and...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 14:07
Some secondary metabolites produced by fungi are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and/or cause birth defects in humans and animals. We developed and optimised bio-analytical tools for detection of metabolites, aflatoxins and evaluated the effectiveness of the methods in co-infected maize tissues. Isolate KSM012 (atoxigenic) demonstrated no peaks and no blue fluorescence on HPLC and TLC plates...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Promy Virk, Nourah Abdual Rahman Al-mukhaizeem, Sara Hamad Bin Morebah, Dalia Fouad, Mai Elobeid Contamination of cereal crops with zearalenone (ZEA), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi, is a worldwide health concern. The study assessed the ameliorative potential of resveratrol (RSV), a potent antioxidant against ZEA induced toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Rats (n = 40), with...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Yan Guo, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian, Zhi-Hui Zhao, Wen-Chao Liu Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes toxic effect and leads to organ damage in broilers. Marine algal polysaccharides (MAPs) of Enteromorpha prolifera exert multiple biological activities, maybe have a potential detoxification effect on AFB1, but the related research in broilers is extremely rare. Therefore, the purpose of...
Fri, 11/06/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Pouyan Malekinezhad, Laura E. Ellestad, Nazar Afzali, Seyed Homayoun Farhangfar, Arash Omidi, Abbas Mohammadi Many types of mycotoxins are found in food sources contaminated with fungi, and if these are ingested in large quantities or over a long period, they can affect the health of humans and domestic animals. Berberine (BBR) is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 14:10
Zearalenone (ZEA), a mycotoxin, is known to impair reproductive capability by disrupting the synthesis and secretion of testosterone by Leydig cells (LCs), although the mechanism is unknown. Robust rhythmicity of circadian clock and steroidogenic genes were identified in LCs. The aim of this study was to examine whether ZEA significantly attenuated the transcription of core clock genes (Bmal1,...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 06:29
Author(s): Yun Li, JiaSheng Wang, JinJuan Li, XiuLan Sun Previous studies on the risk assessment of chemicals with respect to human health have focused mainly on the safety of individual substances. Recently, public health policy emphasizes the combined effects of mixtures. An overall risk probability (ORP)-based method long with the combined toxicity factor (cuv) can be used to evaluate the...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 06:29
Author(s): Pu Cui, Hangbin Yan, Daniel Granato, Chi-Tang Ho, Ziling Ye, Yong Wang, Liang Zhang, Yu Zhou Recently, mycotoxins safety in Chinese post-fermented teas has attracted much attention because it is still controversial whether environmental fungi in the teas are able to produce aflatoxins. In this study, a rapid and selective analytical method based on immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleaning...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Shumin Sun, Ran Zhao, Yanli Xie, Yong Liu Magnetic graphene oxide/TiO2(MGO/TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized for the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in corn oil. The photodegradation of synthesized nanocomposites on AFB1 in corn oil under different treatment conditions and its effect on the quality of corn oil were investigated. The doping of magnetic GO effectively enhanced the...
Tue, 11/03/2020 - 00:01
Carbon is one of the most important nutrients for the development and secondary metabolism in fungi. CreA is the major transcriptional factor mediating carbon catabolite repression, which is employed in the utilization of carbon sources. Aspergillus ochraceus contaminates various food and feed containing different carbon sources by producing ochratoxin A (OTA). However, little is known about the...
Mon, 11/02/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Fojan Agahi, Cristina Juan, Guillermina Font, Ana Juan-García Zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL) (ZEA's metabolites) are co/present in cereals, fruits or their products. All three with other compounds, constitute a cocktail-mixture that consumers (and also animals) are exposed and never entirely evaluated, nor in vitro nor in vivo. Effect of ZEA has been...
Sun, 11/01/2020 - 08:02
Author(s): Sotirios - Spyridon Vamvakas, Mersini Chroni, Fotios Genneos, Stavroula Gizeli (Source: Food Bioscience) The effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of bilberry leaves on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and on its ability to synthesize aflatoxins was studied. Both extracts could inhibit aflatoxins’ biosynthesis by A. flavus grown in either a rich or minimal media. Aqueous extracts...
Sun, 11/01/2020 - 00:00
Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is a human food-borne poisoning that has been known since ancient times to be found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, which occurs when fish or very rarely invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) are consumed. The genus of marine benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus produces CTX precursors. The presence of Gambierdiscus species in a region is one...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
Aflatoxin production by isolates of Aspergillus flavus varies, ranging from highly toxigenic to completely atoxigenic. Several mechanisms have been identified which regulate aflatoxin production including medium carbon source and oxidative stress. In recent studies, aflatoxin production has been implicated in partially ameliorating oxidative stress in A. flavus. To better understand the role of...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
This study presents fungi infrequently viewed as fungal factories for secondary metabolite production resources such as mycotoxins in Ascomycota. Additionally, we demonstrated that biochemical warfare of Fusarium verticillioides factory against animal cells is not only due to mycotoxins such as fumonisins, but acute cytotoxic firing is based on different excreted secondary metabolite series,...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 00:02
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced mainly by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. and commonly found in foodstuffs and feedstuffs. Carboxypeptidase A (CPA) can hydrolyze OTA into the non-toxic product ochratoxin α, with great potential to realize industrialized production and detoxify OTA in contaminated foods and feeds. This study constructed a P. pastoris...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 00:02
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a known food contaminant that affects a wide range of food and agricultural products. The presence of this fungal metabolite in foods poses a threat to human health. Therefore, various detection and quantification methods have been developed to determine its presence in foods. Herein, we describe a rapid and ultrasensitive tracer-based fluorescence polarization immunoassay (...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 00:02
Patulin (PAT) is a natural mycotoxin that commonly contaminates fruits and fruit-based products. Previous work indicated that PAT-induced apoptosis in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. To uncover novel aspects of the possible mechanism of PAT nephrotoxicity, the transcriptome and proteome profiles were investigated using the digital gene...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 00:02
Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by plant fungal pathogens infecting crops with strong carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Dimethylformamide (DMF) is an excellent solvent widely used in biology, medicine and other fields. However, the effect and mechanism of DMF as a common organic solvent against fungal growth and AFs production are not clear. Here, we discovered that DMF...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 22:18
This study was aimed to determine the effects of a plasma jet of mixed argon and oxygen (Ar‐O2) on Aspergillus flavus growth in potato dextrose broth (PDA). Settings for power, discharge duration, and gas flow rate of the plasma jet system (PJS) were optimized over ranges of 10–20 W, 1–10 min and 3–9 L/min, respectively. The optimal conditions required to inhibit 100% of A. flavus growth at 30°C...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 22:19
Filamentous fungi represent a rich source of extrolites, including secondary metabolites (SMs) comprising a great variety of astonishing structures and interesting bioactivities. State‐of‐the‐art techniques in genome mining, genetic manipulation, and secondary metabolomics have enabled the scientific community to better elucidate and more deeply appreciate the genetic and biosynthetic chemical...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 02:03
In this paper, using molybdenum disulfide doped with gold nanoclusters (Au NCs@MoS2) as the substrate, an aflatoxin aptamer sensor was constructed utilizing iron porphyrin organic porous material modified with streptavidin and loaded with gold nano-bipyramids (SA-Au NBPs@ porous aromatic framework (PAF)-40-Fe) as a label. The catalyzed reduction current of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by Au NBPs@PAF-...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 00:00
In this study, we developed an aptamer-based fluorescent sensing platform for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) based on RecJf exonuclease-assisted signal amplification and interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and the OTA aptamer (OTA-apt). After optimizing the experimental conditions, the present aptamer-based sensing system can exhibit excellent fluorescent response in the OTA assay, with...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 00:00
The use of plant extracts in pre- and post-harvest disease management of agricultural crops to cope with aflatoxin B1 contamination has shown great promise due to their capability in managing toxins and safe-keeping the quality. We investigated the anti-aflatoxigenic effect of multiple doses of eight plant extracts (Heracleum persicum, Peganum harmala, Crocus sativus, Trachyspermum ammi,...

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