Mycotoxins

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Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:39
The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and their mycotoxins cause damage to plants, animals, and human health. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of crude extracts (CEs) from Agaricus subrufescens, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies on in vitro production of biomass and mycotoxins by two strains of F. verticillioides. Stipes and pilei were separated before...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Hyun Jung Lee Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a possible human carcinogen commonly occurring in many agricultural commodities, particularly in oats and their processed products. Due to its heat stability, OTA has been found in thermally processed food products including breakfast cereals and cereal grains. In this study, the reduction of OTA during roasting of oats was investigated under...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:44
BACKGROUND In Taiwan, nearly 90% of apples and raw ingredients for apple‐based products are imported. Apple juices (137 samples) and apple‐containing beverages (35 samples) were collected in Taiwan from imported food and analyzed for patulin content. RESULTS The results revealed that the incidence levels of patulin for apple juice and apple‐containing beverages are 5.84% and 5.71%. The mean...
Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:42
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zearalenone (ZEN), administered per os to gilts at doses equivalent to 50%, 100%, and 150% of no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) values for 14, 28, and 42 days during weaning, on changes in the parameters of the oxidoreductive balance, cytokine secretion, and basal metabolism in ileal Payer&rsquo;s patches. Immunoenzymatic...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:52
Fungal contamination of food is responsible for health issues and food waste. In this work, the incorporation of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antifungal properties (Lactobacillus buchneri UTAD104) into whey protein-based films and coatings was tested for the control of an ochratoxigenic fungi (Penicillium nordicum) in a cheese matrix. The incorporation of L. buchneri cells resulted in...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Sabreen E. Fadl, Abeer M. El-Shenawy, Doaa M. Gad, Eman M. El Daysty, Hamdy S. El-Sheshtawy, Walied S. Abdo This paper was designed to analyze the effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed on the growth outcomes, certain serum biochemical, histopathology, and OTA residue in the dorsal muscle, liver, and kidney in Nile tilapia. Also, to improve the drastic effect of OTA through...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:36
The identity of the fungi responsible for fruitlet core rot (FCR) disease in pineapple has been the subject of investigation for some time. This study describes the diversity and toxigenic potential of fungal species causing FCR in La Reunion, an island in the Indian Ocean. One-hundred-and-fifty fungal isolates were obtained from infected and healthy fruitlets on Reunion Island and exclusively...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:44
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in investigating the carcinogenicity of mycotoxins in humans. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of data linking exposure to different mycotoxins with human cancer risk. Publications (2019 and earlier) of case–control or longitudinal cohort studies were identified in PubMed and EMBASE. These articles were then screened by...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Man Liu, Chao Cheng, Xuezhi Li, Sihan Zhou, Jiali Hua, Jie Huang, Yongxin Li, Kunlong Yang, Peng Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jun Tian Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous food contaminant and a critical food safety concern due to its nephron toxic effects, which impacts all parts of the world. Luteolin (LUT) had gained increasing interest as a health-promoting food antioxidant component. However,...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Syed Wajih ul Hassan, Yumna Sadef, Shabbir Hussain, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Sumera Anwar, Arif Malik The contamination of food with mycotoxins could be a major health risk. Identification and quantification of mycotoxins in maize are essentially required to guarantee food safety. Seven commonly grown maize cultivars were sown at semi-arid conditions in Pakistan....
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:47
Author(s): Lei Zhong, Jason Carere, Lili Mats, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Ting Zhou Patulin (PAT) is a fungal secondary metabolite which is mainly detected in rotten apples, and possesses serious risks to human health. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a promising biological control candidate due to its ability to degrade PAT. However, the degradation mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:45
The aim of this study was to develop a highly-sensitive liquid chromatographic – tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method to investigate the presence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in traditional homemade sausages (n = 88) collected from small family farms situated in different regions in Croatia. Aflatoxins were not detected (
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:39
Background Nutritional and environmental benefits of mycoprotein verify its health beneficial role on humankind in next decades. Agro‐industrial wastes can be used as cheap substrates to decrease total cost of product. However, fungi may produce toxins or lead to allergic reactions in consumer. So, the study of the safety and nutritional aspects of this product are very imperative. Results...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:46
LWT
Author(s): Ljilja Torović, Iboja Lakatoš, Tatjana Majkić, Ivana Beara Risk to public health related to the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines from Fruška Gora was assessed on the basis of 113 dry wines from vintages spanning 2011–2016, analysed by immunoaffinity and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. More than a half of sampled wines (52.2%) contained OTA in quantifiable...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:37
Weaned piglets (n = 3 &times; 6) were fed 0, 15 and 30 mg/kg diet fumonisin (FB1, FB2 and FB3, i.e., FBs, a sphinganine analogue mycotoxin), from the age of 35 days for 21 days, to assess mycotoxin induced, dose-dependent changes in the red cells&rsquo; membrane. Ouabain sensitive Na+/K+ ATPase activity was determined from lysed red cell membranes, membrane fatty acid (FA) profile was...
Sun, 05/10/2020 - 03:35
Medicinal plants are often consumed as infusions with boiled water. Scarce information is available in the literature about the migration of mycotoxins into the resulting beverage and/or the effects of the infusion procedure on the final mycotoxin contents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the infusion process on mycotoxin contents during medicinal plant preparation....
Sat, 05/09/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Mingyang Wang, Shuhua Yang, Jing Cai, Rong Yan, Lingqi Meng, Miao Long, Yi Zhang Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin that contaminates crops worldwide and is toxic to the reproductive systems of mammals, however, the toxicological mechanism by which ZEA affects germ cells is not fully understood. In this study, proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was adopted to determine the...
Sat, 05/09/2020 - 03:34
Penicillium spp. are emerging as producers of mycotoxins and other toxic metabolites in nuts. A HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to detect 19 metabolites produced by Penicillium spp. on chestnuts, hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds. Two extraction methods were developed, one for chestnuts and one for the other three nuts. The recovery, LOD, LOQ and matrix effect were determined for each analyte and...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:40
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most toxic member of ochratoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The most relevant species involved in OTA production in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius. Berry infection by A. carbonarius is enhanced by damage to the skin caused by abiotic and biotic factors. Insect pests play a major role in European vineyards, and Lepidopteran species such...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Silu Hou, Jingjiao Ma, Yuqiang Cheng, Hengan Wang, Jianhe Sun, Yaxian Yan The mycotoxins in grains is a serious threat to the health of humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrated an approach for development of a fast and sensitive fluorescent immunochromatographic assay for fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) detection using quantum dots nanobeads (...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:41
Fusarium infections have been reported in aquatic animals, but are still poorly investigated in wild salmonids. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the fungi and their toxins on the health status of brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha trutta) migrating from the Baltic Sea to the freshwater. Individuals from the wild brown trout population exhibiting ulcerative skin lesions were...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:39
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite produced by fungal pathogens such as Penicillium verrucosum, which develops in food commodities during storage such as cereals, grapes, and coffee. It represents public health concerns due to its genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of actinobacteria and their metabolites to degrade...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:47
Author(s): Hyun Jung Lee, Chan Lee, Dojin Ryu Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a possible human carcinogen found in a wide range of foods and agricultural commodities worldwide. This potent nephrotoxin is of concern because of its thermal stability under most conditions used during food processing and high incidence and concentration in oat-based baby foods. In this study, the effects of added baking soda (...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:37
Zearalenone (ZEA) has been proved to be toxic, particularly to the reproductive system of gilts. The effect of ZEA on gilts during embryo implantation window period is of particular interests. Here, we observed window stage dysontogenesis of gilts treated with ZEA. In endometrial tissues and cells, autophagosomes increased significantly and mitochondria were damaged with increasing ZEA...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:44
Author(s): Si Chen, Shuhua Yang, Mingyang Wang, Jia Chen, Sheng Huang, Zhen Wei, Ziyang Cheng, Hanli Wang, Miao Long, Peng Li The toxic effect of zearalenone (ZEA) is not fully understood and there is an urgent need for the development of effective agents to protect against the toxic effects of ZEA. In this study, we detected whether curcumin (CUR) can reduce Leydig cells apoptosis induced by ZEA...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:47
A wide range of fungal species is associated with post-harvest spoilage of grapes. However, Aspergillus carbonarius is the primary fungus responsible for the contamination of grapes with ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin causing several confirmed health effects to humans and animals. Aiming to find a method, safe for the consumers, to prevent post-harvest decay and ochratoxin A contamination of grapes,...
Sat, 04/25/2020 - 03:43
Author(s): Ruxia Liu, Ruirui Shi, Wenting Zou, Wenhua Chen, Xianchao Yin, Fengchun Zhao, Zhengyou Yang Here we demonstrate a novel phage-magnetic-chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (P-MCLEIA) for detection of zearalenone (ZEN). The P-MCLEIA was more efficient than conventional ELISA through several improvements. In the P-MCLEIA, magnetic nanoparticles were replaced of microplates as solid phases...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:34
Anti-idiotypic nanobodies, usually expressed by gene engineering protocol, has been shown as a nontoxic coating antigen for toxic compound immunoassays. We here focused on how to increase immunoassay sensitivity by changing the nanobody&rsquo;s primary sequence. In the experiments, two anti-idiotype nanobodies against monoclonal antibody 1H2, which is specific to ochratoxin A, were obtained...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:41
Author(s): Haiyue Wang, Yujia Wei, Ying Xie, Chao Yan, Hongzhen Du, Zengning Li Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and sterigmatocystin (ST) are very common toxic fungal metabolites with high detection rate and toxicity. The co-existence of many mycotoxins in animal feed has been reported worldwide, thus it is important to evaluate the combined cytotoxic effects among...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:36
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a class of mycotoxin that are mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium and widely found in plant origin food. OTA-contaminated foods can cause serious harm to animals and humans, while high stability of OTA makes it difficult to remove in conventional food processing. Thus, sensitive and rapid detection of OTA undoubtedly plays an important role in OTA prevention and...
Fri, 04/17/2020 - 03:26
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that is of utmost concern in food and feed safety, is produced by fungal species that mainly belong to the Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. The development of mitigation strategies to reduce OTA content along the supply chains is key to ensuring safer production of food and feed. Enzyme-based strategies are among the most promising methods due to their...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): M.L. González Pereyra, A.L. Di Giacomo, A.L. Lara, M.P. Martínez, L. Cavaglieri Zearalenone, an oestogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp., occurs naturally in agricultural commodities. Economic losses and health concerns associated to mycotoxins has attracted research interest towards exploring novel approaches to detoxify mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed. The aim of the...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:37
Here, a reliable and sensitive method for the determination of 38 (modified) mycotoxins was developed. Using a QuEChERS-based extraction method [acetonitrile/water/formic acid (75:20:5, v/v/v)], followed by two runs of high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with different conditions, relevant mycotoxins in cereals were analyzed. The method was validated according to the...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:27
A reliable, sensitive and accurate multiple mycotoxin method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 mycotoxins in swine, poultry and dairy feeds using stable isotope dilution (13C-ISTD) and (ultra)-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A simple QuEChERS-based method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was developed consisting of...
Mon, 04/13/2020 - 03:25
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is produced by fungi present in several agricultural products with much relevance to food safety. Since this mycotoxin is widely found in cereals, beer has a potential contamination risk. Therefore, it was deemed essential to quantify, for the first time, the levels of OTA in beer, a cereal-based product that is marketed in Portugal, as well as to calculate the human estimated...
Sat, 04/11/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Lijun Luo, Xiaohong Liu, Shuai Ma, Libo Li, Tianyan You Zearalenone (ZEN) is highly toxic to humans, and therefore, development of sensitive and effective methods for ZEN quantification in cereal crops is particularly important. Here, an innovative photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor based on simply in-situ conjugated composites of zinc oxide-nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots (ZnO...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:29
Low moisture content ready-to-eat foods vended in Nigerian markets could be pre-packaged or packaged at point of sale. These foods are widely and frequently consumed across Nigeria as quick foods. Despite their importance in the daily diets of Nigerians, a comprehensive study on the diversity of fungi, fungal metabolite production potential, and mycotoxin contamination in the foods has not yet...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:40
In South Africa, child malnutrition is highly prevalent among children from in rural areas mostly at risk. In the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, maize is commonly used as complementary and weaning food. Previous studies conducted in parts of EC have indicated high levels of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins in home-grown maize, as well as the co-occurrence of other Fusarium mycotoxins, such as...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:30
Penicillium expansum is one of the most harmful post-harvest pathogens of pomaceous fruits and the causal agent of blue rot disease. During infection, P. expansum produces the toxic secondary metabolites patulin and citrinin that can impact virulence and, further, render the fruit inedible. Several studies have shown that epigenetic machinery controls synthesis of secondary metabolites in fungi....
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Alexandros Kanapitsas, Anthimia Batrinou, Athanasios Aravantinos, Constantinos Sflomos, Panagiota Markaki Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of great interest to humans for its nephrotoxic effects. The development and validation of an OTA method determination in raisins is described by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Fluorescence Detector (FD). The recovery of the...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Alexandros Kanapitsas, Anthimia Batrinou, Athanasios Aravantinos, Constantinos Sflomos, Panagiota Markaki Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of great interest to humans for its nephrotoxic effects.The development and validation of an OTA method determination in raisins is described by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Fluorescence Detector (FD). The recovery of the...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:32
This study investigated the effects of FF1-2 on the quality of apple puree during the process of patulin degradation. Apple puree artificially contaminated with high-dose patulin (125, 250 and 500μg/mL) was fermented by FF1-2 for 10 days, and over 97% of patulin was degraded in the apple purees after fermentation, and the maximal degradation of patulin was 98.5%. Physicochemical analysis...
Wed, 04/08/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Naveen Kumar Kalagatur, Jalarama Reddy Kamasani, Venkataramana Mudili, Kadirvelu Krishna, Om Prakash Chauhan, Murali Harishchandra Sreepathi In recent times, high pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as one of the promising decontamination techniques in agriculture and food industry. It has minimal impact on taste, nutrients, flavor, and freshness of food. Therefore, HPP is highly...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:58
Author(s): Yanan Gao, Qiaoyan Ye, Xiaoyu Bao, Xin Huang, Jiaqi Wang, Nan Zheng Mycotoxins-contaminated milk could threaten human health; therefore, it is necessary to demonstrate the toxicological effect of mycotoxins in milk. Most recently, researchers have paid more attention to the immunotoxic effects of the individual cereal-contaminating mycotoxins, namely, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol....
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Dilek Aşcı Çelik, Nilgun Gurbuz, Vehbi Atahan Toğay, Nurten Özçelik Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungus. OTA found in the human and animal tissues can contaminate many foods that we daily consume in our lives. It accumulates especially in kidney. Although OTA is known to cause cell cycle arrest, the molecular mechanisms underlying...
Mon, 04/06/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Michał Złoch, Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Justyna Walczak-Skierska, Joanna Rudnicka, Bogusław Buszewski The study investigated the zearalenone (ZEA) neutralization process as a consequence of metabolization and binding process by the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus paracasei using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to...
Fri, 04/03/2020 - 03:27
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed and have a significant negative impact on human and animal health and productivity. The tropical condition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) together with poor storage of feed promotes fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin production. Aflatoxins (AF) produced by Aspergillus species, fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2...
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:29
In this study, triethylene tetramine–modified water‐insoluble corn flour caged in magnetic chitosan resin (TETA‐WICF/MCR) was firstly prepared, which indicates novel aspects for immobilization and chemically modification of mycotoxin adsorbents. The TETA‐WICF/MCR was characterized using zoom stereo microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X‐...
Tue, 03/31/2020 - 03:27
Twenty-two mycotoxins were investigated in bread and biscuits samples (n = 115) purchased from Tunisia. Deoxynivalenol (DON), enniatin B (ENB), ENB1, and zearalenone (ZEA) occurred in the samples with ENB detected in all the samples. Whole bread was the most contaminated matrix showing the highest amounts of DON (25.2 ng/g), ENB (10.7 ng/g), and ENB1 (5.4 ng/g). However, biscuits showed a maximum...
Sat, 03/28/2020 - 03:34
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a common mycotoxin, has attracted great concern as many foodstuffs can suffer from OTA contamination; OTA causes harmful effects on human and animals. Rapid and sensitive detection of OTA is demanded in many fields for agricultural product quality, food safety, and health. Aptamer fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) assays integrate advantages of nucleic acid aptamers...

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