Natural toxins

Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:25
Moldy peanuts may contain aflatoxin, a highly carcinogenic substance that threatens the health of humans and livestock. This study aimed to identify moldy peanuts using hyperspectral measurements and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Peanuts were allowed to develop mold in a simulation of natural process of fungal infection; detailed hyperspectral images of healthy and moldy peanuts were...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:25
Aflatoxins pose significant food security and public health risks, decrease productivity and profitability of animal industries, and hamper trade. To minimize aflatoxin contamination in several crops, a biocontrol technology based on atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is commercially used in the United States and some African countries. Significant efforts are underway to popularize the use...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:25
Deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, major Fusarium mycotoxins, contaminate human food on a global level. Exposure to these mycotoxins during pregnancy can lead to abnormalities in neonatal development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on human placental epithelial cells. As an in vitro model of placental barrier, BeWo cells were...
Thu, 11/14/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Carla Cervini, Carol Verkeecke-Vaessen, Massimo Ferrara, Esther García-Cela, Donato Magistà, Angel Medina, Antonia Gallo, Naresh Magan, Giancarlo PerroneAbstractLittle is known on the impact that climate change (CC) may have on Aspergillus carbonarius and Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes, especially in the Mediterranean region - a hot spot for the impact of CC scenarios with...
Thu, 11/14/2019 - 03:31
Author(s): M. Kashif Saleemi, Kamran Ashraf, S. Tehseen Gul, M. Noman Naseem, M. Sohail Sajid, Mashkoor Mohsin, Cheng He, Muhammad Zubair, Ahrar Khan
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:28
Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was investigated as an alternative to chemical and thermal treatments for reducing aflatoxin (AFT) levels on peanuts. Kernels were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus to produce AFTs. They were then treated using two APPJ treatment regimens; constant exposure (for 1 and 2 min), and pneumatically agitated exposure in a conveyored channel for up to 5 min....
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
An intercollaborative study was organized to evaluate the performance characteristics of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry procedure for the simultaneous determination of 12 mycotoxins in food, which were ochratoxin A, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins B1 and B2, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins. The method combined the simplicity of the QuEChERS (...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:25
Contamination of animal feed with multiple mycotoxins is an ongoing and growing issue, as over 60% of cereal crops worldwide have been shown to be contaminated with mycotoxins. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of commercial feed additives sold with multi-mycotoxin binding claims. Ten feed additives were obtained and categorised into three groups based on their main...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:26
Background Soybean is widely used in food formulations; however, few studies on fungal or mycotoxin contamination have been undertaken. In this regard, the free, conjugated and bound phenolic compounds, as well as their antioxidant and antifungal potential, besides the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in soybeans were evaluated. Results The conjugated and bound phenolic soybean extracts were...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:26
Moulds positively contribute to the development of typical characteristic flavour and aroma of dry-fermented sausages. However, some mould species, such as Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum, may contaminate this product with ochratoxin A (OTA). For this reason, the control of toxigenic moulds is needed. Strategies based on the use of antifungal microorganisms present in the native...
Tue, 11/12/2019 - 03:26
Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives are frequently detected in freshly harvested forage maize. This study assessed the time course effects during ensiling of forage maize on the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins, using laboratory-scale silos and artificially contaminated raw material. A multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was used to determine...
Thu, 11/07/2019 - 03:26
Aflatoxin (AF) contamination of maize is a major concern for food safety. The use of chemical fungicides is controversial, and it is necessary to develop new effective methods to control Aspergillus flavus growth and, therefore, to avoid the presence of AFs in grains. In this work, we tested in vitro the effect of six essential oils (EOs) extracted from aromatic plants. We selected those from...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Ozgur Golge, Bulent KabakAbstractThis report describes concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in cereals and derived products collected in Turkey from 2015 to 2018. A total of 240 cereals and cereal products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and fluorescence (HPLC-FLD) detectors. The analytical method...
Wed, 11/06/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Carla Cervini, Antonia Gallo, Luca Piemontese, Donato Magistà, Antonio F. Logrieco, Massimo Ferrara, Michele Solfrizzo, Giancarlo PerroneAbstractOchratoxin A (OTA) is the primary mycotoxin threat in wine and dried vine fruits. Its presence in grape and wine is strongly related to climatic conditions and the expected climate change could represent a risk of increasing fungal...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:28
Background Magnetic three‐dimensional graphene‐based nanoadsorbents (3DG‐Fe3O4) have unique characteristics such as large surface area, good thermal and chemical stability, and high adsorption capacity that make them efficient materials in sorbent‐based extraction techniques. In this study, four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) were analyzed in bread samples using magnetic three‐dimensional...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:28
The present study was envisaged with an aim to determine the occurrence of antibiotic residues; enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol as well as mycotoxins; aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in 9 districts of Punjab, India. A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and...
Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:27
An automated optical biosensor-based immunoassay exploiting surface plasmon resonance detection for the quantitation of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and milk powders is described. A monoclonal antibody and an immobilized protein–AFM1 conjugate are utilized in a simple inhibition format following aqueous extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up of the sample, thereby avoiding the need for signal...
Mon, 11/04/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Haftom Kebede, Xiumin Liu, Jing Jin, Fuguo XingAbstractMycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi belongs to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium that are capable of contaminating different types of food and feed. Mycotoxins can cause serious health complications to both humans and animals due to the carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and...
Sun, 11/03/2019 - 02:35
Author(s): Shuwen Wang, Rui Niu, Yamei Yang, Yun WangAbstractIn this study, the preparation and application of immunomagnetic chitosan particles for rapid extraction and effective detection of zearalenone (ZEN) in food samples were described. Magnetic particles were synthesized by solvothermal reduction and coating with chitosan to improve their stability and biocompatibility. Further...
Sun, 11/03/2019 - 02:31
Author(s): Sharon Kinyungu, Tom Isakeit, Peter S. Ojiambo, Charles P. WoloshukAbstractMaize is a major staple crop and calorie source for many people living in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this region, Aspergillus flavus causes ear rot in maize, contributing to food insecurity due to aflatoxin contamination. The biological control principle of competitive exclusion has been applied in both the United...
Sun, 11/03/2019 - 02:26
The health burden of foodborne mycotoxins is considerable, but particularly for children due to their lower detoxification capacity, rapid growth and high intake of food in proportion to their weight. Through a Total Dietary Study approach, the objective was to estimate the dietary exposure and health risk caused by mycotoxins for children under 5 years living in the Lao Cai province in northern...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Prerna Agarwal, Darshana Singh, S. Raisuddin, Raj KumarAbstractOchratoxin A (OTA) is known to induce nephro-toxicity via induction of cellular redox homeostasis perturbation, mitochondrial hyperpolarisation and depolarization, protein synthesis inhibition leading to apoptosis. In the present study protective efficacy of N-Acetyl-L-Tryptophan (NAT) against OTA induced toxicity was...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:26
Lactobacillus plantarum, as a natural bio-preservative, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. In this study, 22 L. plantarum strains were tested against the aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus; strain IAMU80070 showed the highest antifungal activity. At a concentration of 5 × 105 colony-forming units (CFU) mL−1, it completely inhibited A. flavus...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Xianli Yang, Zhiyong Zhao, Yanglan Tan, Bo Chen, Changyan Zhou, Aibo WuAbstractThe co-occurrence of food contaminants has caught the public concern worldwide owing to their extensive distribution and the potential risk on human health. In this study, a total of 6471 samples of cereals and cereal-based products was collected from Shanghai between 2008 and 2011. The food contaminants co-...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Julius P. Sserumaga, Alejandro Ortega-Beltran, John M. Wagacha, Charity K. Mutegi, Ranajit BandyopadhyayAbstractMaize is an important staple crop for the majority of the population in Uganda. However, in tropical and subtropical climates, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins, a group of cancer-causing and immuno-suppressive mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus section Flavi...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:26
Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are potentially toxic to pigs. Yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) is known to adsorb mycotoxins and improve gut health in pigs. One hundred and twenty growing (56 kg; experiment 1) and 48 nursery piglets (6 kg; experiment 2) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 35 and 48 days, respectively. Factors were mycotoxins (no...
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:25
Aspergillus welwitschiae is a species of the Nigri section of the genus Aspergillus. In nature, it is usually a saprotroph, decomposing plant material. However, it causes the bole rot disease of Agave sisalana (sisal), a plant species used for the extraction of hard natural fibers, causing great economic loss to this culture. In this study, we isolated and sequenced one genome of A. welwitschiae...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Lan Gao, Lukas Rutz, Dieter SchrenkAbstractContamination of food, feed and herbal medicines with plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) leads to measurable amounts of PA in many products. Since a number of PA are hepatotoxic in humans and animals and hepato-carcinogenic in animal experiments, the assessment of the relative toxic potencies of widely occurring PA contaminants...
Sun, 10/27/2019 - 03:34
In this study, magnetic graphene nanocomposite Fe3O4/rGO was synthesized by facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite was successfully used as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents for the determination of aflatoxins in edible vegetable oils through the π–π stacking interactions. MSPE parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction and...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:49
Author(s): E. Garcia-Cela, F.J. Gari Sanchez, M. Sulyok, C. Verheecke-Vaessen, A. Medina, R. Kruska, N. MaganAbstractAspergillus flavus is the main xerophylic species in stored peanuts often resulting in contamination with aflatoxins (AFs) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). This study evaluated the relationship between storage of shelled peanuts under interacting abiotic conditions on (a) the temporal...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:46
Author(s): Birgitta Maria Kunz, Felicitas Wanko, Sabine Kemmlein, Arnold Bahlmann, Sascha Rohn, Ronald MaulAbstractMycotoxin contamination is a well-known problem in grains, nuts, and oilseeds. Similarly, grain legumes (pulses) are affected by fungal infections and, consequently, the formation of mycotoxins as well. However, only little data on mycotoxin occurrence exists for this commodity and...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:33
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin, which is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera of fungi and commonly contaminates food and feed. We and others have previously shown that OTA causes sustained activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1-2 signaling pathways in different cell types and animal models. Given the close relationship between cellular signaling activity and protein...
Thu, 10/24/2019 - 03:41
Author(s): M. Kashif Saleemi, Kamran Ashraf, S. Tehseen Gul, M. Noman Naseem, M. Sohail Sajid, Mashkoor Mohsin, Cheng He, Muhammad Zubair, Ahrar KhanAbstractMycotoxicosis is the second most important problem faced by the Pakistan poultry industry, after high feed prices. The present experimental study was designed to investigate the toxicopathological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Bruna Dachery, Karolina Cardoso Hernandes, Flávio Fonseca Veras, Luana Schmidt, Paula Rossini Augusti, Vitor Manfroi, Claudia Alcaraz Zini, Juliane Elisa WelkeAbstractAspergillus carbonarius can produce a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin named ochratoxin A (OTA). The metabolism of this fungus can also impact grape and wine quality as it influences the volatile and phenolic profiles,...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:45
Author(s): Najmeh Sheibani Tezerji, Mohammad Mehdi Foroughi, Rasoul Rezaei Bezenjani, Nezhat Jandaghi, Ebrahim Rezaeipour, Forogh RezvaniAbstractIn this paper, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) supported on porous graphene nanohybrid (β-CDPG) was obtained by self-assembly of functionalized graphene nanosheets into a three-dimensional network in the presence of ascorbic acid via an in situ graphene oxide...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:44
Author(s): Monika Coton, Thibaud Bregier, Elisabeth Poirier, Stella Debaets, Nathalie Arnich, Emmanuel Coton, Philippe DantignyAbstractThe ability of three Penicillium expansum isolates to produce patulin was first evaluated in YES medium after incubation at 25 °C to select a high patulin producer. Then, a spore suspension of the selected P. expansum 3.78 strain was inoculated onto the surface of...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:44
Author(s): Annamaria Mincuzzi, Antonio Ippolito, Cinzia Montemurro, Simona Marianna SanzaniAbstractMost of diseases of pomegranate fruit are caused by fungal pathogens, which provoke postharvest yield and economical losses. Aspergillus and Penicillium sensu lato (s.l.) are the main wound pathogens of pomegranate fruit. In the present investigation, the populations of Aspergillus and Penicillium s...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:35
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) exert deleterious effects to human and animal health. In this study, the ability of a CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCotA) to degrade these two mycotoxins was first investigated. Among the nine structurally defined chemical compounds, methyl syringate was the most efficient mediator assisting BsCotA to degrade AFB1 (98.0%) and ZEN (100.0%). BsCotA...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:30
1-Octen-3-ol is one of the most abundant volatile compounds associated with fungi and functions as a germination and growth inhibitor in several species. By investigating its effect on the biosynthesis of patulin, a mycotoxin made by Penicillium expansum, it was found that a sub-inhibitory level of volatile 1-octen-3-ol increased accumulation of patulin on a medium that normally suppresses the...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:30
Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus strains has emerged as one of the practical strategies for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn, peanut, and tree nuts. The actual mechanism that results in aflatoxin reduction is not fully understood. Real-time RT-PCR and relative quantification of gene expression protocol were applied to elucidate...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:30
Degradation of the mycotoxin patulin (PAT) and the generation of (less toxic) breakdown products, such as (E/Z)-ascladiol (ASC-E/Z) and desoxypatulinic acid (D-PAT), can occur due to chemical, physical and biological treatments. Our study focused on the chemical degradation of PAT in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) both for pure PAT standard in acidified aqueous solution and for PAT-...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:30
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites frequently affecting agronomical crops and consequently imposing a major challenge for food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 67 raw cereals (55 maize and 12 sorghum) were collected from the market of Togo. The samples were investigated on the occurrence of 21 mycotoxins using state-of-the-art high-performance liquid chromatography...
Mon, 10/21/2019 - 03:39
Author(s): Zhipeng Huang, Juan He, Huayu Li, Ming Zhang, Huige Wang, Yunxia Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Liqin You, Shusheng ZhangAbstractZearalenone (ZEA) is a fungal contaminant widely found in grains. In cereal samples, trace zearalenone was extracted and enriched using magnetic-surfaced pseudo molecularly imprinted polymers (SPMIPs) and detected. SPMIPs were prepared with Fe3O4 as the magnetic core,...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): Hongyuan Zhou, Jiaman Wang, Liang Ma, Lu Chen, Ting Guo, Yuhao Zhang, Hongjie Dai, Yong YuAbstractAlthough the acute and/or chronic exposure to AFB1 has been widely investigated, the study on the toxic effects resulted from the subchronic exposure of AFB1 which is more close to the real scenario in view of the regional and seasonal characters of aflatoxin-producing strains is still...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:32
Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the common mycotoxins with quite high occurrence rate and is harmful to animal and human health. Lactobacillus reuteri is known as a probiotic bacterium with active immune stimulating and high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we expressed the lactonohydrolase from Rhinocladiella mackenziei CBS 650.93 (RmZHD) in L. reuteri via...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:32
Aflatoxin contamination is a serious food safety and economic concern for the agriculture and processing industry throughout the world. Aflatoxins are the most potent carcinogens; therefore, an early detection of aflatoxin‐producing fungi is essential for ensuring food safety. In the present work, a rapid and sensitive PCR method for the detection of potential aflatoxin‐producing molds in...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:32
This work studied the ability of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus natto to degrade zearalenone (ZEN) and analyzed the amounts of ZEN in cell residues. The effect of different processing conditions on the degradation capacity of the bacteria was then analyzed. Finally, B. subtilis and B. natto were applied to food. The results showed that at 48 hr, the degradation rates of the two taxa were 100% and...

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