Natural toxins

Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:28
Clays are known to have promising adsorbing characteristics, and are used as feed additives to overcome the negative effects of mycotoxicosis in livestock farming. Modification of clay minerals by heat treatment, also called calcination, can alter their adsorption characteristics. Little information, however, is available on the effect of calcination with respect to mycotoxin binding. The purpose...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:29
Aspergillus carbonarius is a saprobic filamentous fungus, food spoiling fungus and a producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of neem oil (0.12% p/p of azadirachtin) was evaluated against the growth of six strains of A. carbonarius and the production of OTA. Four different concentrations of neem oil were tested in addition to three incubation times...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:29
Mycotoxin removers include enzymes and adsorbents that may be used in animal feeds to eliminate the toxic effects of mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the removability of two different types of mycotoxin removers, adsorbents and enzyme degradation reagents (EDRs), in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of pigs and poultry. Seven commercial mycotoxin removers, including five EDRs and...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:42
Author(s): Xin Wang, Hao Yu, Hengtong Fang, Yun Zhao, Yongcheng Jin, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou, Yurong Fu, Junmei Wang, Jing ZhangAbstractMounting evidence has shown that zearalenone (ZEA) can have toxic effects on the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of mammals and humans, but the mechanism of ZEA-induced toxicity on IECs is unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:37
Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) is a pathogenic fungus that produces carcinogenic aflatoxins, posing a great threat to crops, animals and humans. Lysine acetylation is one of the most important reversible post‐translational modifications, and plays a vital regulatory role in various cellular processes. However, current information on the extent and function of lysine acetylation and aflatoxin...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:34
Aflatoxins (AFs) as potent food contaminants are highly detrimental to human and animal health. The production of such biological toxins is influenced by environmental factors including pollutants, such as dioxins. Here, we report the biological feedback of an active AF-producer strain of A. flavus upon in vitro exposure to the most toxic congener of dioxins, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): M.P. Martínez, A.P. Magnoli, M.L. González Pereyra, L. CavaglieriAbstractThe presence of contaminants such as aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy products constitutes a serious risk to the health of consumers, especially children who are most sensitive to the adverse effects of AFs. The presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem since dairy products are massively consumed...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:30
Doenjang, a Korean fermented soybean paste, is vulnerable to contamination by mycotoxins because it is directly exposed to environmental microbiota during fermentation. A method that simultaneously determines 20 mycotoxins in doenjang, including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisins (FBs) with an immunoaffinity column cleanup was optimized and validated in...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:29
Although provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and recommended guidelines have been established for fumonisins (FB) in food, few data are available concerning levels of FB in edible animal tissues. Such data are of particular interest in avian species that can tolerate relatively high levels of fumonisins in their feed. Also, even if multiple contamination of animal feed by toxins produced...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:31
This study was aimed to develop a rapid technique for detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by Photobacterium leiognathi (P. leiognathi) based on its inhibition of luminescence on P. leiognathi. The freeze‐dried powder of P. leiognathi was incubated and grown aerobically in sterile liquid medium at 28℃ for 20 h. Optical cell density (OD) at wavelength of 610 nm was measured using UV spectrometer every...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:29
The purpose of this review is to present information about the role of activation of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins, of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Aflatoxins and other mycotoxins are a diverse group of secondary metabolites that can be contaminants in a broad range of agricultural products and feeds. Some species of Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicilium, and Fusarium are major...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:29
Sample clean-up remains the most time-consuming and error-prone step in the whole analytical procedure for aflatoxins (AFTs) analysis. Herein, an automated and high-throughput sample clean-up platform was developed with a disposable, cost-effective immunoaffinity magnetic bead-based kit. Under optimized conditions, the automated method takes less than 30 min to simultaneously purify 20 samples...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:29
Ciguatera is the term for poisoning resulting from eating fish from tropical or subtropical regions. The causative toxins collectively named ciguatoxins (CTXs) widely differ in structures depending on their geographic origins, which range from the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by the ingestion of bivalve shellfish...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:32
A kind of molecularly imprinted polymers modified with biocompatible medium were prepared by suspension polymerization. The obtained hybrid materials were used as the adsorbents for the solid‐phase extraction of aflatoxins B1 in real samples. A structural analog of the target, 6‐methyl‐4‐phenylchroman‐2‐one was used as the pseudo‐template, owing to their lower toxicity and cheaper price compared...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Bingyong Lin, Palanisamy Kannan, Bin Qiu, Zhenyu Lin, Longhua GuoAbstractSimple, rapid, convenient, and economical surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is developed for on-site evaluation of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in food matrix using handheld Raman Spectrometer. Self-assembly of gold nanobipyramids (Au NBPs) into the nanoholes of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template/pattern...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Xue Wang, Liping Jiang, Limin Shi, Kun Yao, Xiance Sun, Guang Yang, Lijie Jiang, Cong Zhang, Ningning Wang, Hongying Zhang, Yan Wang, Xiaofang LiuAbstractZearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins widely found in food and feed, can stimulate an inflammatory reaction. In the present study, we demonstrated that ZEA induced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome even pyroptotic cell death in...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Ina Geburek, Angelika Preiss-Weigert, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Dieter Schrenk, Anja TheseAbstractPyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) forming plants are found worldwide and may contaminate food products at levels being of concern for human health. Due to the high biodiversity of PA producing plants many different types of PA structures are formed. PAs themselves are not toxic but require...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:29
Aflatoxins produced by the Aspergillus species are highly toxic, carcinogenic, and cause severe contamination to food sources, leading to serious health consequences. Contaminations by aflatoxins have been reported in food and feed, such as groundnuts, millet, sesame seeds, maize, wheat, rice, fig, spices and cocoa due to fungal infection during pre- and post-harvest conditions. Besides these...
Sat, 10/05/2019 - 03:28
Forages are important components of dairy cattle rations but might harbor a plethora of mycotoxins. Ruminants are considered to be less susceptible to the adverse health effects of mycotoxins, mainly because the ruminal microflora degrades certain mycotoxins. Yet, impairment of the ruminal degradation capacity or high ruminal stability of toxins can entail that the intestinal epithelium is...
Fri, 10/04/2019 - 03:33
Inhibitory activity of caraway and juniper essential oils was tested against two aflatoxigenic strains (Aspergillus flavus—four isolates and Aspergillus parasiticus—one isolate) using the method of agar plates. A. flavus IKBT and A. flavus IKB isolated from corn flour, A. flavus IKT isolated from peanuts, and A. flavus IKK isolated from flint corn. A. parasiticus CBS 260.67 was obtained from the...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:39
Author(s): Hema Bhardwaj, Gajjala Sumana, Christophe A. MarquetteAbstractThe Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) based label-free detection of small targeted molecules is a great challenge and require substantial signal amplification for the accurate and precise quantification. The incorporation of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) like gold (Au) NPs for the fabrication of SPR biosensor has shown...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:39
Author(s): Chuan-Guo Ma, Ying-Dan Wang, Wei-Feng Huang, Jun Liu, Xiao-Wei ChenAbstractZearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed harmful mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, especially deposited in corn oil. In this study, we systematically tracked the changes of ZEN in the refining of corn oil, and especially during neutralization process. An alkali neutralization process could...
Thu, 10/03/2019 - 03:30
The manifestation of aflatoxins in feed and food is a major issue in the world as its presence leads to some health problems. This study investigates the incidence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in raw milk samples which were collected from Punjab, Pakistan. The Cluster Random Sampling technique was used to collect 960 milk samples from five different regions, and samples were collected...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:31
Two garlic-derived compounds, Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate (PTS) and Propyl Propane Thiosulfinate (PTSO), were examined for their efficacy against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. verticillioides). The objectives were to assess the inhibitory effect of these compounds on growth and mycotoxin production in vitro, and in situ in artificially inoculated wheat, oats...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:31
Peanuts are widely consumed in many local dishes in southeast Asian countries, especially in Malaysia which is one of the major peanut-importing countries in this region. Therefore, Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts during storage are becoming major concerns due to the tropical weather in this region that favours the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. The present study thus...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a well-known, natural contaminant in foods and feeds because of its toxic effects, such as nephrotoxicity in various animals. Recent studies have revealed that Alcaligenes faecalis could generate enzymes to efficiently degrade OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα) in vitro. In an effort to obtain the OTA degrading mechanism, we purified and identified a novel...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Ruminants are less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as their rumen microbiota are claimed to degrade and/or deactivate at least some of these toxic compounds. However, the mycotoxin degradation is not well-known yet. For this, a sensitive, specific, and accurate analytical method is needed to determine mycotoxins in the rumen fluid. This study aims to develop and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Ultrasound is an emerging decontamination technology with potential use in the global food processing industry. In the present study, we explored power ultrasound for processing aqueous aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 was degraded by 85.1% after 80 min of ultrasound exposure. The reaction products of AFB1 were identified and their molecular formulae elucidated by ultra-high-performance liquid...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
“Ciguatera” fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the well-known food poisoning caused by the ingestion of fish that have accumulated trace amounts of ciguatoxins (CTXs). CFP affects more than 50,000 individuals annually. The difficulty in preventing CFP comes from the lack of reliable methods for analysis of CTXs in contaminated fish, together with the normal appearance, taste, and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Feed samples are frequently contaminated by a wide range of chemically diverse natural products, which can be determined using highly sensitive analytical techniques. Next to already well-investigated mycotoxins, unknown or unregulated fungal secondary metabolites have also been found, some of which at significant concentrations. In our study, 1141 pig feed samples were analyzed for more than 800...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential protective mechanism of astaxanthin (ASTA) against oxidative damage and inflammation caused by ochratoxin (OTA) in mouse lung. We divided mice into a control group (CG), an OTA group (PG), an astaxanthin group (AG), and an OTA+ASTA group (JG). Oxidative indices (malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and reduced...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Rice grains can be attacked by a range of pathogens, including Aspergillus species, which can cause the accumulation of aflatoxins and represent a serious threat to the consumers. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species and naturally occur in various foodstuffs. In this study, we sought to analyze the prevalence of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. in rice...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Dried blood spots (DBSs), a micro-sampling technique whereby a drop of blood is collected on filter paper has multiple advantages over conventional blood sampling regarding the sampling itself, as well as transportation and storage. This is the first paper describing the development and validation of a method for the determination of 23 mycotoxins and phase I metabolites in DBSs from pigs and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that can contaminate human food and animal feed. Due to the harmful effects of FBs on animals, the European Union (EU) defined a recommendation of a maximum of 5 mg FBs (B1 + B2)/kg for complete feed for swine and 1 µg FBs/kg body weight per day as the tolerable daily intake for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
In this work, we report an on-chip aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA) toxin detection that is based on a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET). Graphene-based devices are fabricated via large-scale technology, allowing for upscaling the sensor fabrication and lowering the device cost. The sensor assembly was performed through covalent bonding of graphene’s surface with an aptamer...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
A novel polyclonal antibody against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was raised using its haptenic antigen, where 4,9-anhydroTTX was reacted with 1,2-ethanedithiol and this derivative was further reacted with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). This newly designed antigen (KLH-TTX) was inoculated into rabbits, resulting in the production of the specific polyclonal antibody, which reacted well with TTX and its...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Bovine mycotoxicosis is a disorder caused by the ingestion of fungal toxins. It is associated with chronic signs, such as reduced growth rate and milk yield, and causes significant economic cost to the dairy industry. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are commonly found in grain fed to cattle. Patulin (PA) is a common grass silage contaminant but is...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues produced by toxic dinoflagellates accumulate in bivalves, and routine monitoring of bivalves is important to prevent cases of human poisoning. In this study, we describe a rapid detection method for the analysis of STXs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with post-column fluorescent detection and to investigate water depths and sampling points optimal...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:29
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species and commonly occurring in corn and other cereals. Even though its acute toxicity is low, still the estrogenic activity of ZEN and metabolites is a matter of concern. In this work, a new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mMIP) for the selective extraction of ZEN from cereal flours is presented. The...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
In this study, the new approach of dispersive micro-solid phase extraction using a magnetic sheet was developed. A circle magnetic sheet (diameter, 25 mm; thickness, 0.4 mm) was perforated and used as a support for fixing and re-collecting three-dimensional magnetic graphene nanoparticles as an adsorbent. The method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Insects are considered a suitable alternative feed for livestock production and their use is nowadays regulated in the European Union by the European Commission Regulation No. 893/2017. Insects have the ability to grow on a different spectrum of substrates, which could be naturally contaminated by mycotoxins. In the present work, the mycotoxin uptake and/or excretion in two different insect...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Ochratoxin A is best known as a potent renal carcinogen in male rats and mice after necessarily protracted ingestion, although valid extrapolation to any human disease has not been verified. The hypothesis that the toxin is a cause of human testicular cancer was proposed a decade ago and has proliferated since, partly through incomplete study of the scientific literature. Archived tumorous rat...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Zearalenone (ZEN)-degrading enzymes are a promising strategy to counteract the negative effects of this mycotoxin in livestock. The reaction products of such enzymes need to be thoroughly characterized before technological application as a feed additive can be envisaged. Here, we evaluated the estrogenic activity of the metabolites hydrolyzed zearalenone (HZEN) and decarboxylated hydrolyzed...

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