Natural toxins

Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:22
In order to remove zearalenone (ZEA) detriment—Bacillus subtilis, Candida utilis, and cell-free extracts from Aspergillus oryzae were used to degrade ZEA in this study. The orthogonal experiment in vitro showed that the ZEA degradation rate was 92.27% (p < 0.05) under the conditions that Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis SP1, and Bacillus subtilis SP2 were mixed together at 0.5...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Shruti Shukla, Jung Hyun Park, Myunghee KimAbstractIn this study, environment-friendly cost-effective, non-toxic, and reusable strategy was developed using Bacillus subtilis (a GRAS-grade bacterium, isolated from the Korean traditional food, Kimchi) immobilized in edible alginate bead composite for the reduction of ochratoxin A (OTA) toxin from red wine. Initially, B. subtilis-...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:23
Aims To study the antimicrobial agents of the Bacillus velezensis strain HC6 and assess the application potential of Bacillus velezensis HC6 in maize. Methods and Results We applied a dual culture technique to test the antimicrobial activity of B. velezensis HC6 against bacteria and fungi of common contaminated crops. B. velezensis HC6 showed antagonistic action on pathogenic fungi, including...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:21
Enzymatic treatment is an attractive method for mycotoxin detoxification, which ideally prefers the use of one or a few enzymes. However, this is challenged by the diverse structures and co-contamination of multiple mycotoxins in food and feed. Lignin-degrading fungi have been discovered to detoxify organics including mycotoxins. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is a major enzyme responsible for lignin...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:21
The calcineurin pathway is an important signaling cascade for growth, sexual development, stress response, and pathogenicity in fungi. In this study, we investigated the function of CrzA, a key transcription factor of the calcineurin pathway, in an aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). To examine the role of the crzA gene, crzA deletion mutant strains in A. flavus were...
Fri, 09/27/2019 - 03:18
In warm agricultural areas across the globe, maize, groundnut, and other crops become frequently contaminated with aflatoxins produced primarily by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Crop contamination with those highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds impacts both human and animal health, as well as the income of farmers and trade. In Nigeria, poultry productivity is hindered by high prevalence of...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:26
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that not only binds to estrogen receptors, but also interacts with steroidogenic enzymes and acts as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low doses, minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL), no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and lowest-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), of ZEN administered orally for 42 days...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:33
The effects of visual cues on familiarity, expected heat intensity, liking of appearance, emotional and wellness responses, and purchase intent (PI) before and after disclosing information associated with red chili powders were determined using a 3‐point scale, a 15‐cm line scale, a 9‐point hedonic scale, a 15‐cm line scale, and a binomial scale, respectively. In this study, consumers only...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Shana L. Geffeney, Becky L. Williams, Joshua J.C. Rosenthal, Matthew A. Birk, Justin Felkins, Christine M. Wisell, Eveningstar R. Curry, Charles T. HanifinAbstractThe natural history and pharmacology of tetrodotoxin (TTX) has long intrigued biologists. This toxin has a remarkable distribution that spans two domains of life (Bacteria and Eukarya). Within Eukaryotes, TTX has only been...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:22
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of dietary modified palygorskite (Pal) supplementation on broiler chickens fed a purified zearalenone (ZEN)-contaminated diet. A total of 144 1-day-old male chicks were allocated to one of the 3 treatments, with each treatment being composed of 6 replicates of 8 birds each. The birds were fed with a control diet (Control group...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Ranjana Kumari, Pavuluri Srinivasa RaoAbstractThe present study was undertaken to investigate the fungal load and community composition on milled rice stored in the form of paddy in bamboo reinforced concrete (BRC) silo for 12 months. The storage period was divided into Phase 1 and 2, corresponding to the first and last six months of storage, respectively. Ten...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): Mamoutou Diarra, Robert S. AmoahAbstractControlling invasive pests and aflatoxin production by moulds in stored grains is a global challenge to food security and public health, particularly in Africa. Food storage systems are designed to provide constraints to spoilage organisms by presenting mechanical barrier or unfavourable atmospheric conditions to their growth and productivity....
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:28
Author(s): N. Manu, E.A. Osekre, G.P. Opit, F.H. Arthur, G. Mbata, P. Armstrong, J.K. Danso, S.G. McNeill, J. CampbellAbstractMaize production in Ghana has been increasing steadily but increases in yield are being undermined by post-harvest losses. This study is part of a larger project to characterize post-harvest losses in Ghana at different points in distribution channels. Here we determined...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:27
Mycotoxins originate from fungal contamination of barley (and other cereals) and can be found at low levels in beer. Filtration is an effective way to remove mycotoxins. This work – at a laboratory scale – assesses the effectiveness of a commercial filter aid in the removal of mycotoxins in beer. Kieselguhr (Celite 577) and rice hull ash (Pattern II type), an emerging alternative filter aid to DE...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:25
Fungal contamination of food and animal feed, especially by mycotoxigenic fungi, is not only a global food quality concern for food manufacturers, but it also poses serious health concerns because of the production of a variety of mycotoxins, some of which present considerable food safety challenges. In today's mega‐scale food and feed productions, which involve a number of processing steps and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:25
Fungal mycotoxins are important contaminants of agricultural commodities that pose serious concerns to producers, consumers and exporters. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These fungi and other mould species living in the soil contaminate several crops including maize. This study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i)...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:24
The present study was to determine the time‐dependent alterations in growth performance, histomorphology, digestive enzymes activities and the genes expression related to target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway involved in hepatopancreas and intestine of Litopenaeus vannamei at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) challenge. The results manifested that AFB1 could induce a...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is a major pollutant in moldy peanuts, and it has a large influence on the taste of food. The secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), are highly toxic and can expose humans to high risk. The total mold count (TMC) is an important index to determine the contamination degree and hygiene quality of peanut....
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The Czech Republic occupies the first place in the world in the frequency of renal and other urinary tract tumours, but their aetiology is unknown. To explore whether carcinogenic and nephrotoxic mycotoxins may contribute to kidney diseases in the Czech population, biomarkers of ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) exposure were determined in biological specimens from a cohort of 50 patients...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Aquaculture has been a growing sector of food production worldwide in the last decades, and now starts to include new, unconventional species from the Phylum Echinodermata, such as sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and sea cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa). However, little is known in this context with regard to food safety aspects arising from toxigenic fungi. In this study, samples of feed (n = 7...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
The ability of several chelating mycotoxins to form coordination complexes with the lanthanide metals europium and terbium was explored. The mycotoxins examined included ochratoxin A, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), kojic acid, and tenuazonic acid (TeA). Of these compounds, TeA and CPA resulted in the greatest luminescence. Parameters influencing luminescence of TeA were investigated further...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Canadian oat harvest samples, deliveries to processors, and train shipments from primary elevators were collected from mid-2014 through mid-2017 and analyzed for 26 mycotoxins and the fungal biomarker ergosterol. Of the 26 mycotoxins, 7 were not detected in any sample. The most frequently measured mycotoxins were beauvericin (in over 95% of samples analyzed), followed by tentoxin, culmorin,...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Essential oils (EOs) are products of plant origin and include mixtures of different chemical compounds. These volatile substances have many interesting properties, including antifungal properties. Fungi may develop under field conditions on crops such as wheat or corn and are able to synthesize mycotoxins, which adversely affect livestock and human health. In the present study, selected EOs were...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): M. Rodríguez-Blanco, A.J. Ramos, V. Sanchis, S. MarínAbstractSilages constitute a major component of the feed ration for dairy cows, being a potential source of mycotoxins due to the possible contamination by filamentous fungi capable of producing these toxic compounds. In this study, samples of different kinds of silages collected from farms located in four regions of Spain, were...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Mohamed Hamdi, Hend Bejaoui, Jorge Sá-Morais, Paula RodriguesAbstractOlives and their derivatives, in particular olive oil, represent one of the most significant agricultural products in the Mediterranean basin. Storage under inadequate conditions poses serious problems concerning fungal contamination, with consequent defects and potential mycotoxin production in olives and olive oils...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Manal O. Abuagela, Basheer M. Iqdiam, Hussein Mostafa, Sara M. Marshall, Yavuz Yagiz, Maurice R. Marshall, Liwei Gu, Paul SarnoskiAbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the combination of citric acid (CA) and pulsed light (PL) treatments on B-aflatoxins inactivation and the treatment’s effects on the physicochemical properties of peanuts. AFT (B1 and B2) levels in peanuts after PL...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Yuanyuan Hui, Bini Wang, Rong Ren, Aiqing Zhao, Fuxin Zhang, Shuanghong Song, Yaping HeAbstractIt is very essential and meaningful for detection and quantitation of aflatoxin in food and agricultural commodities to establish a rapid and accurate detection method. Herein, a novel electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive and selective detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was successfully...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Carolina Fernanda Sengling Cebin Coppa, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Paula Alvito, Ricardo Assunção, Carla Martins, Ismail Eş, Bruna Leonel Gonçalves, Diane Valganon de Neeff, Anderson S. Sant'Ana, Carlos Humberto Corassin, Carlos Augusto Fernandes OliveiraAbstractBackgroundBreast milk is considered an essential food segment for children up to 6 months; however, it can be contaminated with...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): M.P. Thanushree, D. Sailendri, K.S. Yoha, J.A. Moses, C. AnandharamakrishnanAbstractBackgroundAmong several food and agricultural commodities, spices are valued for their characteristic flavor. They may also impart color and improve the overall keeping quality of the food. Apart from being used in various indigenous recipes and cuisines, spice and spice extracts are used in traditional...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:31
Author(s): Daniela Eliza Marin, Cornelia Braicu, Gabi Dumitrescu, Gina C. Pistol, Roxana Cojocneanu, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Ionelia TaranuAbstractOTA is a toxic metabolite produced by fungus belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Kidney is the main target of this toxin; OTA is considered as one of the etiological factors at the origin of the human Balkan endemic nephropathy. microRNA...
Fri, 09/20/2019 - 01:03
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Author(s): P. Dhanamjayulu, Ramesh Babu Boga, Alka MehtaAbstractAflatoxins are mutagenic secondary metabolites produced by certain ubiquitous saprophytic fungi. These contaminate agricultural crops and pose a serious health threat to humans and livestock all over the world. Benzimidazole and its derivatives are biologically active...
Thu, 09/19/2019 - 14:29
Publication date: March 2020 , Volume 109Author(s): Belal J. Muhialdin, Hussein L. Algboory, Hana Kadum, Nameer K. Mohammed, Nazamid Saari, Zaiton Hassan, Anis Shobirin Meor HussinAbstractAspergillus flavus is a toxigenic fungus well known for the synthesis of aflatoxins that contaminate crops and food products. Antifungal peptides generated by lactic acid bacteria have a high potential for...
Thu, 09/19/2019 - 14:29
Publication date: January 2020 , Volume 159Author(s): Qifang Wu, Huirong XuAbstractThe on-line detection for aflatoxins contaminated agricultural products using fluorescence spectroscopy method is still a significant challenge due to its weak signal intensity and limitation of detection mode. Thus, the study for real-time aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated pistachios detection by a self-built laser...
Thu, 09/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 548: Fumonisins at Doses below EU Regulatory Limits Induce Histological Alterations in Piglets Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090548 Authors: Terciolo Bracarense Souto Cossalter Dopavogui Loiseau Oliveira Pinton Oswald Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that can contaminate human food and animal feed. Due to the...
Thu, 09/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 544: Towards Managing and Controlling Aflatoxin Producers Within Aspergillus Species in Infested Rice Grains Collected from Local Markets in Kenya Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090544 Authors: Youmma Douksouna Joel Masanga Andrew Nyerere Steven Runo Zachée Ambang Rice grains can be attacked by a range of pathogens, including Aspergillus species, which can...
Wed, 09/18/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 541: Assessment of Dried Blood Spots for Multi-Mycotoxin Biomarker Analysis in Pigs and Broiler Chickens Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090541 Authors: Marianne Lauwers Siska Croubels Siegrid De Baere Milena Sevastiyanova Eva Maria Romera Sierra Ben Letor Christos Gougoulias Mathias Devreese Dried blood spots (DBSs), a micro-sampling technique whereby a...
Mon, 09/16/2019 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Author(s): Ayman A. Hassan, Salma H. Abu Hafsa, Mona M.M.Y. Elghandour, Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Jose Cedillo Monroy, Abdelfattah Z.M. SalemAbstractEighty-four male New Zealand White rabbits with average body weight 778 ± 65 g were blocked into four groups to evaluate the ability of sodium bentonite and coumarin in alleviating the...
Sat, 09/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 537: Twenty-Eight Fungal Secondary Metabolites Detected in Pig Feed Samples: Their Occurrence, Relevance and Cytotoxic Effects In Vitro Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090537 Authors: Barbara Novak Valentina Rainer Michael Sulyok Dietmar Haltrich Gerd Schatzmayr Elisabeth Mayer Feed samples are frequently contaminated by a wide range of chemically diverse...
Fri, 09/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 533: Rationally Designed Synthetic Haptens to Generate Anti-Ciguatoxin Monoclonal Antibodies, and Development of a Practical Sandwich ELISA to Detect Ciguatoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090533 Authors: Takeshi Tsumuraya Masahiro Hirama “Ciguatera” fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the well-known food poisoning caused by the ingestion...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 532: Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090532 Authors: Nathan Meijer Geert Stoopen H.J. van der Fels-Klerx Joop J.A. van Loon John Carney Guido Bosch The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 526: Structures of Reaction Products and Degradation Pathways of Aflatoxin B1 by Ultrasound Treatment Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090526 Authors: Yuanfang Liu Mengmeng Li Yuanxiao Liu Ke Bian Ultrasound is an emerging decontamination technology with potential use in the global food processing industry. In the present study, we explored power ultrasound for...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 01:05
LWT
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: LWTAuthor(s): Sana Meftah, Salwa Abid, Teresa Dias, Paula RodriguesAbstractProcessed meat products are of worldwide importance, but they are highly prone to fungal and ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. In previous studies, several Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and yeasts have been tested as biocontrol agents against P. nordicum growth and...

Pages