Parasites

Fri, 03/05/2021 - 22:10
Zoonoses and Public Health, EarlyView.
Tue, 03/02/2021 - 02:03
Cryptosporidium is an important intestinal protozoan parasite that causes diarrhoea in humans and animals. To rapidly and specifically detect Cryptosporidium spp., we designed a pair of primers based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium spp. to be used in a new nanoparticle-assisted PCR (nano-PCR) assay. The minimum detectable concentration (1.02 pg) of this nano-...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 10:03
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common diarrheal infections in humans. Evolutionary relationships among G. duodenalis genotypes (or subtypes) of assemblage B, one of two genetic assemblages causing the majority of human infections, remain unclear due to poor phylogenetic resolution of current typing methods. In...
Mon, 02/22/2021 - 16:00
The small intestinal epithelium is the primary route of infection for many protozoan parasites. Understanding the mechanisms of infection, however, has been hindered due to the lack of appropriate models that recapitulate the complexity of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we describe an in vitro platform using stem cell-derived intestinal organoids established for four species that are important...
Sat, 02/20/2021 - 06:21
Author(s): Wei Cong, Man-Yao Li, Yang Zou, Jun-Yang Ma, Bo Wang, Zhao-Yang Jiang, Hany M. Elsheikha We conducted a large-scale epidemiological investigation to detect the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in four marine bivalve shellfish species collected from six representative coastal regions of Weihai, eastern China. Between January 2018 and December 2018, 14,535 marine bivalve shellfish pooled...
Fri, 02/05/2021 - 04:02
Giardiasis is a neglected parasitic diarrheal disease that is particularly associated with poverty. Current treatment options are limited in the face of growing resistance, but the reduced kinome of Giardia lamblia increases the likelihood of identifying nonredundant essential kinases as potential drug targets. Repurposing known and newly identified kinase inhibitors in drug development programs...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 02:04
Giardia comprises one genus with several morphologically distinct species described in mammals (including humans, marsupials, rodents), birds, and amphibians. This group of protists provokes diarrhoea diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Transmission of the parasite occurs through the faecal-oral route. Regarding the presence of Giardia in invertebrates, some works have shown that flies can...
Thu, 01/28/2021 - 02:03
Neospora caninum is a protozoan that can cause reproductive problems in several animal species. Although N. caninum infection has been reported in swine, the pathogenesis and clinical signs are not fully known in this species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of experimental infection with tachyzoites of the N. caninum strain Nc1 in swine matrices at different stages of...
Sat, 01/23/2021 - 06:17
Author(s): Surabhi Rani, Abani K. Pradhan Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It has been reported as the fourth leading cause of hospitalization and second leading cause of death among 31 major foodborne pathogens in the United States. Humans are infected through consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue cysts or ingestion...
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Carlos Alonso Flores, Juan Jimenez, Luis A. Gomez-Puerta, Claudia Palacios, Seth E. O'Neal, Claudio Muro, Armando E. Gonzalez, Robert H. Gilman, Maritza Calderón Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide, with undercooked meat as the main source of human transmission. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of T. gondii in free-range pigs from two adjacent...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:03
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic protozoan that infects most species of mammals and birds, including poultry. This study aimed to investigate the course of T. gondii infection and the efficacy of diclazuril and Artemisia annua in preventing infection in experimentally infected chickens. Seventy-five 1-month-old chickens, female and male, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 02:03
This study aimed to genetically characterize Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from free-range chickens reared in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to evaluate the morbidity and histological changes associated with these isolates in mice. A mouse bioassay was used to isolate T. gondii from a pool of tissue samples (brain, heart, and thigh muscles) collected...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 22:14
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major zoonotic pathogen responsible for outbreaks of severe diarrhea in humans and calves. Almost all investigations of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks caused by C. parvum have focused on its IIa subtype family in industrialized nations. From December 2018 to April 2019, approximately 200 neonatal calves on a large cattle farm in Hebei Province, China were diagnosed with...
Thu, 12/24/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): S. Almeria, Angela Assurian, Alicia Shipley Although multiple outbreak clusters of Cyclospora cayetanensis have been traced back to consumption of dishes in Mexican-style restaurants, the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) does not currently provide methods to detect C. cayetanensis in dishes that contain multiple produce ingredients, such as salsas and guacamole. These...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 16:00
Giardia lamblia is an important causative agent of persistent diarrhea in humans, domestic animals, and cattle. Basic research is usually performed with the strain WBC6 and includes genetic manipulations such as transfections. Here, we investigate how transfection with a plasmid causing stable expression of a foreign gene affects the whole proteome pattern. Using shotgun mass spectrometry, we...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 12:00
Background Horizontal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii occurs primarily via ingestion of environmental oocysts or consumption of undercooked/raw meat containing cyst-stage bradyzoites. The relative importance of these 2 transmission routes remains unclear. Oocyst infection can be distinguished from bradyzoite infection by identification of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against T. gondii...
Sat, 12/12/2020 - 08:01
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution that infects birds and mammals, including humans. The consumption of free-range chicken meat is a common practice in many parts of the world. However, little information is available concerning the molecular prevalence and genotypes of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens intended for human consumption in China. In this study, a...
Fri, 12/11/2020 - 08:01
The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidium parvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk...
Thu, 12/10/2020 - 22:07
Aims The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii with or without metronidazole in experimental giardiasis. Methods and results The effect of treatment with S. boulardii with or without metronidazole on the intestinal mucosa, the antioxidant defence system and the parasitic load was determined in experimental giardiasis. Eight...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii secretes a number of virulence-related effector proteins, such as the rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18). To further broaden our understanding of the molecular functions of ROP18, we examined the transcriptional response of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) to ROP18 of type I T. gondii RH strain. Using RNA-sequencing, we compared the transcriptome of ROP18-expressing HEK293T cells...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 16:00
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal protozoa responsible for diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Feces from infected hosts, water and food contaminated by Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts as well as predictors such as poverty have been involved in their transmission. Myanmar is one of the world’s most impoverished countries. To date, there...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease affecting human, livestock and cat. Prophylactic strategies would be ideal to prevent infection. In a One Health vaccination approach, the objectives would be the prevention of congenital disease in both women and livestock, prevention/reduction of T. gondii tissue cysts in food-producing animals; and oocyst shedding in cats. Over the last few years, an...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:17
Cryptosporidium is a common enteric parasite that primarily affects those immunocompromised susceptible individuals and newborns. Detailed investigations have revealed that Cryptosporidium (C.) oocysts contain dsRNA segments which are recently classified under the Partitiviridae family. The relationship between parasite and virus whether or not affect the clinical outcomes of newborn calf...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 08:02
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed protozoan that mainly causes health issues in the fetuses of pregnant women who have never been exposed to this parasite and patients with deficient immune systems. Except in these vulnerable populations, the primary infection generally goes unnoticed in most healthy individuals. Apart from transplant/transfusion, congenital transmission, direct contact...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:18
Toxoplasma gondii may cause fatal infection in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus). However, the role of this parasite in terms of mortality rate in tularemia endemic areas, amount of parasites in affected organs and circulating genotypes, are still unknown. In total, 36 hares (killed or found dead) were submitted for pathomorphological examination as a part of the national tularemia and...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan parasite that causes foodborne and waterborne diarrheal illness outbreaks worldwide. Most of these outbreaks are associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Sensitive and specific methods to detect C. cayetanensis in agricultural water are needed to identify the parasite in agricultural water used to irrigate crops that have been implicated in...
Mon, 11/09/2020 - 22:22
The objective of this systematic review and meta‐analysis was to summarize the available knowledge on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe. A computerized literature search of electronic databases (PubMed and CAB abstracts) was performed along with hand searches of library resources for relevant papers, books, abstracts and...
Sat, 11/07/2020 - 22:15
This study focuses on foodborne outbreaks of microbial infection associated with fresh produce in Europe and North America from this millennium. A total of 277 outbreaks with 44,524 individual cases were identified. Foodborne pathogens associated with the most outbreak frequency include Cryptosporidium (20.5%) in Europe and Salmonella (52.2%) in North America although Norovirus (54.3%) and...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 06:32
Author(s): Mercedes Gomez-Samblas, Susana Vilchez, Rocío Ortega-Velázquez, Màrius V. Fuentes, Antonio Osuna Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in humans has usually been related to the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Our study is based on the detection of T. gondii in cured legs and shoulders made from 100% Iberian sows fed mainly with acorn and raised as outdoor livestock in Aracena...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Novel foods such as edible insects and food products based on insects could play an important role in both human and animal nutrition in the future. The identification of dangers associated with insect consumption is fundamental to guarantee consumer safety and adequate regulatory guidelines for operators of the food sector. While former studies have focused on the microbiological contamination...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), the main product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, is an important metabolite in protozoan parasites since its sugar moiety is incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipids and N- and O-linked glycans. Apicomplexan parasites have a hexosamine pathway comparable to other eukaryotic organisms, with the exception of the...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 06:27
Author(s): Hichem Dahmani, Nassim Ouchene, Ali Dahmani, Nadjet Amina Ouchene-Khelifi The etiology of neonatal diarrhea is multifactorial and remains one of the greatest health problems in sheep livestock farming. Faecal samples from 559 neonatal lambs aged less than 30 days from 30 sheepfolds located in the north-center region of Algeria were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoan subdivided into eight assemblages, labeled alphabetically from A to H. Assemblages A, B, and E infect humans and can have a sympatric circulation. We investigated the assemblage recirculation in children living within a high prevalence area of Giardia infection. One hundred and ninety-four children were evaluated and 85 tested positive for Giardia by PCR...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:04
Mixed infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella are likely to occur frequently due to the high prevalence of both pathogens in free-ranging chickens. In this study, we investigated the co-occurrence of the two parasites in the same immune-competent host cell towards altered patterns of parasite-host interactions. Chicken blood monocyte–derived macrophages were co-infected with T. gondii...
Mon, 10/05/2020 - 22:15
ABSTRACT Aims To determine inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and reduction of Escherichia coli and enterococci in cattle slurry added aqueous ammonia. Methods and Results Escherichia coli, enterococci and non‐viable C. parvum oocysts (DAPI+ PI+) were enumerated every second day for two weeks in cattle slurry amended with 60 mmol l‐1 aq. ammonia and compared with untreated slurry at...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite infecting human and animals, causing huge public health concerns and economic losses. Swine alveolar macrophage plays an important role in controlling T. gondii infection. However, the mechanism by which macrophages infected with T. gondii function in the immunity to the infection is unclear, especially for local isolates such as TgHB1 isolated in...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:22
Armadillos are specialist diggers and their burrows are used to find food, seek shelter and protect their pups. These burrows can also be shared with dozens of vertebrate and invertebrate species and; consequently, their parasites including the zoonotics. The aim of this study was to diagnose the presence of zoonotic parasites in four wild‐caught armadillo species from two different Brazilian...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia, is a severe diarrheal disease, endemic in poverty-stricken regions of the world, and also a common infection in developed countries. The available therapeutic options are associated with adverse effects, and G. lamblia resistance to the standard-of-care drugs is spreading. Fumagillin, an antimicrosporidiosis drug, is a therapeutic...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students performing fetotomy exercises on euthanized calves took place in September 2018 in Denmark. A prospective cohort investigation was performed to identify risk factors and provide guidance for preventing outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in this setting. Ninety-seven students attended the fetotomy exercises and completed a questionnaire about...
Mon, 09/14/2020 - 02:04
Toxoplasmosis represents an important public health issue, with the consumption of raw or undercooked meat being a major way of human infection. The role of beef in the transmission of the parasite to humans is questioned due to lower quantity of tissue cysts compared with other meat-producing species. However, the habit of consuming raw beef is regionally diffused, and the risk posed by...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:28
Author(s): Safa Amairia, Mariem Rouatbi, Mohamed Ridha Rjeibi, Jacinto Gomes, Mourad Rekik, Mohamed Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed Gharbi With the increase of raw food consumption, there is a growing interest in the risk posed by zoonotic infections to human health. This study was performed to identify in popular processed beef meat-based sausages (Merguez) the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and the...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 16:00
Background:Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of worldwide importance but its burden in indigenous communities remains unclear. In French Guiana, atypical strains of T. gondii originating from a complex rainforest cycle involving wild felids have been linked to severe infections in humans. These cases of Amazonian toxoplasmosis are sporadic and outbreaks are rarely described. We report on the...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:24
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite (phylum Apicomplexa), which causes a zoonotic parasitic disease, known as toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and genotypes of T. gondii in wild boars of southern Italy and thus to assess the risk of infection for consumers. The boars were inspected during the hunting season within the regional project ‘Wild Boar...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:02
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause life-threatening acute disease, differentiates into a quiescent cyst stage to establish lifelong chronic infections in animal hosts, including humans. This tissue cyst reservoir, which can reactivate into an acute infection, is currently refractory to clinically available therapeutics. Recently, we and others have discovered...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
Toxoplasma gondii  a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, is one of the main pathogens causing foodborne diseases worldwide. In Gaza – Palestine, the leafy vegetables are frequently eaten raw.  The present study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii oocyst in local leafy vegetables. For this purpose, fifty samples of each kind...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 16:00
The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is highly prevalent among livestock species. Although cattle are generally resistant to Toxoplasma strains circulating in Europe and North America, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that bovine bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) pre-stimulated with interferon gamma (IFNγ) restricts intracellular Toxoplasma...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 12:00
Background Campylobacter infection is associated with impaired growth of children, even in the absence of symptoms. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated associations between Campylobacter infection, linear growth, and fecal microbial community features in a prospective birth cohort of 271 children with a high burden of diarrhea and stunting in the Amazonian lowlands of Peru. Methods...
Sun, 08/09/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Yun Yang, Shao-Meng Yu, Ke Chen, Geoff Hide, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai Toxoplasma gondii has long been considered a ubiquitous parasite possessing the capacity of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals globally. Occasionally, this parasite can also infect cold-blooded animals such as fish if their body temperature reaches 37 °C. However, we are currently lacking an understanding...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 08:02
Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia are common protozoan pathogens, which can pose health risks to people around the world and cause considerable economic losses. Although information on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and Chlamydia in chickens can be found in China, knowledge on the infection of these two diseases in rural chickens, ducks, and geese is limited. Therefore, blood samples from 377...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Novel antiparasitic activity was observed for the antifungal occidiofungin. It efficaciously and irreversibly inhibited the zoonotic enteric parasite Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro with limited cytotoxicity (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 120 nM versus 50% cytotoxic concentration [TC50] = 988 nM), and its application disrupted the parasite morphology. This study expands the spectrum of...

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