Parasites

Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Intra-amniotic infection is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Most intra-amniotic infections are due to Ureaplasma species; however, the pathogenic potency of these genital mycoplasmas to induce preterm birth is still controversial. Here, we first laid out a taxonomic characterization of Ureaplasma isolates from women with intra-amniotic infection, which...
Mon, 06/29/2020 - 22:13
Aims Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, one of the most common worldwide gastrointestinal diseases. For rational development of a Giardia vaccine, increasing our understanding of the host‐Giardia interaction is crucial. In this study, we analyzed the immunogenicity and antigenicity of two G. lamblia strain variants [GS and GS‐5G8 (+)], which express different levels...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major concern worldwide since they are associated with high mortality and morbidity in the human population. Among the causative agents of FBDs, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Trichinella spiralis are listed in the top global risk ranking of foodborne parasites. One common feature between them is that they...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:03
Neosporosis has become a concern since it is associated with abortion in cattle. Currently, in situ diagnosis is determined through anamnesis, evaluation of the history, and perception of the clinical signs of the herd. There is no practical and noninvasive test adapted to a large number of samples, which represents a gap for the use of new approaches that provide information about infections and...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii has been found to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study, a total of 3,275 human serum samples were collected from hospitals in five provinces of China. About 5.13% (168/3,275) (95% CI, 4.42–5.94) of the serum samples tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibody by a modified agglutination test (MAT) (cut-off: 1:20). Significant associations were...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Meselu Chaklu, Zewdu Seyoum Tarekegn, Girma Birhan, Shimelis Dagnachew Limited data is accessible about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in backyard (free-range) chickens in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2018 to April 2019 to estimate the seroprevalence and assess associated risk factors of T. gondii infection in backyard chickens...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 02:03
Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24–30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Magdalene Nguvan Karshima, Gloria Pisha Karaye, Stanley David Oziegbe Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen of zoonotic and economic importance with a global distribution. The pathogen is associated with abortion, stillbirth, neonatal mortalities and mummification in sheep and goats which may also serve as sources of human infections. In pregnant women, the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 02:03
It is known that the current treatment for toxoplasmosis causes side effects. Thus, it is essential to develop new therapies with reduced adverse effects while concurrently maintaining broad coverage and prophylactic therapy. Melatonin is a hormone that participates in the circadian cycle in vertebrates and has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral functions. In addition, it has been...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. This infection is transmitted to humans through oocysts released in the feces of the felines into the environment or by ingestion of undercooked meat. This implies that toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease and T. gondii is a foodborne pathogen. In addition, chronic toxoplasmosis in goats and sheep is the cause of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 04:03
Inhibited reactions have been occasionally observed when cilantro samples were processed for the detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis using real time PCR (qPCR). Partial or total inhibition of PCR reactions, including qPCR, can occur leading to decreased sensitivity or false negative results. If inhibition occurs, this implies the need for additional purification or clean-up treatments of the...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Relative to other cytochrome b inhibitors, JAG21 has improved solubility and ADMET properties, without need for pro-drug....
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:38
Cellular reproduction defines life, yet our textbook-level understanding of cell division is limited to a small number of model organisms centered around humans. The horizon on cell division variants is expanded here by advancing insights on the fascinating cell division modes found in the Apicomplexa, a key group of protozoan parasites. The Apicomplexa display remarkable variation in offspring...
Tue, 06/02/2020 - 03:48
LWT
Author(s): Surabhi Rani, Abani K. Pradhan Toxoplasma gondii infects humans from consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated meat or ingestion of oocysts present in water, soil or on vegetables. Several PCR techniques have been developed to detect T. gondii in animal samples but bioassay method is still considered as the ‘gold standard’. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:40
Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic protozoan of the phylum Apicomplexa that can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. The parasite can exist as the interconvertible tachyzoite or bradyzoite forms, leading to acute or latent infection, respectively. No drug has been reported to penetrate the cyst wall and reduce bradyzoite survival and proliferation till now. The transcriptional level of...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:48
by Roberta M. O’Connor, Felix J. Nepveux V, Jaypee Abenoja, Gregory Bowden, Patricia Reis, Josiah Beaushaw, Rachel M. Bone Relat, Iwona Driskell, Fernanda Gimenez, Michael W. Riggs, Deborah A. Schaefer, Eric W. Schmidt, Zhenjian Lin, Daniel L. Distel, Jon Clardy, Timothy R. Ramadhar, David R. Allred, Heather M. Fritz, Pradipsinh Rathod, Laura Chery, John White Apicomplexan parasites cause severe...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:43
To identify the free‐living amoeba (FLA) and amoeba resistant bacteria (ARB) accumulated in zebra mussels and in the water in which they are found, mussels were collected at two locations in the Ebro river basin (North East Spain). Free‐living amoebas and bacteria were isolated from mussel extracts and from natural water. PCR techniques were used to identify the FLAs and endosymbiont bacteria (...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:49
Berries are potential vehicles for the transmission of parasites and have been implicated in illness outbreaks in various countries around the world, particularly in the USA. Although data on contamination of fresh produce with foodborne parasites have been obtained from different global regions, data from Colombia are lacking despite South America being a major producer of fresh produce, which...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Oocysts are the environmentally resistant stage of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. They are responsible for foodborne infections in humans and animals worldwide. Infectious oocysts contain sporozoites that have to exit the sporocyst and oocyst walls to initiate replication of the parasite within the host tissues. Given their robustness and resistance to chemical degradation, it is still...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:49
by Graziela Ribeiro da Cunha, Maysa Pellizzaro, Camila Marinelli Martins, Suzana Maria Rocha, Ana Carolina Yamakawa, Evelyn Cristine da Silva, Andrea Pires dos Santos, Vivien Midori Morikawa, Hélio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo Despite vulnerability and unsanitary conditions of animal hoarding may predispose environmental contamination and spread of vectors and pathogens, no study to date has...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:39
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate protozoan parasite infecting diverse hosts. Studies have demonstrated that different hosts respond differently to Toxoplasma infection. Pigs are among the most susceptible hosts of T. gondii, but the host-pathogen interactions that shape the outcome of infection in pigs are completely unknown. Here, we used dual RNA-seq to profile the transcriptomic changes of...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:46
ABSTRACT Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis have emerged as major enteric pathogens of infants in the developing world, in addition to their known importance in immunocompromised adults. Although there has been recent progress in identifying new small molecules that inhibit Cryptosporidium sp. growth in vitro or in animal models, we lack information about their mechanism of action...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
The retina is the primary site of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the eye, and choroidal neovascularization in ocular toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of visual impairment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key regulators of blood vessel development, however, little is known about the mechanisms of T. gondii-induced VEGF production in ocular toxoplasmosis....
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:44
by Muhammad Bar Khan, Sanaullah Khan, Khair Rafiq, Shahid Niaz Khan, Sobia Attaullah, Ijaz Ali Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including domesticated birds and humans. Birds normally get infected by ground feeding and human beings contract the disease by consumption of undercooked chicken meat. This study aimed to analyze seroprevalence...
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:27
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, able to infect all homeothermic animals mostly through ingestion of (oo)cysts contaminated food or water. Recently, we observed a T. gondii strain-specific clearance from tissues upon infection in pigs: while the swine-adapted LR strain persisted in porcine tissues, a subsequent infection with the human-isolated Gangji strain cleared...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:36
Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. The consumption of uncooked/undercooked meat infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tissue cysts is one of the main sources for the transmission of this parasite. Although sheep, goats, and pigs are commonly infected with T. gondii, there is little information concerning the distribution of T. gondii tissue cysts...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:27
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic food-borne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a land-derived protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic hosts. T. gondii may reach coastal waters via contaminated freshwater runoff and its oocysts may enter into the marine food web. Marine invertebrates as mussels being filter feeders are exposed and may concentrate T. gondii oocysts...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:19
The economic burden of foodborne illness has been estimated to be as high as $90 billion annually.  For policy purposes, it is often important to understand not just the overall cost of illness, but also the costs associated with individual products or groups of products. In this study, I estimate the cost of foodborne illnesses from 29 pathogens associated with non-game meat and poultry products...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 10:08
Hill, D. E., J. Luchansky, A. Porto-Fett, H. R. Gamble, V. M. Fournet, D. S. Hawkins-Cooper, A. A. Gajadhar, R. Holley, V. K. Juneja, and J. P. Dubey. Curing processes are one method by which pork products, which are considered ready to eat (RTE) and have not been otherwise tested or treated, can be rendered safe from risk for exposure to Trichinella muscle larvae (ML). Curing processes in the U....
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:42
by Lenka Cernikova, Carmen Faso, Adrian B. Hehl Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PIPs), are key membrane lipid residues involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). CME relies on PI(4,5)P2 to mark endocytic sites at the plasma membrane (PM) associated to clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation. The highly diverged parasitic protist Giardia lamblia presents disordered and...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): D. Kostopoulou, E. Claerebout, D. Arvanitis, P. Ligda, S. Casaert, S. SotirakiAbstractA study was conducted in two different areas in Greece to investigate the presence of intestinal human parasitic infections (targeting healthy and individuals with diarrhoea). In total, 876 stool samples were collected from 822 adults and 54 children. Both sedimentation (acid/ether) and concentration/...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Nan Jiang, Ruijing Su, Fuchun Jian, Chunlei Su, Longxian Zhang, Yibao Jiang, Yurong YangAbstractToxoplasmosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. The objective of this study was to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection in lambs from Henan province, China. A total of 166 lamb hearts were collected from 2017 to 2019. T. gondii infection was determined by the...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:29
High prevalences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were recently found in enteric illness patients in the Qikiqtaaluk region of Nunavut, Canada, with a foodborne, waterborne or animal source of parasites suspected. Clams (Mya truncata) are a commonly consumed, culturally important and nutritious country food in Iqaluit; however, shellfish may concentrate protozoan pathogens from contaminated waters...
Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): María Jesús Gracia, Regina Lázaro, Consuelo Pérez-Arquillué, Rafael Pagán, Sergio Ramos, João Luis Garcia, Susana BayarriAbstractRaw and dry-cured meats have been identified as a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an alternative non-thermal food-processing treatment, high hydrostatic pressure, on the viability of T....
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
Cyclosporiasis is caused by the coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis and is associated with large and complex food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Associated symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, particularly in infants, and immune dysfunction. With the globalization of human food supply, the occurrence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing in both food growing and importing countries. As...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:51
Bertiella sp. is a typical parasite in non-human primates and only a few cases of bertiellosis have been reported in humans. We present a new case study of bertiellosis in a 42-year-old woman caretaker of howler monkeys in a wild rehabilitation center in Argentina. Bertiella sp. infection was also diagnosed in the monkeys. Proglottids and feces were collected from the caretaker and monkeys; the...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in vascular endothelial cells prior to entering host tissues. However, little is known about the molecular interactions at the parasite-endothelial cell interface. We demonstrate that T. gondii infection of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) altered cell morphology and dysregulated barrier function, increasing permeability to...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:36
Pathogenic microorganisms use various mechanisms to conserve energy in host tissues and environmental reservoirs. One widespread but often overlooked means of energy conservation is through the consumption or production of molecular hydrogen (H2). Here, we comprehensively review the distribution, biochemistry, and physiology of H2 metabolism in pathogens. Over 200 pathogens and pathobionts carry...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Panagiota Ligda, Edwin Claerebout, Stijn Casaert, Lucy J. Robertson, Smaragda SotirakiAbstractMarine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Tamirat Tefera Temesgen, Alessandra Barlaam, Kristoffer R. Tysnes, Lucy J. RobertsonAbstractThe potential public health impact of foodborne parasites transmitted via contaminated fresh produces indicates the necessity for robust and reliable laboratory methods for their detection and identification on this infection vehicle. Standardization of methods for detection of common FBP in...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in quick-frozen chickens is a good indicator of the possible transmission risk that this parasite poses to human consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii in quick-frozen chicken hearts using a nested PCR assay. Heart samples (n = 720) from farmers' markets and supermarkets in the Tai'an region, People's Republic of China,...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Francesca Coppola, Michela Maestrini, Federica Berrilli, Isabel Guadano Procesi, Antonio Felicioli, Stefania PerrucciAbstractItaly is the only European country where the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) lives. A parasitological investigation was performed on faecal samples, aimed to evaluate Giardia and other parasites in a free-ranging crested porcupine population in Central Italy...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:24
Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasitic protozoan residing in human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, which is the leading non-viral sexually transmitted disease. It has cosmopolitan distribution throughout the globe and affects both men and women. Lifecycle of the parasite has been traditionally described as consisting of motile and symptom-causing trophozoites. Chemical and temperature...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:23
Background:Toxoplasma gondii infects millions of individuals worldwide. This protozoan is food and water-borne transmitted but blood transfusion and organ transplantation constitute alternative forms for transmission. However, the influence of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in molecular analysis carried out in peripheral blood still remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the serum IgG...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Parisa Shahbazi, Armin Aligolzadeh, Monireh Khordadmehr, Hosein Hashemzadeh Farhang, Farzad KatiraeeAbstractCryptosporidiosis acutely impacts the digestive and/or respiratory tract of the birds in many species of various orders. More importantly, it is also well known as a significant zoonotic disease, which can lead to diarrhea in humans and livestock. Regarding increasing demand for...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:26
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent, zoonotic parasite of major importance for public health, which can infect any warm-blooded animal species, including humans. Humans can get infected by consumption of meat from a chronically infected animal, by ingestion of sporulated oocysts (resulting from the sexual replication in felids), via contaminated water, soil, or vegetables, and by vertical...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:29
Meat of the South American camelids (SACs) llama and alpaca is an important source of animal protein and income for rural families in the Andes, and a product with significant growth potential for local and international markets. However, infestation with macroscopic cysts of the coccidian protozoon Sarcocystis aucheniae, a parasitosis known as SAC sarcocystosis, significantly hampers its...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:27
Aminopeptidase N is an important metalloenzyme from the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family, which is present in numerous apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, Eimeria, and Cryptosporidium. Aminopeptidase N is a potential drug target, and hence, its properties have been widely investigated. In the current study, the cellular localization and enzyme characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:33
Captive and free‐ranging wild bears can carry and transmit several zoonotic pathogens. A review of nearly 90 years of scientific publications concerning confirmed and potential zoonotic diseases that can be present in any of the eight species of bears in the world was conducted. The findings were organized amongst the following disease sections: bacterial, viral, protozoal, mycotic, helminth and...

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