Parasites

Wed, 11/25/2020 - 16:00
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal protozoa responsible for diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Feces from infected hosts, water and food contaminated by Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts as well as predictors such as poverty have been involved in their transmission. Myanmar is one of the world’s most impoverished countries. To date, there...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease affecting human, livestock and cat. Prophylactic strategies would be ideal to prevent infection. In a One Health vaccination approach, the objectives would be the prevention of congenital disease in both women and livestock, prevention/reduction of T. gondii tissue cysts in food-producing animals; and oocyst shedding in cats. Over the last few years, an...
Thu, 11/19/2020 - 22:17
Cryptosporidium is a common enteric parasite that primarily affects those immunocompromised susceptible individuals and newborns. Detailed investigations have revealed that Cryptosporidium (C.) oocysts contain dsRNA segments which are recently classified under the Partitiviridae family. The relationship between parasite and virus whether or not affect the clinical outcomes of newborn calf...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 08:02
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed protozoan that mainly causes health issues in the fetuses of pregnant women who have never been exposed to this parasite and patients with deficient immune systems. Except in these vulnerable populations, the primary infection generally goes unnoticed in most healthy individuals. Apart from transplant/transfusion, congenital transmission, direct contact...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:18
Toxoplasma gondii may cause fatal infection in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus). However, the role of this parasite in terms of mortality rate in tularemia endemic areas, amount of parasites in affected organs and circulating genotypes, are still unknown. In total, 36 hares (killed or found dead) were submitted for pathomorphological examination as a part of the national tularemia and...
Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:02
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan parasite that causes foodborne and waterborne diarrheal illness outbreaks worldwide. Most of these outbreaks are associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Sensitive and specific methods to detect C. cayetanensis in agricultural water are needed to identify the parasite in agricultural water used to irrigate crops that have been implicated in...
Mon, 11/09/2020 - 22:22
The objective of this systematic review and meta‐analysis was to summarize the available knowledge on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe. A computerized literature search of electronic databases (PubMed and CAB abstracts) was performed along with hand searches of library resources for relevant papers, books, abstracts and...
Sat, 11/07/2020 - 22:15
This study focuses on foodborne outbreaks of microbial infection associated with fresh produce in Europe and North America from this millennium. A total of 277 outbreaks with 44,524 individual cases were identified. Foodborne pathogens associated with the most outbreak frequency include Cryptosporidium (20.5%) in Europe and Salmonella (52.2%) in North America although Norovirus (54.3%) and...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 06:32
Author(s): Mercedes Gomez-Samblas, Susana Vilchez, Rocío Ortega-Velázquez, Màrius V. Fuentes, Antonio Osuna Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in humans has usually been related to the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Our study is based on the detection of T. gondii in cured legs and shoulders made from 100% Iberian sows fed mainly with acorn and raised as outdoor livestock in Aracena...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Novel foods such as edible insects and food products based on insects could play an important role in both human and animal nutrition in the future. The identification of dangers associated with insect consumption is fundamental to guarantee consumer safety and adequate regulatory guidelines for operators of the food sector. While former studies have focused on the microbiological contamination...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), the main product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, is an important metabolite in protozoan parasites since its sugar moiety is incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipids and N- and O-linked glycans. Apicomplexan parasites have a hexosamine pathway comparable to other eukaryotic organisms, with the exception of the...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 06:27
Author(s): Hichem Dahmani, Nassim Ouchene, Ali Dahmani, Nadjet Amina Ouchene-Khelifi The etiology of neonatal diarrhea is multifactorial and remains one of the greatest health problems in sheep livestock farming. Faecal samples from 559 neonatal lambs aged less than 30 days from 30 sheepfolds located in the north-center region of Algeria were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoan subdivided into eight assemblages, labeled alphabetically from A to H. Assemblages A, B, and E infect humans and can have a sympatric circulation. We investigated the assemblage recirculation in children living within a high prevalence area of Giardia infection. One hundred and ninety-four children were evaluated and 85 tested positive for Giardia by PCR...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:04
Mixed infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella are likely to occur frequently due to the high prevalence of both pathogens in free-ranging chickens. In this study, we investigated the co-occurrence of the two parasites in the same immune-competent host cell towards altered patterns of parasite-host interactions. Chicken blood monocyte–derived macrophages were co-infected with T. gondii...
Mon, 10/05/2020 - 22:15
ABSTRACT Aims To determine inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and reduction of Escherichia coli and enterococci in cattle slurry added aqueous ammonia. Methods and Results Escherichia coli, enterococci and non‐viable C. parvum oocysts (DAPI+ PI+) were enumerated every second day for two weeks in cattle slurry amended with 60 mmol l‐1 aq. ammonia and compared with untreated slurry at...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite infecting human and animals, causing huge public health concerns and economic losses. Swine alveolar macrophage plays an important role in controlling T. gondii infection. However, the mechanism by which macrophages infected with T. gondii function in the immunity to the infection is unclear, especially for local isolates such as TgHB1 isolated in...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:22
Armadillos are specialist diggers and their burrows are used to find food, seek shelter and protect their pups. These burrows can also be shared with dozens of vertebrate and invertebrate species and; consequently, their parasites including the zoonotics. The aim of this study was to diagnose the presence of zoonotic parasites in four wild‐caught armadillo species from two different Brazilian...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 10:02
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia, is a severe diarrheal disease, endemic in poverty-stricken regions of the world, and also a common infection in developed countries. The available therapeutic options are associated with adverse effects, and G. lamblia resistance to the standard-of-care drugs is spreading. Fumagillin, an antimicrosporidiosis drug, is a therapeutic...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students performing fetotomy exercises on euthanized calves took place in September 2018 in Denmark. A prospective cohort investigation was performed to identify risk factors and provide guidance for preventing outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in this setting. Ninety-seven students attended the fetotomy exercises and completed a questionnaire about...
Mon, 09/14/2020 - 02:04
Toxoplasmosis represents an important public health issue, with the consumption of raw or undercooked meat being a major way of human infection. The role of beef in the transmission of the parasite to humans is questioned due to lower quantity of tissue cysts compared with other meat-producing species. However, the habit of consuming raw beef is regionally diffused, and the risk posed by...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:28
Author(s): Safa Amairia, Mariem Rouatbi, Mohamed Ridha Rjeibi, Jacinto Gomes, Mourad Rekik, Mohamed Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed Gharbi With the increase of raw food consumption, there is a growing interest in the risk posed by zoonotic infections to human health. This study was performed to identify in popular processed beef meat-based sausages (Merguez) the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and the...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 16:00
Background:Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of worldwide importance but its burden in indigenous communities remains unclear. In French Guiana, atypical strains of T. gondii originating from a complex rainforest cycle involving wild felids have been linked to severe infections in humans. These cases of Amazonian toxoplasmosis are sporadic and outbreaks are rarely described. We report on the...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:24
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite (phylum Apicomplexa), which causes a zoonotic parasitic disease, known as toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and genotypes of T. gondii in wild boars of southern Italy and thus to assess the risk of infection for consumers. The boars were inspected during the hunting season within the regional project ‘Wild Boar...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:02
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause life-threatening acute disease, differentiates into a quiescent cyst stage to establish lifelong chronic infections in animal hosts, including humans. This tissue cyst reservoir, which can reactivate into an acute infection, is currently refractory to clinically available therapeutics. Recently, we and others have discovered...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
Toxoplasma gondii  a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, is one of the main pathogens causing foodborne diseases worldwide. In Gaza – Palestine, the leafy vegetables are frequently eaten raw.  The present study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii oocyst in local leafy vegetables. For this purpose, fifty samples of each kind...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 16:00
The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is highly prevalent among livestock species. Although cattle are generally resistant to Toxoplasma strains circulating in Europe and North America, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that bovine bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) pre-stimulated with interferon gamma (IFNγ) restricts intracellular Toxoplasma...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 12:00
Background Campylobacter infection is associated with impaired growth of children, even in the absence of symptoms. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated associations between Campylobacter infection, linear growth, and fecal microbial community features in a prospective birth cohort of 271 children with a high burden of diarrhea and stunting in the Amazonian lowlands of Peru. Methods...
Sun, 08/09/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Yun Yang, Shao-Meng Yu, Ke Chen, Geoff Hide, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai Toxoplasma gondii has long been considered a ubiquitous parasite possessing the capacity of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals globally. Occasionally, this parasite can also infect cold-blooded animals such as fish if their body temperature reaches 37 °C. However, we are currently lacking an understanding...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 08:02
Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia are common protozoan pathogens, which can pose health risks to people around the world and cause considerable economic losses. Although information on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and Chlamydia in chickens can be found in China, knowledge on the infection of these two diseases in rural chickens, ducks, and geese is limited. Therefore, blood samples from 377...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Novel antiparasitic activity was observed for the antifungal occidiofungin. It efficaciously and irreversibly inhibited the zoonotic enteric parasite Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro with limited cytotoxicity (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 120 nM versus 50% cytotoxic concentration [TC50] = 988 nM), and its application disrupted the parasite morphology. This study expands the spectrum of...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 22:15
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a causative agent of toxoplasmosis, an important and widespread zoonotic disease. The transmission of this disease in humans includes ingestion of sporulated oocysts present in contaminated water or food. T. gondii oocysts are widely distributed and toxoplasmosis is considered a major food and waterborne pathogen worldwide, making drinking water containing...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Jitender P. Dubey, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H.A. Murata, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Dolores Hill, Yurong R. Yang, Chunlei Su Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs continues to be of public health concern. Pigs are important for the economy of many countries, particularly, USA, China, and European countries. Among...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Jitender P. Dubey, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H.A. Murata, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Dolores Hill, Yurong R. Yang, Chunlei Su Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs continues to be of public health concern. Pigs are important for the economy of many countries, particularly, USA, China, and European countries. Among...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 02:03
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) can be a severe threat to immunocompromised patients. This is particularly true for those undergoing chemotherapy and hemodialysis. The present research is aimed at identifying intestinal parasites that might be present in immunocompromised patients. In this cross-sectional study 1040 stool samples were collected from March to September 2017. Six hundred and...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 08:02
by Sarah K. Wilson, Justine Heckendorn, Bruno Martorelli Di Genova, Lindsey L. Koch, Peggy J. Rooney, Naomi Morrissette, Maryse Lebrun, Laura J. Knoll Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can invade any nucleated cell of any warm-blooded animal. In a previous screen to identify virulence determinants, disruption of gene TgME49_305140 generated a T. gondii mutant that could...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Intra-amniotic infection is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Most intra-amniotic infections are due to Ureaplasma species; however, the pathogenic potency of these genital mycoplasmas to induce preterm birth is still controversial. Here, we first laid out a taxonomic characterization of Ureaplasma isolates from women with intra-amniotic infection, which...
Mon, 06/29/2020 - 22:13
Aims Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, one of the most common worldwide gastrointestinal diseases. For rational development of a Giardia vaccine, increasing our understanding of the host‐Giardia interaction is crucial. In this study, we analyzed the immunogenicity and antigenicity of two G. lamblia strain variants [GS and GS‐5G8 (+)], which express different levels...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major concern worldwide since they are associated with high mortality and morbidity in the human population. Among the causative agents of FBDs, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Trichinella spiralis are listed in the top global risk ranking of foodborne parasites. One common feature between them is that they...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:03
Neosporosis has become a concern since it is associated with abortion in cattle. Currently, in situ diagnosis is determined through anamnesis, evaluation of the history, and perception of the clinical signs of the herd. There is no practical and noninvasive test adapted to a large number of samples, which represents a gap for the use of new approaches that provide information about infections and...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii has been found to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study, a total of 3,275 human serum samples were collected from hospitals in five provinces of China. About 5.13% (168/3,275) (95% CI, 4.42–5.94) of the serum samples tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibody by a modified agglutination test (MAT) (cut-off: 1:20). Significant associations were...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Meselu Chaklu, Zewdu Seyoum Tarekegn, Girma Birhan, Shimelis Dagnachew Limited data is accessible about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in backyard (free-range) chickens in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2018 to April 2019 to estimate the seroprevalence and assess associated risk factors of T. gondii infection in backyard chickens...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 02:03
Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24–30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Magdalene Nguvan Karshima, Gloria Pisha Karaye, Stanley David Oziegbe Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen of zoonotic and economic importance with a global distribution. The pathogen is associated with abortion, stillbirth, neonatal mortalities and mummification in sheep and goats which may also serve as sources of human infections. In pregnant women, the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 02:03
It is known that the current treatment for toxoplasmosis causes side effects. Thus, it is essential to develop new therapies with reduced adverse effects while concurrently maintaining broad coverage and prophylactic therapy. Melatonin is a hormone that participates in the circadian cycle in vertebrates and has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral functions. In addition, it has been...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. This infection is transmitted to humans through oocysts released in the feces of the felines into the environment or by ingestion of undercooked meat. This implies that toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease and T. gondii is a foodborne pathogen. In addition, chronic toxoplasmosis in goats and sheep is the cause of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 04:03
Inhibited reactions have been occasionally observed when cilantro samples were processed for the detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis using real time PCR (qPCR). Partial or total inhibition of PCR reactions, including qPCR, can occur leading to decreased sensitivity or false negative results. If inhibition occurs, this implies the need for additional purification or clean-up treatments of the...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Relative to other cytochrome b inhibitors, JAG21 has improved solubility and ADMET properties, without need for pro-drug....
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:38
Cellular reproduction defines life, yet our textbook-level understanding of cell division is limited to a small number of model organisms centered around humans. The horizon on cell division variants is expanded here by advancing insights on the fascinating cell division modes found in the Apicomplexa, a key group of protozoan parasites. The Apicomplexa display remarkable variation in offspring...
Tue, 06/02/2020 - 03:48
LWT
Author(s): Surabhi Rani, Abani K. Pradhan Toxoplasma gondii infects humans from consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated meat or ingestion of oocysts present in water, soil or on vegetables. Several PCR techniques have been developed to detect T. gondii in animal samples but bioassay method is still considered as the ‘gold standard’. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of...

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