Parasites

Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students performing fetotomy exercises on euthanized calves took place in September 2018 in Denmark. A prospective cohort investigation was performed to identify risk factors and provide guidance for preventing outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in this setting. Ninety-seven students attended the fetotomy exercises and completed a questionnaire about...
Mon, 09/14/2020 - 02:04
Toxoplasmosis represents an important public health issue, with the consumption of raw or undercooked meat being a major way of human infection. The role of beef in the transmission of the parasite to humans is questioned due to lower quantity of tissue cysts compared with other meat-producing species. However, the habit of consuming raw beef is regionally diffused, and the risk posed by...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 06:28
Author(s): Safa Amairia, Mariem Rouatbi, Mohamed Ridha Rjeibi, Jacinto Gomes, Mourad Rekik, Mohamed Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed Gharbi With the increase of raw food consumption, there is a growing interest in the risk posed by zoonotic infections to human health. This study was performed to identify in popular processed beef meat-based sausages (Merguez) the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and the...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 16:00
Background:Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of worldwide importance but its burden in indigenous communities remains unclear. In French Guiana, atypical strains of T. gondii originating from a complex rainforest cycle involving wild felids have been linked to severe infections in humans. These cases of Amazonian toxoplasmosis are sporadic and outbreaks are rarely described. We report on the...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:24
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite (phylum Apicomplexa), which causes a zoonotic parasitic disease, known as toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and genotypes of T. gondii in wild boars of southern Italy and thus to assess the risk of infection for consumers. The boars were inspected during the hunting season within the regional project ‘Wild Boar...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 10:02
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause life-threatening acute disease, differentiates into a quiescent cyst stage to establish lifelong chronic infections in animal hosts, including humans. This tissue cyst reservoir, which can reactivate into an acute infection, is currently refractory to clinically available therapeutics. Recently, we and others have discovered...
Fri, 08/21/2020 - 04:02
Toxoplasma gondii  a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, is one of the main pathogens causing foodborne diseases worldwide. In Gaza – Palestine, the leafy vegetables are frequently eaten raw.  The present study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii oocyst in local leafy vegetables. For this purpose, fifty samples of each kind...
Thu, 08/20/2020 - 16:00
The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is highly prevalent among livestock species. Although cattle are generally resistant to Toxoplasma strains circulating in Europe and North America, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that bovine bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) pre-stimulated with interferon gamma (IFNγ) restricts intracellular Toxoplasma...
Sat, 08/15/2020 - 12:00
Background Campylobacter infection is associated with impaired growth of children, even in the absence of symptoms. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated associations between Campylobacter infection, linear growth, and fecal microbial community features in a prospective birth cohort of 271 children with a high burden of diarrhea and stunting in the Amazonian lowlands of Peru. Methods...
Sun, 08/09/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Yun Yang, Shao-Meng Yu, Ke Chen, Geoff Hide, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai Toxoplasma gondii has long been considered a ubiquitous parasite possessing the capacity of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals globally. Occasionally, this parasite can also infect cold-blooded animals such as fish if their body temperature reaches 37 °C. However, we are currently lacking an understanding...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 08:02
Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia are common protozoan pathogens, which can pose health risks to people around the world and cause considerable economic losses. Although information on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and Chlamydia in chickens can be found in China, knowledge on the infection of these two diseases in rural chickens, ducks, and geese is limited. Therefore, blood samples from 377...
Thu, 07/23/2020 - 10:01
Novel antiparasitic activity was observed for the antifungal occidiofungin. It efficaciously and irreversibly inhibited the zoonotic enteric parasite Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro with limited cytotoxicity (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 120 nM versus 50% cytotoxic concentration [TC50] = 988 nM), and its application disrupted the parasite morphology. This study expands the spectrum of...
Sun, 07/19/2020 - 22:15
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a causative agent of toxoplasmosis, an important and widespread zoonotic disease. The transmission of this disease in humans includes ingestion of sporulated oocysts present in contaminated water or food. T. gondii oocysts are widely distributed and toxoplasmosis is considered a major food and waterborne pathogen worldwide, making drinking water containing...
Tue, 07/14/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Jitender P. Dubey, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H.A. Murata, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Dolores Hill, Yurong R. Yang, Chunlei Su Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs continues to be of public health concern. Pigs are important for the economy of many countries, particularly, USA, China, and European countries. Among...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Jitender P. Dubey, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H.A. Murata, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Dolores Hill, Yurong R. Yang, Chunlei Su Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs continues to be of public health concern. Pigs are important for the economy of many countries, particularly, USA, China, and European countries. Among...
Wed, 07/08/2020 - 02:03
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) can be a severe threat to immunocompromised patients. This is particularly true for those undergoing chemotherapy and hemodialysis. The present research is aimed at identifying intestinal parasites that might be present in immunocompromised patients. In this cross-sectional study 1040 stool samples were collected from March to September 2017. Six hundred and...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 08:02
by Sarah K. Wilson, Justine Heckendorn, Bruno Martorelli Di Genova, Lindsey L. Koch, Peggy J. Rooney, Naomi Morrissette, Maryse Lebrun, Laura J. Knoll Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can invade any nucleated cell of any warm-blooded animal. In a previous screen to identify virulence determinants, disruption of gene TgME49_305140 generated a T. gondii mutant that could...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Intra-amniotic infection is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Most intra-amniotic infections are due to Ureaplasma species; however, the pathogenic potency of these genital mycoplasmas to induce preterm birth is still controversial. Here, we first laid out a taxonomic characterization of Ureaplasma isolates from women with intra-amniotic infection, which...
Mon, 06/29/2020 - 22:13
Aims Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, one of the most common worldwide gastrointestinal diseases. For rational development of a Giardia vaccine, increasing our understanding of the host‐Giardia interaction is crucial. In this study, we analyzed the immunogenicity and antigenicity of two G. lamblia strain variants [GS and GS‐5G8 (+)], which express different levels...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major concern worldwide since they are associated with high mortality and morbidity in the human population. Among the causative agents of FBDs, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Trichinella spiralis are listed in the top global risk ranking of foodborne parasites. One common feature between them is that they...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:03
Neosporosis has become a concern since it is associated with abortion in cattle. Currently, in situ diagnosis is determined through anamnesis, evaluation of the history, and perception of the clinical signs of the herd. There is no practical and noninvasive test adapted to a large number of samples, which represents a gap for the use of new approaches that provide information about infections and...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii has been found to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study, a total of 3,275 human serum samples were collected from hospitals in five provinces of China. About 5.13% (168/3,275) (95% CI, 4.42–5.94) of the serum samples tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibody by a modified agglutination test (MAT) (cut-off: 1:20). Significant associations were...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Meselu Chaklu, Zewdu Seyoum Tarekegn, Girma Birhan, Shimelis Dagnachew Limited data is accessible about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in backyard (free-range) chickens in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2018 to April 2019 to estimate the seroprevalence and assess associated risk factors of T. gondii infection in backyard chickens...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 02:03
Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24–30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Magdalene Nguvan Karshima, Gloria Pisha Karaye, Stanley David Oziegbe Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen of zoonotic and economic importance with a global distribution. The pathogen is associated with abortion, stillbirth, neonatal mortalities and mummification in sheep and goats which may also serve as sources of human infections. In pregnant women, the...
Mon, 06/15/2020 - 02:03
It is known that the current treatment for toxoplasmosis causes side effects. Thus, it is essential to develop new therapies with reduced adverse effects while concurrently maintaining broad coverage and prophylactic therapy. Melatonin is a hormone that participates in the circadian cycle in vertebrates and has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antitumoral functions. In addition, it has been...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 16:00
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. This infection is transmitted to humans through oocysts released in the feces of the felines into the environment or by ingestion of undercooked meat. This implies that toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease and T. gondii is a foodborne pathogen. In addition, chronic toxoplasmosis in goats and sheep is the cause of...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 04:03
Inhibited reactions have been occasionally observed when cilantro samples were processed for the detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis using real time PCR (qPCR). Partial or total inhibition of PCR reactions, including qPCR, can occur leading to decreased sensitivity or false negative results. If inhibition occurs, this implies the need for additional purification or clean-up treatments of the...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 16:00
Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Relative to other cytochrome b inhibitors, JAG21 has improved solubility and ADMET properties, without need for pro-drug....
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:38
Cellular reproduction defines life, yet our textbook-level understanding of cell division is limited to a small number of model organisms centered around humans. The horizon on cell division variants is expanded here by advancing insights on the fascinating cell division modes found in the Apicomplexa, a key group of protozoan parasites. The Apicomplexa display remarkable variation in offspring...
Tue, 06/02/2020 - 03:48
LWT
Author(s): Surabhi Rani, Abani K. Pradhan Toxoplasma gondii infects humans from consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated meat or ingestion of oocysts present in water, soil or on vegetables. Several PCR techniques have been developed to detect T. gondii in animal samples but bioassay method is still considered as the ‘gold standard’. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of...
Fri, 05/29/2020 - 03:40
Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic protozoan of the phylum Apicomplexa that can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. The parasite can exist as the interconvertible tachyzoite or bradyzoite forms, leading to acute or latent infection, respectively. No drug has been reported to penetrate the cyst wall and reduce bradyzoite survival and proliferation till now. The transcriptional level of...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:48
by Roberta M. O’Connor, Felix J. Nepveux V, Jaypee Abenoja, Gregory Bowden, Patricia Reis, Josiah Beaushaw, Rachel M. Bone Relat, Iwona Driskell, Fernanda Gimenez, Michael W. Riggs, Deborah A. Schaefer, Eric W. Schmidt, Zhenjian Lin, Daniel L. Distel, Jon Clardy, Timothy R. Ramadhar, David R. Allred, Heather M. Fritz, Pradipsinh Rathod, Laura Chery, John White Apicomplexan parasites cause severe...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:43
To identify the free‐living amoeba (FLA) and amoeba resistant bacteria (ARB) accumulated in zebra mussels and in the water in which they are found, mussels were collected at two locations in the Ebro river basin (North East Spain). Free‐living amoebas and bacteria were isolated from mussel extracts and from natural water. PCR techniques were used to identify the FLAs and endosymbiont bacteria (...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:49
Berries are potential vehicles for the transmission of parasites and have been implicated in illness outbreaks in various countries around the world, particularly in the USA. Although data on contamination of fresh produce with foodborne parasites have been obtained from different global regions, data from Colombia are lacking despite South America being a major producer of fresh produce, which...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Oocysts are the environmentally resistant stage of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. They are responsible for foodborne infections in humans and animals worldwide. Infectious oocysts contain sporozoites that have to exit the sporocyst and oocyst walls to initiate replication of the parasite within the host tissues. Given their robustness and resistance to chemical degradation, it is still...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:49
by Graziela Ribeiro da Cunha, Maysa Pellizzaro, Camila Marinelli Martins, Suzana Maria Rocha, Ana Carolina Yamakawa, Evelyn Cristine da Silva, Andrea Pires dos Santos, Vivien Midori Morikawa, Hélio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo Despite vulnerability and unsanitary conditions of animal hoarding may predispose environmental contamination and spread of vectors and pathogens, no study to date has...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:39
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate protozoan parasite infecting diverse hosts. Studies have demonstrated that different hosts respond differently to Toxoplasma infection. Pigs are among the most susceptible hosts of T. gondii, but the host-pathogen interactions that shape the outcome of infection in pigs are completely unknown. Here, we used dual RNA-seq to profile the transcriptomic changes of...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:46
ABSTRACT Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis have emerged as major enteric pathogens of infants in the developing world, in addition to their known importance in immunocompromised adults. Although there has been recent progress in identifying new small molecules that inhibit Cryptosporidium sp. growth in vitro or in animal models, we lack information about their mechanism of action...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
The retina is the primary site of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the eye, and choroidal neovascularization in ocular toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of visual impairment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key regulators of blood vessel development, however, little is known about the mechanisms of T. gondii-induced VEGF production in ocular toxoplasmosis....
Thu, 04/23/2020 - 03:44
by Muhammad Bar Khan, Sanaullah Khan, Khair Rafiq, Shahid Niaz Khan, Sobia Attaullah, Ijaz Ali Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including domesticated birds and humans. Birds normally get infected by ground feeding and human beings contract the disease by consumption of undercooked chicken meat. This study aimed to analyze seroprevalence...
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:27
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, able to infect all homeothermic animals mostly through ingestion of (oo)cysts contaminated food or water. Recently, we observed a T. gondii strain-specific clearance from tissues upon infection in pigs: while the swine-adapted LR strain persisted in porcine tissues, a subsequent infection with the human-isolated Gangji strain cleared...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:36
Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. The consumption of uncooked/undercooked meat infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tissue cysts is one of the main sources for the transmission of this parasite. Although sheep, goats, and pigs are commonly infected with T. gondii, there is little information concerning the distribution of T. gondii tissue cysts...
Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:27
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic food-borne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a land-derived protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic hosts. T. gondii may reach coastal waters via contaminated freshwater runoff and its oocysts may enter into the marine food web. Marine invertebrates as mussels being filter feeders are exposed and may concentrate T. gondii oocysts...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:19
The economic burden of foodborne illness has been estimated to be as high as $90 billion annually.  For policy purposes, it is often important to understand not just the overall cost of illness, but also the costs associated with individual products or groups of products. In this study, I estimate the cost of foodborne illnesses from 29 pathogens associated with non-game meat and poultry products...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 10:08
Hill, D. E., J. Luchansky, A. Porto-Fett, H. R. Gamble, V. M. Fournet, D. S. Hawkins-Cooper, A. A. Gajadhar, R. Holley, V. K. Juneja, and J. P. Dubey. Curing processes are one method by which pork products, which are considered ready to eat (RTE) and have not been otherwise tested or treated, can be rendered safe from risk for exposure to Trichinella muscle larvae (ML). Curing processes in the U....
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:42
by Lenka Cernikova, Carmen Faso, Adrian B. Hehl Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PIPs), are key membrane lipid residues involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). CME relies on PI(4,5)P2 to mark endocytic sites at the plasma membrane (PM) associated to clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation. The highly diverged parasitic protist Giardia lamblia presents disordered and...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): D. Kostopoulou, E. Claerebout, D. Arvanitis, P. Ligda, S. Casaert, S. SotirakiAbstractA study was conducted in two different areas in Greece to investigate the presence of intestinal human parasitic infections (targeting healthy and individuals with diarrhoea). In total, 876 stool samples were collected from 822 adults and 54 children. Both sedimentation (acid/ether) and concentration/...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Nan Jiang, Ruijing Su, Fuchun Jian, Chunlei Su, Longxian Zhang, Yibao Jiang, Yurong YangAbstractToxoplasmosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. The objective of this study was to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection in lambs from Henan province, China. A total of 166 lamb hearts were collected from 2017 to 2019. T. gondii infection was determined by the...

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