Parasites

Thu, 03/05/2020 - 03:27
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic food-borne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a land-derived protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic hosts. T. gondii may reach coastal waters via contaminated freshwater runoff and its oocysts may enter into the marine food web. Marine invertebrates as mussels being filter feeders are exposed and may concentrate T. gondii oocysts...
Wed, 03/04/2020 - 01:19
The economic burden of foodborne illness has been estimated to be as high as $90 billion annually.  For policy purposes, it is often important to understand not just the overall cost of illness, but also the costs associated with individual products or groups of products. In this study, I estimate the cost of foodborne illnesses from 29 pathogens associated with non-game meat and poultry products...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 10:08
Hill, D. E., J. Luchansky, A. Porto-Fett, H. R. Gamble, V. M. Fournet, D. S. Hawkins-Cooper, A. A. Gajadhar, R. Holley, V. K. Juneja, and J. P. Dubey. Curing processes are one method by which pork products, which are considered ready to eat (RTE) and have not been otherwise tested or treated, can be rendered safe from risk for exposure to Trichinella muscle larvae (ML). Curing processes in the U....
Tue, 02/25/2020 - 03:42
by Lenka Cernikova, Carmen Faso, Adrian B. Hehl Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PIPs), are key membrane lipid residues involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). CME relies on PI(4,5)P2 to mark endocytic sites at the plasma membrane (PM) associated to clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation. The highly diverged parasitic protist Giardia lamblia presents disordered and...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): D. Kostopoulou, E. Claerebout, D. Arvanitis, P. Ligda, S. Casaert, S. SotirakiAbstractA study was conducted in two different areas in Greece to investigate the presence of intestinal human parasitic infections (targeting healthy and individuals with diarrhoea). In total, 876 stool samples were collected from 822 adults and 54 children. Both sedimentation (acid/ether) and concentration/...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): Nan Jiang, Ruijing Su, Fuchun Jian, Chunlei Su, Longxian Zhang, Yibao Jiang, Yurong YangAbstractToxoplasmosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. The objective of this study was to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection in lambs from Henan province, China. A total of 166 lamb hearts were collected from 2017 to 2019. T. gondii infection was determined by the...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:29
High prevalences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were recently found in enteric illness patients in the Qikiqtaaluk region of Nunavut, Canada, with a foodborne, waterborne or animal source of parasites suspected. Clams (Mya truncata) are a commonly consumed, culturally important and nutritious country food in Iqaluit; however, shellfish may concentrate protozoan pathogens from contaminated waters...
Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:36
Author(s): María Jesús Gracia, Regina Lázaro, Consuelo Pérez-Arquillué, Rafael Pagán, Sergio Ramos, João Luis Garcia, Susana BayarriAbstractRaw and dry-cured meats have been identified as a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an alternative non-thermal food-processing treatment, high hydrostatic pressure, on the viability of T....
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:25
Cyclosporiasis is caused by the coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis and is associated with large and complex food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Associated symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, particularly in infants, and immune dysfunction. With the globalization of human food supply, the occurrence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing in both food growing and importing countries. As...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:51
Bertiella sp. is a typical parasite in non-human primates and only a few cases of bertiellosis have been reported in humans. We present a new case study of bertiellosis in a 42-year-old woman caretaker of howler monkeys in a wild rehabilitation center in Argentina. Bertiella sp. infection was also diagnosed in the monkeys. Proglottids and feces were collected from the caretaker and monkeys; the...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in vascular endothelial cells prior to entering host tissues. However, little is known about the molecular interactions at the parasite-endothelial cell interface. We demonstrate that T. gondii infection of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) altered cell morphology and dysregulated barrier function, increasing permeability to...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:36
Pathogenic microorganisms use various mechanisms to conserve energy in host tissues and environmental reservoirs. One widespread but often overlooked means of energy conservation is through the consumption or production of molecular hydrogen (H2). Here, we comprehensively review the distribution, biochemistry, and physiology of H2 metabolism in pathogens. Over 200 pathogens and pathobionts carry...
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Panagiota Ligda, Edwin Claerebout, Stijn Casaert, Lucy J. Robertson, Smaragda SotirakiAbstractMarine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish...
Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Tamirat Tefera Temesgen, Alessandra Barlaam, Kristoffer R. Tysnes, Lucy J. RobertsonAbstractThe potential public health impact of foodborne parasites transmitted via contaminated fresh produces indicates the necessity for robust and reliable laboratory methods for their detection and identification on this infection vehicle. Standardization of methods for detection of common FBP in...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:23
The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in quick-frozen chickens is a good indicator of the possible transmission risk that this parasite poses to human consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii in quick-frozen chicken hearts using a nested PCR assay. Heart samples (n = 720) from farmers' markets and supermarkets in the Tai'an region, People's Republic of China,...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Francesca Coppola, Michela Maestrini, Federica Berrilli, Isabel Guadano Procesi, Antonio Felicioli, Stefania PerrucciAbstractItaly is the only European country where the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) lives. A parasitological investigation was performed on faecal samples, aimed to evaluate Giardia and other parasites in a free-ranging crested porcupine population in Central Italy...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:24
Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasitic protozoan residing in human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, which is the leading non-viral sexually transmitted disease. It has cosmopolitan distribution throughout the globe and affects both men and women. Lifecycle of the parasite has been traditionally described as consisting of motile and symptom-causing trophozoites. Chemical and temperature...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:23
Background:Toxoplasma gondii infects millions of individuals worldwide. This protozoan is food and water-borne transmitted but blood transfusion and organ transplantation constitute alternative forms for transmission. However, the influence of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in molecular analysis carried out in peripheral blood still remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the serum IgG...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Parisa Shahbazi, Armin Aligolzadeh, Monireh Khordadmehr, Hosein Hashemzadeh Farhang, Farzad KatiraeeAbstractCryptosporidiosis acutely impacts the digestive and/or respiratory tract of the birds in many species of various orders. More importantly, it is also well known as a significant zoonotic disease, which can lead to diarrhea in humans and livestock. Regarding increasing demand for...
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:26
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent, zoonotic parasite of major importance for public health, which can infect any warm-blooded animal species, including humans. Humans can get infected by consumption of meat from a chronically infected animal, by ingestion of sporulated oocysts (resulting from the sexual replication in felids), via contaminated water, soil, or vegetables, and by vertical...
Sat, 12/28/2019 - 03:29
Meat of the South American camelids (SACs) llama and alpaca is an important source of animal protein and income for rural families in the Andes, and a product with significant growth potential for local and international markets. However, infestation with macroscopic cysts of the coccidian protozoon Sarcocystis aucheniae, a parasitosis known as SAC sarcocystosis, significantly hampers its...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:27
Aminopeptidase N is an important metalloenzyme from the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family, which is present in numerous apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, Eimeria, and Cryptosporidium. Aminopeptidase N is a potential drug target, and hence, its properties have been widely investigated. In the current study, the cellular localization and enzyme characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:33
Captive and free‐ranging wild bears can carry and transmit several zoonotic pathogens. A review of nearly 90 years of scientific publications concerning confirmed and potential zoonotic diseases that can be present in any of the eight species of bears in the world was conducted. The findings were organized amongst the following disease sections: bacterial, viral, protozoal, mycotic, helminth and...
Sun, 12/08/2019 - 03:54
Author(s): Kathryn T. Duncan, Nicole R. Koons, Marisa A. Litherland, Susan E. Little, Yoko NagamoriAbstractDomestic dogs commonly harbor intestinal parasites in Oklahoma and throughout the world. We tested fecal samples from dog parks to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and reported use of parasite control in park-attending dogs and assess potential health risks posed by fecal...
Thu, 12/05/2019 - 04:08
Author(s): Angela Assurian, Helen Murphy, Laura Ewing, Hediye Nese Cinar, Alexandre da Silva, Sonia AlmeriaAbstractOutbreaks and sporadic cases of Cyclospora cayetanensis have been linked to consumption of berries. The efficacy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method for detection of C. cayetanensis was evaluated in fresh berries (blackberries, strawberries, blueberries and mixed...
Wed, 12/04/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Yoko Nagamori, Mark E. Payton, Emily Looper, Hadley Apple, Eileen M. JohnsonAbstractOwnership of domestic cats in North America has been on the increase; however, there are only a few surveys conducted on the prevalence of parasitism in client-owned cats over years. Our study objective was to evaluate parasite prevalence through statistical analysis of fecal examination results for...
Tue, 12/03/2019 - 03:49
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Brazil have greater genetic diversity with a predominance of virulent and atypical genotypes, compared with the Northern Hemisphere. Considering that previous studies have demonstrated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in animals from Fernando de Noronha Island,...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Loïc Durand, Stéphanie La Carbona, Alain Geffard, Alessia Possenti, Jitender P. Dubey, Marco LalleAbstractThe apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and cause toxoplasmosis. T. gondii has been highly prioritized among the foodborne parasites regarding its global impact on public health. Human infection can occur through multiple routes, including the ingestion of raw...
Mon, 11/25/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Mohamed Mammeri, Lara Cartou, Aurélie Chevillot, Myriam Thomas, Christine Julien, Isabelle Vallée, Bruno Polack, Jérôme Follet, Karim Tarik AdjouAbstractTo date, no information is available about the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in French sheep, nor their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs. A total of 23 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic lambs (<11 days old) from...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:51
Author(s): Ramesh Prasad Sah, Anita Rani Dey, A.K.M. Anisur Rahman, Mohammad Zahangir Alam, Md. Hasanuzzaman TalukderAbstractThe study was planned to apply the PCR method for detection of T. gondii infection in sheep, goats and cattle aborted fetuses from Mymensingh, Bangladesh. A total of 58 fetal tissue samples (brain, liver, heart, skeletal muscle and placenta) of sheep (5), goats (5) and...
Sun, 11/24/2019 - 03:46
Author(s): Alban L, B. Häsler, G. van Schaik, Ruegg SAbstractThere is a plethora of meat-borne hazards – including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators – irrespective of whether they are...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:58
Author(s): Edoardo PozioAbstractFoodborne parasites, most of which are zoonotic, represent an important human health hazard. These pathogens which include both protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii) and helminths (e.g., liver and intestinal flukes, Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp., Angiostrongylus spp., Anisakis spp.,...
Tue, 11/19/2019 - 03:34
Author(s): Bian-hua Zhou, Liu-shu Jia, Hong-wei Guo, Hai-yan Ding, Jing-yun Yang, Hong-wei WangAbstractEimeria tenella, an obligate intracellular parasite, can actively invade the cecal epithelial cells of chickens and cause severe enteric disease. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) plays a major role in protein synthesis and cell survival. This study aims to explore the exact mechanisms...
Mon, 11/18/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Patrício da Silva Cardoso Barros, Caroline Martins Mota, Vanessa dos Santos Miranda, Flávia Batista Ferreira, Eliézer Lucas Pires Ramos, Silas Silva Santana, Lourenço Faria Costa, Ana Cláudia Arantes Marques Pajuaba, José Roberto Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca MineoAbstractNeospora caninum infection is an important cause of neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortion in cattle, leading...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Huifang Deng, Arno Swart, Yongning Wu, Xiaowei Li, Jianhua Li, Mingyuan Liu, Marieke Opsteegh, Joke W.B. van der GiessenAbstractToxoplasma gondii, a protozoan zoonotic parasite, has a worldwide distribution. It can cause severe pathological damage to the fetus in primary infected pregnant women and life-threatening encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the main...
Mon, 11/04/2019 - 03:29
Background The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis occurring in the municipality of Montes Claros de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil, from December 2015 to August 2016. Seven acute cases in June 2016 triggered the subsequent search. Methods A total of 251 individuals were selected through an active search, of which 114 (45.4%) agreed to participate in the research and...
Sat, 11/02/2019 - 03:30
Background Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite that can have severe implications for human health. Acutely infected cats shed environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts in their faeces that contaminate soil, and soil can serve as a reservoir of infection for humans. Free‐roaming domestic cats are thought to play an important role in environmental contamination with T. gondii, but few...
Fri, 11/01/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Huifang Deng, Arno Swart, Axel A. Bonačić Marinović, Joke W.B. van der Giessen, Marieke OpsteeghAbstractThe protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals and it causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Meat containing viable T. gondii tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection. The relative importance of the different types of meat depends...
Tue, 10/29/2019 - 03:27
We assessed the risk for toxoplasmosis in 10 school restaurants in Armenia (Quindio, Colombia). We analyzed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the food, water, and living and inert surfaces of school restaurants, and we correlated these findings with the results of food safety inspection scores and with the prevalence of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies in children who ate at these...
Sat, 10/26/2019 - 03:46
Author(s): Jitender P. Dubey, Dolores E. Hill, Valsin Fournet, Diane Hawkins-Cooper, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H.A. Murata, Shiv K. Verma, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Surabhi Rani, Jorrell Fredericks, Brandon Adams, Jeffrey L. Jones, Ryan E. Wiegand, Yuqing Ying, Miao Guo, Chunlei Su, Abani K. PradhanAbstractIn a national survey of fresh, unfrozen, American pasture-raised lamb and pork, the...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:50
Author(s): Mariem Rouatbi, Safa Amairia, Mustapha Lahmer, Narjess Lassoued, Mourad Rekik, Barbara Wieland, Joram M. Mwacharo, Mohamed GharbiAbstractToxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection, disrupts sexual functions resulting in decline in reproductive and economic performance in sheep. Lacking discernible symptoms, toxoplasmosis is difficult to detect and diagnose in infected animals. Here, to...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:43
Giardia lamblia is usually cultured axenically in TYI-S-33, a complex medium which does not permit survival and growth of mammalian cells. Likewise, medium commonly used to maintain and grow mammalian cells does not support healthy trophozoite survival for more than a few hours. The inability to coculture trophozoites and epithelial cells under optimal conditions limits studies of their...
Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:40
Author(s): Paul M. Bartley, Alison Burrells, Julio Benavides, German Canton, Joao L. Garcia, Jackie Thomson, Fransesca Chianini, Elisabeth A. Innes, Frank KatzerAbstractToxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution and can infect almost all warm blooded animals including pigs and humans. This study aims to examine the immune responses induced in pigs following vaccination (live S48 tachyzoites)...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Müller Ribeiro-Andrade, Jéssica de Crasto Souza Carvalho, Renato Amorim da Silva, Maria da Conceição Carvalho, Wagnner José Nascimento Porto, Rinaldo Aparecido MotaAbstractThe ability to differentiate from the proliferative (tachyzoite) to the latent (bradyzoite) stage of isolates of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant genotypes (I/II/III and I/III) and reference strains from a clonal line (...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:32
This work assessed the risk of protozoa in 10 school restaurants in Armenia (Quindío, Colombia) by analyzing the presence of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis, and Cyclospora cayetanensis DNA in the food, water, and living and inert surfaces of school restaurants and in stools of children who ate at these restaurants. Of the 213 food, water, and surface samples, 6.6% were...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:48
Author(s): Xiao Xiao, Rui Qi, Hui-Ju Han, Jian-Wei Liu, Xiang-Rong Qin, Li-Zhu Fang, Chuan-Min Zhou, Xiao-Qing Gong, Si-Cong Lei, Xue-Jie YuAbstractSnakes are popular as food and traditional medicine in China. However, information about parasitic and bacterial infections in snakes from China is scarce. We investigated the prevalence of selected zoonotic agents including Cryptosporidium,...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:43
Author(s): A.-C. Geuthner, M. Koethe, M. Ludewig, S. Pott, G. Schares, P. Maksimov, A. Daugschies, B. BangouraAbstractTurkeys and chickens were orally infected with tissue cysts (one mouse brain) or oocysts (103, 105 or 106 oocysts) of three T. gondii strains of the clonal types II and III (ME49, CZ-Tiger, NED) to investigate the influence of the applied T. gondii strain and infective doses on...
Sun, 10/13/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): M.R. Gaafar, L.A. El-Zawawy, M.M. El-Temsahy, Th.I. Shalaby, A.Y. HassanAbstractCyclosporiasis is an emerging worldwide infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Cyclospora cayetanensis. In immunocompetent patients, it is mainly manifested by self-limited diarrhea, which is persistent and may be fatal in immunocompromised patients. The standard treatment for...
Fri, 10/04/2019 - 03:38
Author(s): Alessandra Snak, Gilberto Serighelli Junior, Giulia Von Tonnemann Pilati, Carlos Czpak Kroetz, Wagner Consoni, José Cristani, Anderson Barbosa de MouraAbstractNeospora caninum is known to cause reproductive disturbances in several animal species, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. However, research on the effects of N. caninum on reproduction in pigs is limited. The objective of this...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:41
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous foodborne protozoan that can infect humans at low dose and displays different prevalences among countries in the world. Ingestion of food or water contaminated with small amounts of T. gondii oocysts may result in human infection. However, there are no regulations for monitoring oocysts in food, mainly because of a lack of standardized methods to detect them. The...

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