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PLoS One

Wed, 05/23/2018 - 17:00
Dustin C. Ernst, Andrew J. Borchert, Diana M. Downs Microorganisms respond to a variety of metabolic perturbations repurposing or recruiting pathways to reroute metabolic flux and overcome the perturbation. Elimination of the 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase, PanE, both reduces total coenzyme A (CoA) levels and causes a conditional HMP-P auxotrophy in Salmonella enterica. CoA or acetyl-CoA has no...
Tue, 05/22/2018 - 17:00
Marek Łukasz Roszko, Marta Kamińska, Krystyna Szymczyk, Katarzyna Piasecka-Jóźwiak, Beata Chabłowska The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of xenobiotic mixtures containing persistent organic pollutants isolated from commercial fish oil samples against sex hormone receptors, including estrogen and androgen. The applied bioassay was based on transgenic yeast strains. The mixtures were...
Mon, 05/21/2018 - 17:00
Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Pawan Kumar Singh, Kai Sonder, Gideon Kruseman, Thakur Prasad Tiwari, Naresh C. D. Barma, Paritosh Kumar Malaker, Hans-Joachim Braun, Olaf Erenstein New biotic stresses have emerged around the globe over the last decades threatening food safety and security. In 2016, scientists confirmed the presence of the devastating wheat-blast disease in Bangladesh, South Asia–its...
Mon, 05/21/2018 - 17:00
Victor Neira, Matt Allerson, Cesar Corzo, Marie Culhane, Aaron Rendahl, Montserrat Torremorell The 2009 influenza pandemic, the variant H3N2v viruses in agricultural fairs and the zoonotic poultry H5N9 infections in China have highlighted the constant threat that influenza A viruses (IAV) present to people and animals. In this study we evaluated the effect of IAV vaccination on aerosol shedding...
Wed, 05/16/2018 - 17:00
Tilen Koklic, Štefan Pintarič, Irena Zdovc, Majda Golob, Polona Umek, Alma Mehle, Martin Dobeic, Janez Štrancar High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use...
Wed, 05/16/2018 - 17:00
Isabel Krug, Matthias Behrens, Melanie Esselen, Hans-Ulrich Humpf Enniatins are common contaminants of food and feed and belong to the group of the “emerging” mycotoxins, which are produced various Fusarium species. Although a wide range of toxic effects, like antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and cytotoxic properties, have been described in vitro, so far, no cases of mycotoxicosis...
Mon, 05/14/2018 - 17:00
Jagamya Vijayaraghavan, Vijay Kumar, Nikhil P. Krishnan, Ross T. Kaufhold, Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin, Focco van den Akker The bacterial soluble lytic transglycosylase (LT) breaks down the peptidoglycan (PG) layer during processes such as cell division. We present here crystal structures of the soluble LT Cj0843 from Campylobacter jejuni with and without bulgecin A inhibitor in the active site. Cj0843...
Mon, 05/14/2018 - 17:00
Kara B. Marley, Larry A. Kuehn, John W. Keele, Benjamin W. Wileman, Michael G. Gonda Individuals often respond differently to the same vaccine; some of this variation may be caused genetic differences among animals. Our objective was to estimate heritability and identify genomic regions associated with humoral response to an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in beef cattle. Crossbred beef cattle...
Wed, 05/09/2018 - 17:00
Zhila Esna Ashari, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Kelly A. Brayton, Shira L. Broschat Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are multi-protein complexes in a number of bacterial pathogens that can translocate proteins and DNA to the host. Most T4SSs function in conjugation and translocate DNA; however, approximately 13% function to secrete proteins, delivering effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic...
Wed, 05/09/2018 - 17:00
Seon Woo Kim, Julie Haendiges, Eric N. Keller, Robert Myers, Alexander Kim, Jason E. Lombard, Jeffrey S. Karns, Jo Ann S. Van Kessel, Bradd J. Haley Unpasteurized dairy products are known to occasionally harbor Listeria monocytogenes and have been implicated in recent listeriosis outbreaks and numerous sporadic cases of listeriosis. However, the diversity and virulence profiles of L....
Wed, 05/09/2018 - 17:00
Friederike Raczkowski, Anne Rissiek, Isabell Ricklefs, Kirsten Heiss, Valéa Schumacher, Kira Wundenberg, Friedrich Haag, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Eva Tolosa, Hans-Willi Mittrücker The ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 degrade extracellular ATP to adenosine. ATP is released stressed or damaged cells and provides pro-inflammatory signals to immune cells through P2 receptors. Adenosine, on the other hand,...
Wed, 05/09/2018 - 17:00
Haiwei Cheng, Yi Yang, Yifei Chen, Xueqiu Chen, Zizheng Cai, Aifang Du Citrinin (CIT) is a hepato-nephrotoxic fungal metabolite produced the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascu. There is an increasing demand for rapid and economical methods for detection CIT residues in fruit. In this study, we developed an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) for detection of citrinin (CIT) residues in...
Tue, 05/08/2018 - 17:00
Sohyun Cho, Lari M. Hiott, John B. Barrett, Elizabeth A. McMillan, Sandra L. House, Shaheen B. Humayoun, Eric S. Adams, Charlene R. Jackson, Jonathan G. Frye Surface waters are important sources of water for drinking, industrial, agricultural, and recreational uses; hence, contamination of water fecal, pathogenic, or antimicrobial resistant (AR) bacteria is a major environmental and public...
Thu, 05/03/2018 - 17:00
Metadel Adane, Brhanu Teka, Yirga Gismu, Goitom Halefom, Muluneh Ademe Introduction In sub-Saharan Africa foodborne disease and foodborne disease outbreaks are frequently ascribed to poor personal hygiene of street food vendors and food handlers in food establishments. Evidence on the level of food hygiene practices and food safety measures among food handlers is required for proper planning and...
Mon, 04/30/2018 - 17:00
Pragathi B. Shridhar, Isha R. Patel, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Lance W. Noll, Xiaorong Shi, Jianfa Bai, Christopher A. Elkins, Nancy Strockbine, T. G. Nagaraja Escherichia coli O104:H4, a hybrid pathotype reported in a large 2011 foodborne outbreak in Germany, has not been detected in cattle feces. However, cattle harbor and shed in the feces other O104 serotypes, particularly O104:H7, which has been...
Wed, 04/25/2018 - 17:00
Tatiane Dobrzanski, Fernanda Gravina, Bruna Steckling, Luiz R. Olchanheski, Ricardo F. Sprenger, Bruno C. Espírito Santo, Carolina W. Galvão, Péricles M. Reche, Rosilene A. Prestes, Sônia A. V. Pileggi, Francinete R. Campos, Ricardo A. Azevedo, Michael J. Sadowsky, Flávio L. Beltrame, Marcos Pileggi The intense use of herbicides for weed control in agriculture causes selection pressure on soil...
Tue, 04/24/2018 - 17:00
Fuxun Ai, Nico Eisenhauer, Yuwei Xie, Jianguo Zhu, Alexandre Jousset, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Xiaowei Zhang, Rong Ji, Hongyan Guo The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in the environment have been rising due to human activities. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels have been shown to affect plant physiology and soil microbes, which may...
Thu, 04/19/2018 - 17:00
Rafael Campos, Fabíola Z. Mónica, Alberto Fernando Oliveira Justo, José Carlos Cogo, Edvana de Toledo Oliveira, Ronilson Agnaldo Moreno, Edson Antunes, Gilberto De Nucci A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant mechanism is responsible for the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions and relaxations of Crotalus durissus terrificus corpora cavernosa. Here it was investigated whether this...
Wed, 04/18/2018 - 17:00
Samar S. Boswihi, Edet E. Udo, Stefan Monecke, Bindu Mathew, BobNoronha, Tina Verghese, Sajida B. Tappa Background Frequent changes in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurring worldwide demand regular surveillance to study their composition and distribution in healthcare facilities. We investigated the genotypic characteristics of MRSA obtained in Kuwait...
Wed, 04/18/2018 - 17:00
Muhammet Karakavuk, Duygu Aldemir, Aurélien Mercier, Esra Atalay Şahar, Hüseyin Can, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Ömer Döndüren, Şengül Can, Hüseyin Gökhan Özdemir, Aysu Değirmenci Döşkaya, Bayram Pektaş, Marie-Laure Dardé, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz, Mert Döşkaya Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoon parasite that causes congenital toxoplasmosis, as well as other serious clinical presentations, in immune...
Mon, 04/16/2018 - 17:00
Nadezhda A. Wall, C. Coral Dominguez-Medina, Sian E. Faustini, Charlotte N. Cook, Andrew McClean, Mark D. Jesky, Marisol Perez-Toledo, Matthew D. Morgan, Alexandra G. Richter, Charles J. Ferro, Paul Cockwell, Paul A. Moss, Ian R. Henderson, Lorraine Harper, Adam F. Cunningham Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. This...
Thu, 04/12/2018 - 17:00
Sarah-Jo Paquette, Kim Stanford, James Thomas, Tim Reuter Often Escherichia coli are harmless and/or beneficial bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of livestock and humans. However, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) have been linked to human disease. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC and STEC “super-shedders” are considered to be a major contributor in animal to animal...
Fri, 04/06/2018 - 17:00
Hyesun Jang, Mohamed Elaish, Mahesh KC, Michael C. Abundo, Amir Ghorbani, John M. Ngunjiri, Chang-Won Lee Outbreaks of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been reported in poultry species in the United States since 2014. These outbreaks have proven the limitations of biosecurity control programs, and new tools are needed to reinforce the current avian influenza control arsenal....
Thu, 04/05/2018 - 17:00
Laura Adamovicz, Matthew C. Allender, Grace Archer, Marta Rzadkowska, Kayla Boers, Chris Phillips, Elizabeth Driskell, Michael J. Kinsel, Caroline Chu Wildlife mortality investigations are important for conservation, food safety, and public health; but they are infrequently reported for cryptic chelonian species. Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) are declining due to...
Wed, 04/04/2018 - 17:00
Joachim Spergser, Igor Loncaric, Alexander Tichy, Johannes Fritz, Alexandra Scope The critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) is a migratory bird that became extinct in Europe centuries ago. Since 2014, the Northern bald ibis is subject to an intensive rehabilitation and conservation regime aiming to reintroduce the bird in its original distribution range in Central Europe...
Tue, 04/03/2018 - 17:00
Hongbo Liu, Binghua Zhu, Shaofu Qiu, Yidan Xia, Beibei Liang, Chaojie Yang, Nian Dong, Yongrui Li, Ying Xiang, Shan Wang, Jing Xie, Muti Mahe, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song Shigella represents one of the major diarrhea-inducing pathogens threatening public health, but its prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, China, remains unclear. We conducted...
Fri, 03/30/2018 - 17:00
Chia-Hsien Chang, Motonobu Sakaguchi, John Weil, Thomas Verstraeten Background The burden of medically-attended acute gastro-enteritis (MA-AGE) that can be attributed to norovirus is not well established in Japan. Using a nationwide database of medical care insurance claims, we estimated the incidence of medically-attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) in Japan. Methods The...
Wed, 03/28/2018 - 17:00
Timothy J. Wade, Swinburne A. J. Augustine, Shannon M. Griffin, Elizabeth A. Sams, Kevin H. Oshima, Andrey I. Egorov, Kaneatra J. Simmons, Tarsha N. Eason, Alfred P. Dufour Background Swimming in fecally-contaminated waterbodies can result in gastrointestinal infections. However, the pathogenic microorganisms responsible are not well understood because sporadic cases of illness are not reported...
Tue, 03/27/2018 - 17:00
Angelina Münster, Corina Knipper, Vicky M. Oelze, Nicole Nicklisch, Marcus Stecher, Björn Schlenker, Robert Ganslmeier, Matthias Fragata, Susanne Friederich, Veit Dresely, Vera Hubensack, Guido Brandt, Hans-Jürgen Döhle, Werner Vach, Ralf Schwarz, Carola Metzner-Nebelsick, Harald Meller, Kurt W. Alt Investigation of human diet during the Neolithic has often been limited to a few archaeological...
Tue, 03/27/2018 - 17:00
Thomas J. Hagenaars, Marielle B. Melchior, Jack J. Windig, Alex Bossers, Aart Davidse, Fred G. van Zijderveld Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep and an example of a disease that may be controlled through breeding for disease resistance. Member states of the European Union have introduced strategies for breeding against scrapie based on the selection of genetically...
Fri, 03/23/2018 - 17:00
Francis Gbogbo, Anna Arthur-Yartel, Josephine A. Bondzie, Winfred-Peck Dorleku, Stephen Dadzie, Bethel Kwansa-Bentum, Julliet Ewool, Maxwell K. Billah, Angela M. Lamptey Background The need to evaluate the human health safety of fishery resources remain urgent in the mist of the ever-increasing fear of heavy metal toxicity from the consumption of Ghana’s fisheries resource, as a consequence of...
Fri, 03/23/2018 - 17:00
Weibing Zhang, Qiaoqiao Luo, Yan Zhu, Jiang Ma, Lei Cao, Min Yang, Pencheng Wen, Zhongmin Zhang, Xiaoling He Douchi has been consumed as a flavoring ingredient for centuries. During production of douchi, numerous microorganisms play important roles in the hydrolysis and conversion of proteins and starch, which are related to the quality and flavor of the end product. Therefore, in the present...
Thu, 03/22/2018 - 17:00
Guillaume Lhermie, Loren William Tauer, Yrjo Tapio Gröhn Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to cure bacterial infectious diseases. However, antimicrobial use (AMU) inevitably leads to the selection of resistant bacteria, potentially infecting humans. As a global public threat, antimicrobial resistance has led policy makers to implement regulations supervising AMU. The objective of our...
Wed, 03/21/2018 - 17:00
Folachodé U. G. Akogou, Heidy M. W. den Besten, A. P. Polycarpe Kayodé, Vincenzo Fogliano, Anita R. Linnemann Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) extract is traditionally used as red biocolorant in West Africa to colour foods, among which wagashi, a soft cheese. This biocolorant is a source of the phytoalexin apigeninidin and phenolic acids, and users claim that it has preservative effects next to its...
Fri, 03/16/2018 - 17:00
Ya-Chi Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Fang-Chun Liao, Sing-Siang Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Hung-Fu Hsu, Sue-Hsien Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan Background Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable...
Fri, 03/16/2018 - 17:00
Manus Carey, Emily Donaldson, Antonio J. Signes-Pastor, Andrew A. Meharg There has been an increasing realisation that young infants are exposed to elevated concentrations of the carcinogen inorganic arsenic, relative to adults. This is because many infant food products are rice based, and rice is ~10-fold elevated in inorganic arsenic compared to most other foods. The European Commission (EC)...
Wed, 03/14/2018 - 17:00
Li Chen, Jilei Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Patrick Butaye, Patrick Kelly, Min Li, Feng Yang, Jiansen Gong, Afrah Kamal Yassin, Weina Guo, Jing Li, Chunlian Song, Chengming Wang Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae. To investigate the presence of the recently...
Thu, 03/08/2018 - 17:00
Laura M. F. Kuijpers, Panha Chung, Marjan Peeters, Marie-France Phoba, Chun Kham, Barbara Barbé, Octavie Lunguya, Jan Jacobs Background In low resource settings, Salmonella serovars frequently cause bloodstream infections. This study investigated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect Salmonella antigens, when applied to stored grown blood...
Thu, 03/08/2018 - 17:00
Fei Li, Ximin Zhang, Jiyi Gong, Lunxian Liu, Yin Yi Karst topography is formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks, such as limestone and dolomite. In soils of such a landform, excessive contents of exchangeable calcium seriously limit the growth of vegetations. Researches have proved that rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes help host plants to adapt to various adverse environments. The...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 17:00
Mini Singh, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Angela Bullanday Scott, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover The objective of this study was to elicit experts’ opinions and gather estimates on the perceived probability of introduction and spread of avian influenza (AI) virus in the Australian broiler and layer industry. Using a modified Delphi method...
Wed, 02/21/2018 - 17:00
Óscar Herrero, Mónica Aquilino, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, Rosario Planelló Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled “BPA-free”. Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates...
Fri, 02/09/2018 - 17:00
Wiebke Jansen, Svenja Woudstra, Anja Müller, Nils Grabowski, Gundela Schoo, Bettina Gerulat, Günter Klein, Corinna Kehrenberg Though imports of products of animal origin into the European Union (EU) have to comply with legal requirements and quality standards of the community, food consignment rejections at external EU borders have been increasing in recent years. This study explored...
Fri, 02/09/2018 - 17:00
Peninah Munyua, Clayton Onyango, Lydia Mwasi, Lilian W. Waiboci, Geoffrey Arunga, Barry Fields, Joshua A. Mott, Carol J. Cardona, Philip Kitala, Philip N. Nyaga, M. Kariuki Njenga Background Influenza A virus subtypes in non-human hosts have not been characterized in Kenya. We carried out influenza surveillance in selected domestic animals and compared the virus isolates with isolates obtained in...
Wed, 02/07/2018 - 17:00
Akua Obeng Forson, Isaac Arthur, Patrick F. Ayeh-Kumi Introduction Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in school children are a public health problem in most developing countries. Methods and principal findings A cross sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2016 with school children living in overcrowded urban slums in Accra, Ghana. A simple random sample of 300 children aged 2–9...
Tue, 02/06/2018 - 17:00
Assia Saltykova, Véronique Wuyts, Wesley Mattheus, Sophie Bertrand, Nancy H. C. Roosens, Kathleen Marchal, Sigrid C. J. De Keersmaecker Whole genome sequencing represents a promising new technology for subtyping of bacterial pathogens. Besides the technological advances which have pushed the approach forward, the last years have been marked considerable evolution of the whole genome sequencing...
Thu, 02/01/2018 - 17:00
Minal Mulye, Brianne Zapata, Stacey D. Gilk Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen and a causative agent of culture-negative endocarditis. While C. burnetii initially infects alveolar macrophages, it has also been found in lipid droplet (LD)-containing foamy macrophages in the cardiac valves of endocarditis patients. In addition, transcriptional studies of C. burnetii-...
Wed, 01/31/2018 - 17:00
Ibrahim Hamad, Rita Abou Abdallah, Isabelle Ravaux, Saadia Mokhtari, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Caroline Michelle, Andreas Stein, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have...
Wed, 01/31/2018 - 17:00
Ziyao Zhou, Furui Liu, Xinyue Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Zhijun Zhong, Huaiyi Su, Jin Li, Haozhou Li, Fan Feng, Jingchao Lan, Zhihe Zhang, Hualin Fu, Yanchun Hu, Suizhong Cao, Weigang Chen, Jiabo Deng, Jianqiu Yu, Wenping Zhang, Guangneng Peng Surfactin secreted Bacillus subtilis can confer strong, diverse antipathogenic effects, therebenefitting the host. Carbon source is an important factor for...
Mon, 01/29/2018 - 17:00
Hannah A. DeBerg, Mussaret B. Zaidi, Matthew C. Altman, Prasong Khaenam, Vivian H. Gersuk, Freddy D. Campos, Iza Perez-Martinez, Mario Meza-Segura, Damien Chaussabel, Jacques Banchereau, Teresa Estrada-Garcia, Peter S. Linsley Globally, diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of death in children under five and disproportionately affect children in developing countries. Children who contract...
Fri, 01/26/2018 - 17:00
Lisa Ciesinski, Sebastian Guenther, Robert Pieper, Martin Kalisch, Carmen Bednorz, Lothar H. Wieler High levels of zinc oxide are used frequently as feed additive in pigs to improve gut health and growth performance and are still suggested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. However, we have recently described an increase of multi-resistant E. coli in association to zinc feeding...

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