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PLoS One

Thu, 05/23/2019 - 17:00
Ameer Megahed, Brian Aldridge, James Lowe Providing the dairy industry with an effective and safe disinfectant is considered a key step in improving the farm hygiene and biosecurity. Salmonella infection via foodborne transmission remains a major public health threat. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize and compare the decontamination power of NaOCl, aqueous-O3, and...
Wed, 05/22/2019 - 17:00
Katharina Loreck, Sylvia Mitrenga, Diana Meemken, Regina Heinze, Annett Reissig, Elke Mueller, Ralf Ehricht, Claudia Engemann, Matthias Greiner In order to monitor the occurrence of zoonotic agents in pig herds as well as to improve herd health management, the development of new cost-effective diagnostic methods for pigs is necessary. In this study, a protein microarray-based assay for the...
Mon, 05/20/2019 - 17:00
Francesco Celandroni, Alessandra Vecchione, Alice Cara, Diletta Mazzantini, Antonella Lupetti, Emilia Ghelardi Spores of several Bacillus species have long history of consumption and safe use as probiotics and a variety of formulations containing these organisms are available in the global market. Considering the difficulties in the identification of Bacillus species and the poor microbiological...
Thu, 05/16/2019 - 17:00
Vincenzo Motta, Diana Luise, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi The host-microbiota interplay is recognized as a key factor for the homeostatic maintenance in animals. In pigs, the weaning transition represents a drastic changes event leading to high risk of gut dysbiosis, which in most cases results in economic losses for swine industry. The blood type antigens expressed on mucosal surfaces can act as...
Thu, 05/16/2019 - 17:00
Luke A. Schwerdtfeger, Nora Jean Nealon, Elizabeth P. Ryan, Stuart A. Tobet Background Human intestines contain a heterogeneous collection of cells that include immune, neural and epithelial elements interacting in a highly complex physiology that is challenging to maintain ex vivo. There is an extreme oxygen gradient across the intestinal wall due in part to microbiota in the lumen and close to...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 17:00
Jiayu Liu, Ibrahem Jasim, Zhenyu Shen, Lu Zhao, Majed Dweik, Shuping Zhang, Mahmoud Almasri An impedance based microfluidic biosensor for simultaneous and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes B and D in ready-to-eat (RTE) Turkey matrix has been presented. Detection of Salmonella at a concentration as low as 300 cells/ml with a total detection time of 1 hour has been achieved. The sensor has...
Fri, 05/10/2019 - 17:00
Anita W. M. Suijkerbuijk, Eelco A. B. Over, Marieke Opsteegh, Huifang Deng, Paul F. van Gils, Axel A. Bonačić Marinović, Mattijs Lambooij, Johan J. Polder, Talitha L. Feenstra, Joke W. B. van der Giessen, G. Ardine de Wit, Marie-Josee J. Mangen In the Netherlands, toxoplasmosis ranks second in disease burden among foodborne pathogens with an estimated health loss of 1,900 Disability Adjusted...
Fri, 05/10/2019 - 17:00
Marija Miljkovic, Sofija Jovanovic, Paula M. O’Connor, Nemanja Mirkovic, Branko Jovcic, Brankica Filipic, Miroslav Dinic, David John Studholme, Djordje Fira, Paul D. Cotter, Milan Kojic Bacteria active against multi-drug resistant pathogens, isolated direct selection of colonies from clover silage samples, produce zones of inhibition against two Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae Ni9 and...
Wed, 05/08/2019 - 17:00
Jianjian Wei, Jie Zhou, Yakun Liu, Jie Wu, Tao Jin, Yuguo Li, Hui-Ling Yen Infectious virus-laden aerosols generated during poultry processing may mediate airborne transmissions of avian influenza at live poultry markets. To develop effective control measures to reduce aerosol dispersion, we characterised the aerosol flow pattern of the mechanical defeatherers, a major source of aerosol...
Thu, 05/02/2019 - 17:00
Wenxin Liu, Chaowen Yuan, Liguo Zhang, Yufei Feng Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) constitutes a major cause of diarrhea in young children and animals, particularly in poor regions of the world, as well the traveler’s diarrhea in adult individuals. Type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) from ETEC can cause profuse watery diarrhea, posing a potential threat to public health and animal...
Fri, 04/26/2019 - 17:00
Emma T. Helm, ShelCurry, Julian M. Trachsel, Martine Schroyen, Nicholas K. Gabler Antibiotics have been used for over 60 years the swine industry to improve growth performance and feed efficiency. With rising concerns over antimicrobial resistance and government restrictions such as the Veterinary Feed Directive on usage of in-feed antibiotics, alternatives to feeding antibiotic growth promoters...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 17:00
Xuzheng Shan, Shengjie Lai, Hongxiu Liao, Zhongjie Li, Yajia Lan, Weizhong Yang Background From 2013 to 2017, more than one thousand avian influenza A (H7N9) confirmed cases with hundreds of deaths were reported in mainland China. To identify priorities for epidemic prevention and control, a risk assessing framework for subnational variations is needed to define the epidemic potential of A (H7N9...
Thu, 04/11/2019 - 17:00
Lester Hiley, Rikki M. A. Graham, Amy V. Jennison The virulence plasmid pSLT as exemplified the 94 Kb plasmid in Salmonella Typhimurium strain LT2 is only found in isolates of serovar Typhimurium. While it occurs commonly among such isolates recent genotyping methods have shown that it is mostly confined to certain genotypes. Although pSLT plasmids are capable of self-transmissibility under...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 17:00
Xiaoqin Wang, Zhi-Min Li, Qingyue Li, Mingsong Shi, Lingling Bao, Dingguo Xu, Zhimin Li Fermentation-respiration switch protein (FrsA) was thought to play an important role in controlling the metabolic flux between respiration and fermentation pathways, whereas the biochemical function of FrsA was unclear yet. A gene coding for FrsA protein from Vibrio vulnificus was chemically synthesized. The...
Mon, 03/25/2019 - 17:00
Clifford Clark, Chrystal Berry, Walter Demczuk Campylobacter transducer-like proteins (Tlps), also known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), are associated with virulence as well as niche and host adaptation. While functional attributes of these proteins are being elucidated, little has been published regarding their sequence diversity or chromosomal locations and context, although...
Thu, 03/21/2019 - 17:00
Marianna Ranieri, Annarita Di Mise, Graziana Difonzo, Mariangela Centrone, Maria Venneri, Tommaso Pellegrino, Annamaria Russo, Maria Mastrodonato, Francesco Caponio, Giovanna Valenti, Grazia Tamma Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy and highly toxic metal that contaminates air, food and water. Cadmium accumulates in several organs altering normal functions. The kidney is the major organ at risk of damage...
Fri, 03/15/2019 - 17:00
Diah Ayuningrum, Yang Liu, Riyanti, Mada T. Sibero, Rhesi Kristiana, Meezan A. Asagabaldan, Zerlina G. Wuisan, Agus Trianto, Ocky Karna Radjasa, Agus Sabdono, Till F. Schäberle Tunicates (Ascidians, sea squirts) are marine protochordates, which live sedentary or sessile in colonial or solitary forms. These invertebrates have to protect themselves against predators and invaders. A most successful...
Fri, 03/15/2019 - 17:00
Antoine Dujardin, Peter De Wolf, Frank Lafont, Vincent Dupres In the last 20 years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a ubiquitous technique in biological research, allowing the analysis of biological samples under near-physiological conditions from single molecules to living cells. Despite its growing use, the low process throughput remains a major drawback. Here, we propose a...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 17:00
Reza Farahani Khaltabadi, Nader Shahrokhi, Mina Ebrahimi-Rad, Parastoo Ehsani Salmonella Typhimurium, a zoonotic pathogen, is regarded as a major health and economic concern worldwide. Recently, monophasic variants of this serovar have been significantly associated with human gastroenteritis outbreaks globally, making its accurate identification essential for epidemiological and control purposes...
Mon, 03/11/2019 - 17:00
Neha Dabral, Grant N. Burcham, Neeta Jain-Gupta, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Ramesh Vemulapalli Brucella abortus RB51 is an attenuated, stable, spontaneous rough mutant derived in the laboratory from the virulent strain B. abortus 2308. Previous studies discovered that the wboA gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for synthesis of the O-polysaccharide, is disrupted in strain RB51 an...
Mon, 03/11/2019 - 17:00
Zi-Qi Lin, Soo-Wah Gan, Szu-Yu Tung, Chun-Che Ho, Li-Hsin Su, Chin-Hung Sun Giardia lamblia becomes dormant differentiation into a water-resistant cyst that can infect a new host. Synthesis of three cyst wall proteins (CWPs) is the fundamental feature of this differentiation. Myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) proteins are involved in cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis in mammals, but little is...
Fri, 03/08/2019 - 17:00
Reda Mohamed-Salem, Carmina Rodríguez Fernández, Elvira Nieto-Pelegrín, Beatriz Conde-Valentín, Angel Rumbero, Narcisa Martinez-Quiles Diarrheic diseases account for the annual death of approximately 1.9 million children under the age of 5 years, and it is a major cause of work absenteeism in developed countries. As diarrheagenic bacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) attach to cells...
Thu, 03/07/2019 - 17:00
Jae Seung Yang, So Jung An, Mi Seon Jang, Manki Song, Seung Hyun Han Serum vibriocidal antibody assays have long been used to evaluate the immunogenicity of cholera vaccines formulated with killed whole-cell Vibrio cholerae. However, the antibody isotypes responsible for the serum vibriocidal activity are not fully characterized. In this study, we examined 20 clinical serum samples obtained from...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 17:00
Jakob A. Shimshoni, Roy Sperling, Muhammad Massarwa, Yaira Chen, Vijayakumar Bommuraj, Mikhail Borisover, Shimon Barel Beehive products such as honey, beeswax and recently pollen have been regarded for many years as appropriate sentinels for environmental pesticide pollutions. However, despite yearly application of hundreds of approved pesticides in agricultural fields, only a minor fraction of...
Fri, 02/15/2019 - 17:00
Marianne S. Morseth, Inger Aakre, Ingrid Barikmo, Lisbeth Dahl, Sigrun Henjum Excessive iodine intake is a major public health problem in the Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria, where animal milk is an important source of iodine. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between iodine concentrations in locally produced animal milk and in animal drinking water and further to assess...
Thu, 02/14/2019 - 17:00
Alda F. A. Pires, Amos Peterson, Jerome N. Baron, Ragan Adams, Beatriz Martínez-López, Dale Moore The number of small-scale and backyard livestock and poultry owners in urban and peri-urban areas has increased greatly over the last 10 years in the U.S. However, these animal owners may live in areas without access to livestock and/or poultry veterinary care. The purpose of this study was to...
Thu, 02/14/2019 - 17:00
Marcelle Mareze, Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Ana Pérola Drulla Brandão, Fernanda Pinto-Ferreira, Ana Carolina Miura, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Eloiza Teles Caldart, Alexander Welker Biondo, Roberta Lemos Freire, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Italmar Teodorico Navarro Human toxoplasmosis, a protozoonosis caused Toxoplasma gondii, has been described as a worldwide foodborne disease with important...
Fri, 02/08/2019 - 17:00
James B. Thissen, Nicholas A. Be, Kevin McLoughlin, Shea Gardner, Paul G. Rack, Michael H. Shapero, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Tom Slezak, Crystal J. Jaing Microarrays have proven to be useful in rapid detection of many viruses and bacteria. Pathogen detection microarrays have been used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections in clinical samples and to evaluate the safety of biological drug...
Mon, 02/04/2019 - 17:00
Sivaraman Subramaniam, Volker S. Müller, Nina A. Hering, Hans Mollenkopf, Daniel Becker, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch, Anne Pohlmann, Karsten Tedin, Steffen Porwollik, Michael McClelland, Thomas F. Meyer, Sabine Hunke The Cpx-envelope stress system regulates the expression of virulence factors in many Gram-negative pathogens. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium deletion of the sensor...
Wed, 01/16/2019 - 17:00
Ismail I. Althagafi, Saleh A. Ahmed, Waleed A. El-Said Aflatoxins (AFs) are a family of fungal toxins that produced in food and feed two Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus). Several techniques have been reported for AFs detection including high-pressure liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance and recombinant immune...
Wed, 01/16/2019 - 17:00
Changjian Jiang, Chen Meng, Adam Schapaugh The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) mandates two sets of statistical tests in the comparative assessment of a genetically-modified (GM) crop: difference testing to demonstrate whether the GM crop is different from its appropriate non-traited control; and equivalence testing to demonstrate whether it is equivalent to conventional references with an...
Mon, 01/14/2019 - 17:00
Jessica Guzman-Otazo, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Violeta Poma, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Kaisa Thorell, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Volga Iñiguez, Åsa Sjöling Water borne diarrheal pathogens might accumulate in river water and cause contamination of drinking and irrigation water. The La Paz River basin, including the Choqueyapu River, flows through La Paz city in Bolivia where it is receiving sewage, and...
Fri, 01/11/2019 - 17:00
Jiayou Liu, Jodi R. Parrish, Julie Hines, Linda Mansfield, Russell L. Finley Jr. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a foodborne intestinal pathogen and major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni proteins that are immunogenic have been sought for their potential use in the development of biomarkers, diagnostic assays, or subunit vaccines for humans or livestock. To identify new...
Fri, 01/11/2019 - 17:00
Viia Kõiv, Krõõt Arbo, Ülo Maiväli, Veljo Kisand, Märt Roosaare, Maido Remm, Tanel Tenson Plants contain endophytic bacteria, whose communities both influence plant growth and can be an important source of probiotics. Here we used deep sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene fragment and bacterial cultivation to independently characterize the microbiomes of five plant species from divergent taxonomic...
Tue, 01/08/2019 - 17:00
Vijay Singh Chhetri, Kathryn Fontenot, Ronald Strahan, Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy, Cameron Cason, Karuna Kharel, Achyut Adhikari Pre-harvest contamination of produce has been a major food safety focus. Insight into the behavior of enteric pathogens on produce in pre-harvest conditions will aid in developing pre-harvest and post-harvest risk management strategies. In this study, the attachment...
Wed, 01/02/2019 - 17:00
Lauren Zebertavage, Shelly Bambina, Jessica Shugart, Alejandro Alice, Kyra D. Zens, Peter Lauer, Bill Hanson, Michael J. Gough, Marka R. Crittenden, Keith S. Bahjat Dysregulated signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-family is believed to contribute to the progression of a diverse array of cancers. The most common variant of EGFR is EGFRvIII, which results from a consistent...
Mon, 12/31/2018 - 17:00
Xosé M. Matanza, Carlos R. Osorio The marine bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd) is a generalist and facultative pathogen that causes disease in a wide range of marine animals including fish species of importance in aquaculture. Disease outbreaks in fish farms have been correlated with an increased water temperature during summer months. In this study, we have used RNA...
Thu, 12/27/2018 - 17:00
Justin S. Baba, Timothy E. McKnight, M. Nance Ericson, Anthony Johnson, Kenneth J. Moise Jr., Boyd M. Evans III Background Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a fetal defect comprising an incomplete diaphragm and the herniation of abdominal organs into the chest cavity that interfere with fetal pulmonary development. Though the most promising treatment for CDH is via interventional...
Fri, 12/21/2018 - 17:00
Chelsea A. O’Driscoll, Madeline E. Gallo, Erica J. Hoffmann, John H. Fechner, James J. Schauer, Christopher A. Bradfield, Joshua D. Mezrich Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex component of air pollution that is a composed of inorganic and organic constituents. The chemically-extracted organic fraction (OF) of PM excludes inorganics but retains most organic constituents like...
Wed, 12/12/2018 - 17:00
Zi Teng, Sam van Haute, Bin Zhou, Cathleen J. Hapeman, Patricia D. Millner, Qin Wang, Yaguang Luo Water conservation and economics dictate that fresh produce processors reuse/recirculate the process water. However, the ensuing accumulation of organic matter in water depletes the chlorine sanitizer required for food safety. In this study, we comprehensively investigated chemical compounds that...
Fri, 12/07/2018 - 17:00
József Lanszki, Matthew W. Hayward, Nikolett Nagyapáti Little is known of the resources that limit or promote the rapidly expanding golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Europe. We hypothesised that in an area of intensive big game hunting, a reduction of the main food resource (human subsidised big game viscera) would result in dietary switching. We used multivariate analyses to test...
Thu, 12/06/2018 - 17:00
Yu-Mi Lee, Se-A Kim, Gyu-Seog Choi, Soo-Yeun Park, Seong Woo Jeon, Hyun Seok Lee, Su-Jin Lee, Somi Heo, Duk-Hee Lee Background Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have recently been linked to immunosenescence, a key mechanism in carcinogenesis, as well as many aging-related chronic diseases. Since feces are the main excretion route of POPs, the large intestine is a potential target...
Tue, 12/04/2018 - 17:00
Mohammad Munir Mostafiz, Pijush Kanti Jhan, Jae-Kyoung Shim, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee Methyl benzoate (MB) is a plant-derived volatile organic compound with insecticidal properties, but such activity has not been evaluated against the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a major crop pest. In this study, we tested methyl benzoate control efficacy on B. tabaci...
Fri, 11/30/2018 - 17:00
Kizuku Watanabe, Jiro Kato, Jianfeng Zhu, Hirotake Oda, Hiroko Ishiwata-Endo, Joel Moss Cholera toxin, an 84-kDa multimeric protein and a major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, uses the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of its A subunit to intoxicate host cells. ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins, in which the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ is transferred to an...
Mon, 11/19/2018 - 17:00
Akihiko Arakawa, Yukako Kasai, Kazuto Yamazaki, Fukumatsu Iwahashi Quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), which inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory system binding to the Qo site of Complex III in fungi, are widely used as pesticides with broad spectrum antifungal activity. However, excessive use of QoIs leads to pesticide resistance through mutation of amino acid residues in the Qo site. Recently...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 17:00
Fanuel Kawaka, Huxley Makonde, Mathews Dida, Peter Opala, Omwoyo Ombori, John Maingi, John Muoma Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes plays a critical role in improving soil fertility. Despite this vital role, there is limited information on the genetic diversity and BNF of bacteria nodulating common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic...
Wed, 11/14/2018 - 17:00
Leah E. Worton, Edith M. Gardiner, Ronald Y. Kwon, Leah M. Downey, Brandon J. Ausk, Steven D. Bain, Ted S. Gross At sufficient dose, intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin A causes muscle wasting that is physiologically consistent with surgical denervation and other types of neuromuscular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to clarify early molecular and micro-RNA alterations in skeletal...
Mon, 11/12/2018 - 17:00
Brecht Ingelbeen, Mathias Bruyand, Patricia Mariani-Kurkjian, Simon Le Hello, Kostas Danis, Cécile Sommen, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Henriette de Valk To generate hypotheses on possible sources of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroup O80 associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), we explored differences in factors associated with STEC O80 associated HUS, compared with STEC O157 or...
Wed, 11/07/2018 - 17:00
Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Eric K. Brefo-Mensah, Michael Palmer, Patrick Boerlin, John F. Prescott NetF-producing type A Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of canine and foal necrotizing enteritis. NetF, related to the β-sheet pore-forming Leukocidin/Hemolysin superfamily, is considered a major virulence factor for this disease. The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate the pore-...
Wed, 11/07/2018 - 17:00
Daniel B. Pederson, Yuqing Dong, Levi B. Blue, Sara V. Smith, Min Cao Quorum sensing (QS) and nucleotide-based second messengers are vital signaling systems that regulate bacterial physiology in response to changing environments. Disrupting bacterial signal transduction is a promising direction to combat infectious diseases, and QS and the second messengers are undoubtedly potential targets. In...

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