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PLoS One

Mon, 10/15/2018 - 17:00
Brooke L. Deatherage Kaiser, Karen K. Hill, Theresa J. Smith, Charles H. D. Williamson, Paul Keim, Jason W. Sahl, Karen L. Wahl Microorganisms alter gene and protein expression in response to environmental conditions to adapt and survive. Whereas the genetic composition of a microbe represents an organism’s biological potential, the proteins expressed provide a functional readout of the organism...
Mon, 10/15/2018 - 17:00
Aya Tentaku, Takaaki Shimohata, Sho Hatayama, Junko Kido, Anh Quoc Nguyen, Yuna Kanda, Shiho Fukushima, Takashi Uebanso, Taketoshi Iwata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Nagakatsu Harada, Akira Takahashi Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Bacterial entry into a host eukaryotic cell involves the initial steps of adherence and invasion, which generally...
Fri, 10/12/2018 - 17:00
Laurie A. Baeten, Brendan K. Podell, Ann E. Sluder, Anja Garritsen, Richard A. Bowen, Mark C. Poznansky Historically, vaccination with Coxiella burnetii whole cell vaccines has induced hypersensitivity reactions in humans and animals that have had prior exposure to the pathogen as a result of infection or vaccination. Intradermal skin testing is routinely used to evaluate exposure in humans, and...
Wed, 10/10/2018 - 17:00
Daniel E. Dawson, Jocelyn H. Keung, Monica G. Napoles, Michael R. Vella, Shi Chen, Michael W. Sanderson, Cristina Lanzas The causes of seasonal variability in pathogen transmission are not well understood, and have not been comprehensively investigated. In an example for enteric pathogens, incidence of Escherichia coli O157 (STEC) colonization in cattle is consistently higher during warmer...
Thu, 09/27/2018 - 17:00
Anna-Lena Ziese, Jan S. Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Kathrin Busch, Alexandra Anderson, Fatima Sarwar, Natalie Sindern, Stefan Unterer Introduction The impact of probiotics on dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS) has not been evaluated so far. The study aim was to assess the effect of probiotic treatment on the clinical course, intestinal microbiome, and toxigenic Clostridium...
Thu, 09/27/2018 - 17:00
I-Na Lu, Anna Kirsteina, Sophie Farinelle, Stéphanie Willieme, Kaspars Tars, Claude P. Muller, Andris Kazaks Long alpha helix (LAH) from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stem or stalk domain is one of the most conserved influenza virus antigens. Expression of N-terminally extended LAH in E. coli leads to assembly of α-h elical homotrimer which is structurally nearly identical to the...
Wed, 09/26/2018 - 17:00
Tania Pozzo, Shawn M. Higdon, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael G. Hahn, Alan B. Bennett An indigenous maize landrace from the Sierra Mixe region of Oaxaca, Mexico exhibits extensive formation of aerial roots which exude large volumes of a polysaccharide-rich gel matrix or “mucilage” that harbors diazotrophic microbiota. We hypothesize that the mucilage associated microbial community carries out...
Tue, 09/25/2018 - 17:00
Arpan K. Maiti, Sinan Sharba, Nazanin Navabi, Sara K. Lindén Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for infection with attaching and effacing pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has emerged as an anti-inflammatory agent, documented to inhibit Th1 immune responses and successfully treat animal models of inflammation. VIP is also a...
Mon, 09/24/2018 - 17:00
Xu-Sheng Zhang, Giovanni Lo Iacono Hepatitis A is caused hepatitis A virus and occurs worldwide. Estimating the transmissibility, which is usually characterized the basic reproductive number R0, the mean number of secondary infectious cases generated a single primary infectious case introduced into a totally susceptible population, provides crucial information for the effort required to stop...
Fri, 09/21/2018 - 17:00
Peter J. Bonney, Sasidhar Malladi, Gert Jan Boender, J. Todd Weaver, Amos Ssematimba, David A. Halvorson, Carol J. Cardona The spatial spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 during the 2015 outbreak in the U.S. state of Minnesota was analyzed through the estimation of a spatial transmission kernel, which quantifies the infection hazard an infectious premises poses to an...
Fri, 09/21/2018 - 17:00
Muhammad Suleman, Sumera Yasmin, Maria Rasul, Mahreen Yahya, Babar Manzoor Atta, Muhammad Sajjad Mirza The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize and use phosphate solubilizing bacteria to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble Ca-phosphate for wheat plants. For this purpose, 15 phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were isolated from wheat rhizospheric soils of Peshawar and southern...
Thu, 09/20/2018 - 17:00
Abeni Beshiru, Isoken H. Igbinosa, Etinosa O. Igbinosa Salmonella species is an important foodborne pathogen with the non-typhoidal serovars such as Enteritidis and Typhimurium as the most predominant strains. This study examines the biofilm formation, phenotypic virulence factors and cell surface characteristics of Salmonella strains from ready-to-eat shrimps. The ready-to-eat shrimps were...
Tue, 09/11/2018 - 17:00
Ka-Cheung Luk, Kelly E. Coller, George J. Dawson, Gavin A. Cloherty Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a viral pathogen transmitted the fecal-oral route and is a major cause of waterborne acute hepatitis in many developing countries. In addition to infecting humans, HEV has been identified in swine, wild boars, rabbits and other mammals; with swine and wild boars being main reservoirs for zoonotic...
Mon, 09/10/2018 - 17:00
Rafael Campos, Alberto Fernando Oliveira Justo, Fabíola Z. Mónica, José Carlos Cogo, Ronilson Agnaldo Moreno, Valéria Barbosa de Souza, Andre Almeida Schenka, Gilberto De Nucci Endothelium is the main source of catecholamine release in the electrical-field stimulation (EFS)–induced aortic contractions of the non- venomous snake Panterophis guttatus. However, adrenergic vasomotor control in...
Wed, 09/05/2018 - 17:00
Hengchun Cao, Min Wang, Qian Wang, Tingting Xu, Yuhui Du, Huiying Li, Chengqian Qian, Zhiqiu Yin, Lu Wang, Yi Wei, Pan Wu, Xi Guo, Bin Yang, Bin Liu Aeromonas hydrophila is a globally occurring, potentially virulent, gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is known to cause water and food-borne diseases around the world. In this study, we use whole genome sequencing and in silico analyses to...
Tue, 09/04/2018 - 17:00
Coral Pardo-Esté, Alejandro A. Hidalgo, Camila Aguirre, Alan C. Briones, Carolina E. Cabezas, Juan Castro-Severyn, Juan A. Fuentes, Cecilia M. Opazo, Claudia A. Riedel, Carolina Otero, Rodrigo Pacheco, Miguel A. Valvano, Claudia P. Saavedra Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an intracellular bacterium that overcomes host immune system barriers for successful infection....
Fri, 08/31/2018 - 17:00
Karsten Lücke, Isabell Yan, Sonja Krohn, Annika Volmari, Stefanie Klinge, Joanna Schmid, Valéa Schumacher, Oliver M. Steinmetz, Stefan Rose-John, Hans-Willi Mittrücker IL-6 is required for the response of mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Control of infection depends on classical IL-6 signaling via membrane IL-6Rα, but IL-6 target cells and protective mechanisms remain unclear. We used mice...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 17:00
Pepijn Huizinga, Eefje Schrauwen, Silvia García-Cobos, Ina Willemsen, Carlo Verhulst, Alexander W. Friedrich, Paul H. M. Savelkoul, John W. Rossen, Jan Kluytmans Community-acquired carriage and infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are increasing worldwide, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The origins of...
Tue, 08/28/2018 - 17:00
Xin Gao, Xun Yang, Lance Noll, Xiaorong Shi, Jay Worley, Marc Allard, Eric Brown, T. G. Nagaraja, Jianghong Meng Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 continues to pose a serious health threat to human beings. Cattle, a major reservoir of the pathogen, harbor E. coli O157:H7 in their gastrointestinal tract and shed variable concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 into the environment. Genetic...
Mon, 08/27/2018 - 17:00
Eyal Seroussi, Shlomo E. Blum, Oleg Krifucks, Yaniv Lavon, Gabriel Leitner Recent findings have indicated that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) have anti-inflammatory functions, including relief of symptoms in a mouse model of mastitis. This prompted us to investigate the therapeutic application of sPLA2, PLA2G1B, for bovine mastitis. Initial testing of PLA2G1B's effect on bovine mammary...
Wed, 08/22/2018 - 17:00
Maria Gori, Erika Ebranati, Erika Scaltriti, Pol Huedo, Giulia Ciceri, Elisabetta Tanzi, Mirella Pontello, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Stefano Pongolini, Luca Bolzoni Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (serovar Napoli) is an emerging cause of human salmonellosis in Northern Italy. No specific reservoirs of serovar Napoli have been identified in Italy, so far. However, the environment, especially...
Wed, 08/22/2018 - 17:00
Jennifer M. Scarff, Yuliya I. Seldina, James M. Vergis, Christy L. Ventura, Alison D. O’Brien Bacillus cereus strain G9241 was isolated from a patient with pneumonia who had an anthrax-like illness. Like Bacillus anthracis, the virulence of G9241 is dependent on two large plasmids. In G9241 those plasmids are pBCXO1 and pBC210. There is a multi-gene capsule locus on each of these virulence...
Mon, 08/13/2018 - 17:00
Fernanda Almeida, Amanda Aparecida Seribelli, Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Alessandro de MelloVarani, Yan Luo, Marc W. Allard, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been used as a powerful technology for molecular epidemiology, surveillance, identification of species and serotype, identification of the sources of outbreaks, among other purposes...
Fri, 08/10/2018 - 17:00
Ross C. Beier, Roger B. Harvey, Charles A. Hernandez, Michael E. Hume, Kathleen Andrews, Robert E. Droleskey, Maureen K. Davidson, Sonia Bodeis-Jones, Shenia Young, Sara E. Duke, Robin C. Anderson, Tawni L. Crippen, Toni L. Poole, David J. Nisbet Campylobacter coli is a bacterial species that is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top 5 foodborne...
Wed, 08/08/2018 - 17:00
Carolina M. Bedoya-Serna, Euder C. Michelin, Marina M. Massocco, Lucas C. S. Carrion, Silvia H. S. Godoy, Cesar G. Lima, Paulo S. Ceccarelli, George S. Yasui, George E. Rottinghaus, Ricardo L. M. Sousa, Andrezza M. Fernandes Aflatoxins (AF) can be cumulative in fish tissues and can influence weight, length, feed intake and survival depending on the species. The aim of this work is to measure...
Fri, 08/03/2018 - 17:00
Mark A. Schmidt, Holly C. Groom, Allison L. Naleway, Christianne Biggs, S. Bianca Salas, Kayoko Shioda, Zachary Marsh, Judy L. Donald, Aron J. Hall Background This study presents a novel methodology for estimating all-age, population-based incidence rates of norovirus and other pathogens that contribute to acute gastroenteritis in the United States using an integrated healthcare delivery system...
Thu, 07/26/2018 - 17:00
Geethika Reddi, Kali Pruss, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Ronald K. Taylor, Salvador Almagro-Moreno Vibrio cholerae O1, the etiological agent of cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems. Motility is a critical element for the colonization of both the human host and its environmental reservoirs. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemotactic response of...
Wed, 07/25/2018 - 17:00
Tonya M. Santaus, Shan Li, Paula Ladd, Amanda Harvey, Shannon Cole, O. Colin Stine, Chris D. Geddes Sample preparation is a leading bottleneck in rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria. Here, we use Lyse-It® for bacterial cellular lysis, genomic DNA fragmentation, and protein release and degradation for both Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio cholerae. The concept of Lyse-It® employs a...
Mon, 07/23/2018 - 17:00
Soleil E. Worthy, Lillian Haynes, Melissa Chambers, Danika Bethune, Emily Kan, Kevin Chung, Ryan Ota, Charles J. Taylor, Elizabeth E. Glater Food choice is critical for survival because organisms must choose food that is edible and nutritious and avoid pathogenic food. Many organisms, including the nematode C. elegans, use olfaction to detect and distinguish among food sources. C. elegans...
Thu, 07/19/2018 - 17:00
Helen Kathleen Crabb, Joanne Lee Allen, Joanne Maree Devlin, Simon Matthew Firestone, Colin Reginald Wilks, James Rudkin Gilkerson The transmission of Salmonella enterica within a vertically integrated poultry operation was investigated longitudinally over an 18-month period (2013–2014). Thirty six percent of all samples collected (1503 of 4219) were positive for salmonellae with seven...
Wed, 07/18/2018 - 17:00
Mia Madel Alfajaro, Eun-Hyo Cho, Jun-Gyu Park, Ji-Yun Kim, Mahmoud Soliman, Yeong-Bin Baek, Mun-Il Kang, Sang-Ik Park, Kyoung-Oh Cho Cyclooxygenases (COXs)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling pathways are known to modulate a variety of homeostatic processes and are involved in various pathophysiological conditions. COXs/PGE2 signaling pathways have also been demonstrated to have proviral or...
Wed, 07/18/2018 - 17:00
Can Chen, Jian-Bo Yan, Hong-Ling Wang, Peng Li, Ke-Feng Li, Bing Wu, Hui Zhang A total of 1 590 fecal swabs and stool samples from sporadic acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages were collected from January 2013 to March 2018 in the Zhoushan Islands, China, with 99 (6.23%) samples subsequently identified as human norovirus (HuNoV) positive. Phylogenetic analysis of partial RdRp and VP1 gene...
Thu, 07/12/2018 - 17:00
Anna Irene Vedel Sørensen, Thomas Rosendal, Stefan Widgren, Tariq Halasa Knowledge on successful interventions against livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) within pig herds is sparse. In situations like this, a mechanistic simulation model can be a valuable tool for assessing the effect of potential intervention strategies, and prioritising which should be...
Thu, 07/05/2018 - 17:00
Ekaterina Pokrant, Francisca Medina, Aldo Maddaleno, Betty San Martín, Javiera Cornejo Several antimicrobials are routinely used the poultry farming industry on their daily operations, however, researchers have found for some antimicrobials that their residues persist for longer periods in feathers than they do in edible tissues, and at higher concentrations, as well. But this information is not...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 17:00
Uyen T. Nguyen, Sara A. Lincoln, Ana Gabriela Valladares Juárez, Martina Schedler, Jennifer L. Macalady, Rudolf Müller, Katherine H. Freeman A significant portion of oil released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster reached the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) seafloor. Predicting the long-term fate of this oil is hindered a lack of data about the combined influences of pressure, temperature, and sediment...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 17:00
Maximilian B. Maier, Tobias Schweiger, Christian A. Lenz, Rudi F. Vogel The effect of high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments on the inactivation of spores of non-proteolytic type E Clostridium botulinum TMW 2.990 was investigated at high pressures (300 to 600 MPa) and elevated temperatures (80 to 100 °C) in four low-acid foods (steamed sole, green peas with ham, vegetable soup, braised veal) and...
Thu, 06/28/2018 - 17:00
Kelly E. Davidson, Barbara A. Byrne, Alda F. A. Pires, K. Gary Magdesian, Richard V. Pereira Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections contribute to approximately 1.2 million annual illnesses in the United States. Historical and recent outbreaks have been associated with dairy products, ground beef, and direct contact with cattle. Salmonella antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious concern that can...
Thu, 06/14/2018 - 17:00
Ameenat Lola Solebo, Anne-Marie Austin, Maria Theodorou, Chris Timms, Joanne Hancox, Gillian G. W. Adams Background Botulinum toxin injection chemodenervation is a well-established intervention for adult strabismus, and has also been recognised as an effective alternative to routine incisional surgery for paediatric disease. We aimed to investigate the temporal patterns of practice, indications...
Mon, 06/11/2018 - 17:00
Anouk M. Oordt-Speets, Renee Bolijn, Rosa C. van Hoorn, Amit Bhavsar, Moe H. Kyaw Bacterial meningitis is a global public health concern, with several responsible etiologic agents that vary age group and geographical area. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the etiology of bacterial meningitis in different age groups across global regions. PubMed and EMBASE were...
Fri, 06/08/2018 - 17:00
Sara Lomonaco, Matthew A. Crawford, Christine Lascols, Ruth E. Timme, Kevin Anderson, David R. Hodge, Debra J. Fisher, Segaran P. Pillai, Stephen A. Morse, Erum Khan, Molly A. Hughes, Marc W. Allard, Shashi K. Sharma The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemases, bacterial enzymes able to inactivate most β-lactam antibiotics, in Enterobacteriaceae is of increasing concern. The concurrent...
Tue, 06/05/2018 - 17:00
Michela Sali, Flavio De Maio, Michela Tarantino, Giuliano Garofolo, Manuela Tittarelli, Lorena Sacchini, Katiuscia Zilli, Paolo Pasquali, Paola Petrucci, Cinzia Marianelli, Massimiliano Francia, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Rosanna Adone Brucellosis is essentially a disease of domesticated livestock; however, humans can also be infected via the consumption of contaminated meat or dairy products,...
Tue, 06/05/2018 - 17:00
Tryntsje Cuperus, Marina D. Kraaij, Aldert L. Zomer, Albert van Dijk, Henk P. Haagsman Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) such as cathelicidins are multifunctional effectors of the innate immune system with both antimicrobial and pleiotropic immunomodulatory functions. Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) has multiple immunomodulatory effects in vitro and the D-amino acid analog of this peptide has been...
Fri, 06/01/2018 - 17:00
Kristina J. Betz, Elizabeth A. Maier, Surya Amarachintha, David Wu, Erik P. Karmele, Jeremy M. Kinder, Kris A. Steinbrecher, Monica M. McNeal, Deborah H. Luzader, Simon P. Hogan, Sean R. Moore Background Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) transport of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) to mucosal surfaces is thought to promote gut integrity and immunity to Salmonella enterica serovar...
Fri, 06/01/2018 - 17:00
Emily Sellens, Jacqueline M. Norris, Navneet K. Dhand, Jane Heller, Lynne Hayes, Heather F. Gidding, Harold Willaby, Nicholas Wood, Katrina L. Bosward Q fever vaccine uptake among veterinary nurses in Australia is low, suggesting veterinarians are not recommending the vaccination to veterinary personnel. This study aimed to determine the willingness of veterinarians to recommend Q fever...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 17:00
Marisa Hohnadel, Myriam Maumy, Renaud Chollet For nearly a century, conventional microbiological methods have been standard practice for detecting and identifying pathogens in food. Nevertheless, the microbiological safety of food has improved and various rapid methods have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional methods. Alternative methods are expected to detect low cell...
Fri, 05/25/2018 - 17:00
Marion Girard, Sophie Thanner, Nicolas Pradervand, Dou Hu, Catherine Ollagnier, Giuseppe Bee An experimental model for postweaning diarrhea with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) was set up in piglets, and the efficacy of 1% chestnut-tannin extract in preventing diarrhea was subsequently assessed. In a first trial (infection model), 32 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 24 days; average...
Fri, 05/25/2018 - 17:00
Solveig Sølverød Mo, Anne Margrete Urdahl, Knut Madslien, Marianne Sunde, Live L. Nesse, Jannice Schau Slettemeås, Madelaine Norström The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the occurrence of AMR in wild red foxes in relation to human population densities. Samples from wild red foxes (n = 528) included in the Norwegian monitoring programme on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria...
Wed, 05/23/2018 - 17:00
Dustin C. Ernst, Andrew J. Borchert, Diana M. Downs Microorganisms respond to a variety of metabolic perturbations repurposing or recruiting pathways to reroute metabolic flux and overcome the perturbation. Elimination of the 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase, PanE, both reduces total coenzyme A (CoA) levels and causes a conditional HMP-P auxotrophy in Salmonella enterica. CoA or acetyl-CoA has no...
Tue, 05/22/2018 - 17:00
Marek Łukasz Roszko, Marta Kamińska, Krystyna Szymczyk, Katarzyna Piasecka-Jóźwiak, Beata Chabłowska The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of xenobiotic mixtures containing persistent organic pollutants isolated from commercial fish oil samples against sex hormone receptors, including estrogen and androgen. The applied bioassay was based on transgenic yeast strains. The mixtures were...
Mon, 05/21/2018 - 17:00
Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Pawan Kumar Singh, Kai Sonder, Gideon Kruseman, Thakur Prasad Tiwari, Naresh C. D. Barma, Paritosh Kumar Malaker, Hans-Joachim Braun, Olaf Erenstein New biotic stresses have emerged around the globe over the last decades threatening food safety and security. In 2016, scientists confirmed the presence of the devastating wheat-blast disease in Bangladesh, South Asia–its...

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