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PLoS Pathogens

Fri, 07/05/2019 - 17:00
Alfred Fillol-Salom, Ahlam Alsaadi, Jorge A. Moura de Sousa, Li Zhong, Kevin R. Foster, Eduardo P. C. Rocha, José R. Penadés, Hanne Ingmer, Jakob Haaber Temperate phages are bacterial viruses that as part of their life cycle reside in the bacterial genome as prophages. They are found in many species including most clinical strains of the human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 17:00
Yasuha Arai, Norihito Kawashita, Madiha Salah Ibrahim, Emad Mohamed Elgendy, Tomo Daidoji, Takao Ono, Tatsuya Takagi, Takaaki Nakaya, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yohei Watanabe Avian influenza virus H9N2 has been endemic in birds in the Middle East, in particular in Egypt with multiple cases of human infections since 1998. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed H9N2, little is known about the...
Fri, 06/28/2019 - 17:00
Xue Xia, Yue Liu, Andrea Hodgson, Dongqing Xu, Wenxuan Guo, Hongbing Yu, Weifeng She, Chenxing Zhou, Lei Lan, Kai Fu, Bruce A. Vallance, Fengyi Wan Attaching/Effacing (A/E) bacteria include human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and their murine equivalent Citrobacter rodentium (CR), of which EPEC and EHEC are important causative agents of...
Wed, 06/19/2019 - 17:00
Chenggong Ji, Shuo Du, Peng Li, Qinyu Zhu, Xiaoke Yang, Chunhong Long, Jin Yu, Feng Shao, Junyu Xiao The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) belong to the dynamin superfamily of GTPases and function in cell-autonomous defense against intracellular pathogens. IpaH9.8, an E3 ligase from the pathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri, ubiquitinates a subset of GBPs and leads to their proteasomal...
Fri, 06/07/2019 - 17:00
Maria Kusmierek, Jörn Hoßmann, Rebekka Witte, Wiebke Opitz, Ines Vollmer, Marcel Volk, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Hans Wolf-Watz, Petra Dersch Numerous Gram-negative pathogens use a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to promote virulence injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells, which subvert host cell processes. Expression of T3SS and the effectors is triggered upon host cell contact, but...
Thu, 06/06/2019 - 17:00
L. Brock Thornton, Paige Teehan, Katherine Floyd, Christian Cochrane, Amy Bergmann, Bryce Riegel, Andrew J. Stasic, Manlio Di Cristina, Silvia N. J. Moreno, Paul D. Roepe, Zhicheng Dou Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite with the ability to use foodborne, zoonotic, and congenital routes of transmission that causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. The parasites harbor a...
Tue, 05/21/2019 - 17:00
Hisaya K. Ono, Shouhei Hirose, Kouji Narita, Makoto Sugiyama, Krisana Asano, Dong-Liang Hu, Akio Nakane Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced Staphylococcus aureus are known as causative agents of emetic food poisoning. We previously demonstrated that SEA binds with submucosal mast cells and evokes mast cell degranulation in a small emetic house musk shrew model. Notably, primates have been...
Mon, 05/20/2019 - 17:00
Ignacio Santecchia, Frédérique Vernel-Pauillac, Orhan Rasid, Jessica Quintin, Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ivo G. Boneca, Catherine Werts Leptospira interrogans are pathogenic spirochetes responsible for leptospirosis, a worldwide reemerging zoonosis. Many Leptospira serovars have been described, and prophylaxis using inactivated bacteria provides only short-term serovar-specific protection. Therefore,...
Mon, 05/13/2019 - 17:00
S. Peter Howard, Leandro F. Estrozi, Quentin Bertrand, Carlos Contreras-Martel, Timothy Strozen, Viviana Job, Alexandre Martins, Daphna Fenel, Guy Schoehn, Andréa Dessen The type II secretion system (T2SS) is a cell envelope-spanning macromolecular complex that is prevalent in Gram-negative bacterial species. It serves as the predominant virulence mechanism of many bacteria including those of...
Thu, 05/09/2019 - 17:00
Liang Sun, Hyunwook Lee, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Kristina Lanko, Eva Rivero-Buceta, Carol Bator, Belen Martinez-Gualda, Kai Dallmeier, Leen Delang, Pieter Leyssen, Federico Gago, Ana San-Félix, Susan Hafenstein, Carmen Mirabelli, Johan Neyts Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a non-polio neurotropic enterovirus with pandemic potential. There are no antiviral agents approved to prevent or treat EV-A71...
Wed, 04/24/2019 - 17:00
Hanne Dubois, Frederic Sorgeloos, Soroush T. Sarvestani, Liesbet Martens, Yvan Saeys, Jason M. Mackenzie, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Geert van Loo, Ian Goodfellow, Andy Wullaert Norovirus infection is the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, being responsible for over 200,000 deaths annually. Studies with murine norovirus (MNV) showed that protective STAT1 signaling controls viral...
Mon, 04/22/2019 - 17:00
Janina Noster, Tzu-Chiao Chao, Nathalie Sander, Marc Schulte, Tatjana Reuter, Nicole Hansmeier, Michael Hensel Intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) deploy the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-encoded type III secretion system (SPI2-T3SS) for the massive remodeling of the endosomal system for host cells. This activity results in formation of an extensive interconnected...
Mon, 04/01/2019 - 17:00
Tess Dilks, Kirstie Halsey, Rebecca P. De Vos, Kim E. Hammond-Kosack, Neil Andrew Brown Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is the number one floral disease of cereals and poses a serious health hazard contaminating grain with the harmful mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Fungi adapt to fluctuations in their environment, coordinating development and metabolism accordingly. G-protein coupled receptors (...
Thu, 01/10/2019 - 17:00
Sowmya Balasubramanian, Marcia S. Osburne, Haley BrinJones, Albert K. Tai, John M. Leong Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) colonize intestinal epithelium generating characteristic attaching and effacing (AE) lesions. They are lysogenized prophage that encode Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), which is responsible for severe clinical manifestations. As a lysogen, prophage genes leading to lytic growth...
Thu, 12/27/2018 - 17:00
Daiane M. Cerqueira, Marco Túlio R. Gomes, Alexandre L. N. Silva, Marcella Rungue, Natan R. G. Assis, Erika S. Guimarães, Suellen B. Morais, Petr Broz, Dario S. Zamboni, Sergio C. Oliveira Innate immune response against Brucella abortus involves activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs). Among the NLRs involved in the recognition of B. abortus are NLRP3 and AIM2....
Fri, 12/07/2018 - 17:00
Valeria Ciancarella, Luigi Lembo-Fazio, Ida Paciello, Anna-Karin Bruno, Sébastien Jaillon, Sara Berardi, Marialuisa Barbagallo, Shiri Meron-Sudai, Dani Cohen, Antonio Molinaro, Giacomo Rossi, Cecilia Garlanda, Maria Lina Bernardini Shigella spp. are pathogenic bacteria that cause bacillary dysentery in humans invading the colonic and rectal mucosa where they induce dramatic inflammation. Here,...
Wed, 10/31/2018 - 17:00
Mayuka Fujimoto, Ryosuke Goto, Riku Hirota, Masahiro Ito, Takeshi Haneda, Nobuhiko Okada, Tsuyoshi Miki Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) is a cause of food poisoning accompanied with gut inflammation. Although mucosal inflammation is generally thought to be protective against bacterial infection, S. Tm exploits the inflammation to compete with commensal microbiota, theregrowing up...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 17:00
Hui Wang, Xiaolin Xing, Jipeng Wang, Bo Pang, Ming Liu, Jessie Larios-Valencia, Tao Liu, Ge Liu, Saijun Xie, Guijuan Hao, Zhi Liu, Biao Kan, Jun Zhu Bacterial pathogens are highly adaptable organisms, a quality that enables them to overcome changing hostile environments. For example, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to colonize host small intestines and combat host-...
Fri, 10/26/2018 - 17:00
Cedric N. Berger, Valerie F. Crepin, Theodoros I. Roumeliotis, James C. Wright, Nicolas Serafini, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Lu Yu, Eran Elinav, James P. Di Santo, Jyoti S. Choudhary, Gad Frankel Infection with Citrobacter rodentium triggers robust tissue damage repair responses, manifested secretion of IL-22, in the absence of which mice succumbed to the infection. Of the main hallmarks of C....
Tue, 10/23/2018 - 17:00
Shilpa Gadwal, Tanya L. Johnson, Henriette Remmer, Maria Sandkvist Vibrio cholerae and a subset of other Gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter baumannii, express proteins with a C-terminal tripartite domain called GlyGly-CTERM, which consists of a motif rich in glycines and serines, followed a hydrophobic region and positively charged residues. Here we show that VesB, a V. cholerae...
Thu, 10/11/2018 - 17:00
Yana Shaulov, Chikako Shimokawa, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Shruti Nagaraja, Karen Methling, Michael Lalk, Lea Weiss-Cerem, Ayelet T. Lamm, Hajime Hisaeda, Serge Ankri Amebiasis, a global intestinal parasitic disease, is due to Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite, which feeds on bacteria in the large intestine of its human host, can trigger a strong inflammatory response upon invasion of the...
Tue, 09/04/2018 - 17:00
Olivia Benguettat, Rouba Jneid, Julie Soltys, Rihab Loudhaief, Alexandra Brun-Barale, Dani Osman, Armel Gallet The digestive tract is the first organ affected the ingestion of foodborne bacteria. While commensal bacteria become resident, opportunistic or virulent bacteria are eliminated from the gut the local innate immune system. Here we characterize a new mechanism of defense, independent of...
Mon, 08/20/2018 - 17:00
Chenxi Xu, Xing Liu, Huangyuan Zha, Sijia Fan, Dawei Zhang, Shan Li, Wuhan Xiao The essential role of pathogens in host metabolism is widely recognized, yet the mechanisms which they affect host physiology remain to be fully defined. Here, we found that NleB, an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) type III secretion system effector known to possess N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase...
Fri, 08/17/2018 - 17:00
Dustin J. Little, Brian K. Coombes Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) use a needle-like injection apparatus known as the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver protein effectors into host cells. Effector translocation is highly stratified in EPEC with the translocated intimin receptor (Tir) being the first effector delivered into the host. CesT is a multi-cargo chaperone that is...
Mon, 06/18/2018 - 17:00
Frederico Alisson-Silva, Janet Z. Liu, Sandra L. Diaz, Lingquan Deng, Mélanie G. Gareau, Ronald Marchelletta, Xi Chen, Victor Nizet, Nissi Varki, Kim E. Barrett, Ajit Varki While infectious agents have typical host preferences, the noninvasive enteric bacterium Vibrio cholerae is remarkable for its ability to survive in many environments, yet cause diarrheal disease (cholera) only in humans. One...
Thu, 06/07/2018 - 17:00
Abigail L. Reens, Amy L. Crooks, Chih-Chia Su, Toni A. Nagy, David L. Reens, Jessica D. Podoll, Madeline E. Edwards, Edward W. Yu, Corrella S. Detweiler Bacterial efflux pumps transport small molecules from the cytoplasm or periplasm outside the cell. Efflux pump activity is typically increased in multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens; chemicals that inhibit efflux pumps may have potential for...
Wed, 05/30/2018 - 17:00
Cristina Faralla, Effie E. Bastounis, Fabian E. Ortega, Samuel H. Light, Gabrielle Rizzuto, Salvatorre Nocadello, Wayne F. Anderson, Jennifer R. Robbins, Julie A. Theriot, Anna I. Bakardjiev During pregnancy, the placenta protects the fetus against the maternal immune response, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens. Bacterial pathogens that have evolved specific mechanisms of breaching this...
Wed, 05/23/2018 - 17:00
Natasa Giallourou, Gregory L. Medlock, David T. Bolick, Pedro HQS Medeiros, Solanka E. Ledwaba, Glynis L. Kolling, Kenneth Tung, Patricia Guerry, Jonathan R. Swann, Richard L. Guerrant Campylobacter infections are among the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea and of ‘environmental enteropathy’ (EE) and growth failure worldwide. However, the lack of an inexpensive small animal model of enteric...
Mon, 05/21/2018 - 17:00
Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Steve M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and...
Wed, 05/02/2018 - 17:00
Daniel Stern, Jasmin Weisemann, Alexander Le Blanc, Laura von Berg, Stefan Mahrhold, Janett Piesker, Michael Laue, Peter B. Luppa, Martin Bernhard Dorner, Brigitte Gertrud Dorner, Andreas Rummel The exceptional toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is mediated high avidity binding to complex polysialogangliosides and intraluminal segments of synaptic vesicle proteins embedded in the...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 17:00
Adam Bajgar, Tomas Dolezal Phagocytosis hemocytes, Drosophila macrophages, is essential for resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae in adult flies. Activated macrophages require an increased supply of energy and we show here that a systemic metabolic switch, involving the release of glucose from glycogen, is required for effective resistance to S. pneumoniae. This metabolic switch is mediated...
Wed, 04/18/2018 - 17:00
Heather E. Miller, Charles L. Larson, Robert A. Heinzen Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the...
Thu, 04/12/2018 - 17:00
Robert H. Proctor, Susan P. McCormick, Hye-Seon Kim, Rosa E. Cardoza, April M. Stanley, Laura Lindo, Amy Kelly, Daren W. Brown, Theresa Lee, Martha M. Vaughan, Nancy J. Alexander, Mark Busman, Santiago Gutiérrez Trichothecenes are a family of terpenoid toxins produced multiple genera of fungi, including plant and insect pathogens. Some trichothecenes produced the fungus Fusarium are among the...
Mon, 02/26/2018 - 17:00
Paul A. Beare, Brendan M. Jeffrey, Carrie M. Long, Craig M. Martens, Robert A. Heinzen Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and...
Thu, 02/15/2018 - 17:00
Lulla Opatowski, Marc Baguelin, Rosalind M. Eggo Evidence is mounting that influenza virus interacts with other pathogens colonising or infecting the human respiratory tract. Taking into account interactions with other pathogens may be critical to determining the real influenza burden and the full impact of public health policies targeting influenza. This is particularly true for mathematical...
Mon, 02/12/2018 - 17:00
Swastik De, Katherine Kaus, Shada Sinclair, Brandon C. Case, Rich Olson Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic gram-negative microbe responsible for cholera, a pandemic disease causing life-threatening diarrheal outbreaks in populations with limited access to health care. Like most pathogenic bacteria, V. cholerae secretes virulence factors to assist colonization of human hosts, several of which bind...
Thu, 02/08/2018 - 17:00
Finlay Campbell, Camilla Strang, Neil Ferguson, Anne Cori, Thibaut Jombart Recent years have seen the development of numerous methodologies for reconstructing transmission trees in infectious disease outbreaks from densely sampled whole genome sequence data. However, a fundamental and as of yet poorly addressed limitation of such approaches is the requirement for genetic diversity to arise on...
Mon, 01/22/2018 - 17:00
David M. Bland, Clayton O. Jarrett, Christopher F. Bosio, B. Joseph Hinnebusch Fleas can transmit Yersinia pestis two mechanisms, early-phase transmission (EPT) and biofilm-dependent transmission (BDT). Transmission efficiency varies among flea species and the results from different studies have not always been consistent. One complicating variable is the species of rodent blood used for the...
Fri, 01/05/2018 - 17:00
X. Renee Bina, Mondraya F. Howard, Dawn L. Taylor-Mulneix, Vanessa M. Ante, Dillon E. Kunkle, James E. Bina Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux systems are ubiquitous transporters in Gram-negative bacteria that are essential for antibiotic resistance. The RND efflux systems also contribute to diverse phenotypes independent of antimicrobial resistance, but the mechanism which they affect...
Wed, 12/27/2017 - 17:00
Olga Moreno-Gonzalo, Marta Ramírez-Huesca, Noelia Blas-Rus, Danay Cibrián, María Laura Saíz, Inmaculada Jorge, Emilio Camafeita, Jesús Vázquez, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid Recent evidence on HDAC6 function underlines its role as a key protein in the innate immune response to viral infection. However, whether HDAC6 regulates innate immunity during bacterial infection remains unexplored. To assess...
Mon, 12/18/2017 - 17:00
Adriana R. Mantegazza, Meghan A. Wynosky-Dolfi, Cierra N. Casson, Ariel J. Lefkovith, Sunny Shin, Igor E. Brodsky, Michael S. Marks Bacterial pathogens that compromise phagosomal membranes stimulate inflammasome assembly in the cytosol, but the molecular mechanisms which membrane dynamics regulate inflammasome activity are poorly characterized. We show that in murine dendritic cells (DCs), the...
Thu, 11/30/2017 - 17:00
Mounia Kortebi, Eliane Milohanic, Gabriel Mitchell, Christine Péchoux, Marie-Christine Prevost, Pascale Cossart, Hélène Bierne Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease that poses serious risks to fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised adults. This intracellular bacterial pathogen proliferates in the host cytosol and exploits the host actin polymerization machinery to...
Mon, 11/20/2017 - 17:00
Yushi Yao, Hui Li, Jie Ding, Yixin Xia, Lei Wang Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM), which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm) cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense...
Thu, 11/02/2017 - 17:00
Anna D. Koromyslova, Grant S. Hansman Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for infection and cell entry....
Mon, 10/30/2017 - 17:00
Aastha Sindhwani, Subhash B. Arya, Harmeet Kaur, Divya Jagga, Amit Tuli, Mahak Sharma Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium extensively remodels the host late endocytic compartments to establish its vacuolar niche within the host cells conducive for its replication, also known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). By maintaining a prolonged interaction with late endosomes and lysosomes...
Fri, 10/27/2017 - 17:00
Sylvie Y. Doerflinger, Mirko Cortese, Inés Romero-Brey, Zach Menne, Thibault Tubiana, Christian Schenk, Peter A. White, Ralf Bartenschlager, Stéphane Bressanelli, Grant S. Hansman, Volker Lohmann Human noroviruses (huNoV) are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) variants. The viral nonstructural (NS) proteins...
Thu, 10/26/2017 - 17:00
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Hee-Kyoung Kim, Martin Münsterkötter, Slavica Janevska, Birgit Arndt, Svetlana A. Kalinina, Petra M. Houterman, Il-Pyung Ahn, Ilaria Alberti, Stefano Tonti, Da-Woon Kim, Christian M. K. Sieber, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Sung-Hwan Yun, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae (“foolish seedling”) disease of rice which is characterized hyper-elongation of...
Tue, 09/12/2017 - 17:00
Qing Yang, Tian-Tian Liu, Heng Lin, Man Zhang, Jin Wei, Wei-Wei Luo, Yun-Hong Hu, Bo Zhong, Ming-Ming Hu, Hong-Bing Shu Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling are critical for host defense against pathogen invasion. However, excessive responses would cause harmful damages to the host. Here we show that deficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 increases poly(I:C)- and LPS-induced...
Thu, 08/17/2017 - 17:00
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A. Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two...
Thu, 08/17/2017 - 17:00
Oanh H. Pham, Hope O’Donnell, Aymen Al-Shamkhani, Tobias Kerrinnes, Renée M. Tsolis, Stephen J. McSorley Th1 cells can be activated TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell...

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