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PLoS Pathogens

Thu, 11/30/2017 - 17:00
Mounia Kortebi, Eliane Milohanic, Gabriel Mitchell, Christine Péchoux, Marie-Christine Prevost, Pascale Cossart, Hélène Bierne Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease that poses serious risks to fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised adults. This intracellular bacterial pathogen proliferates in the host cytosol and exploits the host actin polymerization machinery to...
Mon, 11/20/2017 - 17:00
Yushi Yao, Hui Li, Jie Ding, Yixin Xia, Lei Wang Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM), which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm) cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense...
Thu, 11/02/2017 - 17:00
Anna D. Koromyslova, Grant S. Hansman Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for infection and cell entry....
Mon, 10/30/2017 - 17:00
Aastha Sindhwani, Subhash B. Arya, Harmeet Kaur, Divya Jagga, Amit Tuli, Mahak Sharma Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium extensively remodels the host late endocytic compartments to establish its vacuolar niche within the host cells conducive for its replication, also known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). By maintaining a prolonged interaction with late endosomes and lysosomes...
Fri, 10/27/2017 - 17:00
Sylvie Y. Doerflinger, Mirko Cortese, Inés Romero-Brey, Zach Menne, Thibault Tubiana, Christian Schenk, Peter A. White, Ralf Bartenschlager, Stéphane Bressanelli, Grant S. Hansman, Volker Lohmann Human noroviruses (huNoV) are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) variants. The viral nonstructural (NS) proteins...
Thu, 10/26/2017 - 17:00
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Hee-Kyoung Kim, Martin Münsterkötter, Slavica Janevska, Birgit Arndt, Svetlana A. Kalinina, Petra M. Houterman, Il-Pyung Ahn, Ilaria Alberti, Stefano Tonti, Da-Woon Kim, Christian M. K. Sieber, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Sung-Hwan Yun, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae (“foolish seedling”) disease of rice which is characterized hyper-elongation of...
Tue, 09/12/2017 - 17:00
Qing Yang, Tian-Tian Liu, Heng Lin, Man Zhang, Jin Wei, Wei-Wei Luo, Yun-Hong Hu, Bo Zhong, Ming-Ming Hu, Hong-Bing Shu Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling are critical for host defense against pathogen invasion. However, excessive responses would cause harmful damages to the host. Here we show that deficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 increases poly(I:C)- and LPS-induced...
Thu, 08/17/2017 - 17:00
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A. Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two...
Thu, 08/17/2017 - 17:00
Oanh H. Pham, Hope O’Donnell, Aymen Al-Shamkhani, Tobias Kerrinnes, Renée M. Tsolis, Stephen J. McSorley Th1 cells can be activated TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell...
Mon, 08/14/2017 - 17:00
Araceli E. Santiago, Michael B. Yan, Tracy H. Hazen, Brooke Sauder, Mario Meza-Segura, David A. Rasko, Melissa M. Kendall, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P. Nataro The AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) comprise a large family of virulence regulators distributed among diverse clinically important Gram-negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter...
Fri, 08/11/2017 - 17:00
Giulia Zanetti, Stefan Sikorra, Andreas Rummel, Nadja Krez, Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Tina Henke, Ornella Rossetto, Thomas Binz, Marco Pirazzini Botulinum neurotoxin serotype C (BoNT/C) is a neuroparalytic toxin associated with outbreaks of animal botulism, particularly in birds, and is the only BoNT known to cleave two different SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin. BoNT/C was shown to be...
Thu, 08/03/2017 - 17:00
Katrina B. Velle, Kenneth G. Campellone Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are closely-related pathogens that attach tightly to intestinal epithelial cells, efface microvilli, and promote cytoskeletal rearrangements into protrusions called actin pedestals. To trigger pedestal formation, EPEC employs the tyrosine phosphorylated transmembrane receptor Tir,...
Wed, 08/02/2017 - 17:00
M. Ayelén Milillo, Lis N. Velásquez, Aldana Trotta, M. Victoria Delpino, Fábio V. Marinho, Luciana Balboa, Mónica Vermeulen, Sonia L. Espindola, Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Gabriela C. Fernández, Sergio Costa Oliveira, Guillermo H. Giambartolomei, Paula Barrionuevo Despite eliciting a potent CD8+ T cell response, Brucella abortus is able to persist and establish a chronic infection inside its...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 17:00
Xiangpeng Sheng, Qing You, Hongnian Zhu, ZeNan Chang, Qingrun Li, Haifeng Wang, Chen Wang, Hongyan Wang, Lijian Hui, Chongtao Du, Xiaoduo Xie, Rong Zeng, Anning Lin, Dongfang Shi, Kangcheng Ruan, Jinghua Yan, George Fu Gao, Feng Shao, Ronggui Hu As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized the...
Thu, 07/27/2017 - 17:00
Luther A. Bartelt, David T. Bolick, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Glynis L. Kolling, Gregory L. Medlock, Edna I. Zaenker, Jeffery Donowitz, Rose Viguna Thomas-Beckett, Allison Rogala, Ian M. Carroll, Steven M. Singer, Jason Papin, Jonathan R. Swann, Richard L. Guerrant Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereenteric microbes...
Mon, 07/24/2017 - 17:00
Sebastian Hannemann, Jorge E. Galán Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, different Salmonella enterica serovars are often associated with very different clinical presentations. In humans, for example, the typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. In contrast, the non-typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhimurium causes self-limiting...
Fri, 07/21/2017 - 17:00
Dan Wang, Weizhong Chen, Shanqing Huang, Yafeng He, Xichun Liu, Qingyuan Hu, Tianbiao Wei, Hong Shang, Jianhua Gan, Hao Chen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a major opportunistic human pathogen, causing serious nosocomial infections among immunocompromised patients multi-determinant virulence and high antibiotic resistance. The CzcR-CzcS signal transduction system in P. aeruginosa is...
Thu, 07/13/2017 - 17:00
Deyanira Pérez-Morales, María M. Banda, N. Y Elizabeth Chau, Heladia Salgado, Irma Martínez-Flores, J. Antonio Ibarra, Bushra Ilyas, Brian K. Coombes, Víctor H. Bustamante The evolution of bacterial pathogenicity, heavily influenced horizontal gene transfer, provides new virulence factors and regulatory connections that alter bacterial phenotypes. Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1...
Thu, 07/06/2017 - 17:00
Matthew J. Ballinger, Steve J. Perlman While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse...
Mon, 07/03/2017 - 17:00
Yael Litvak, Shir Sharon, Meirav Hyams, Li Zhang, Simi Kobi, Naama Katsowich, Shira Dishon, Gabriel Nussbaum, Na Dong, Feng Shao, Ilan Rosenshine Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a common cause of infant diarrhea, is associated with high risk of mortality in developing countries. The primary niche of infecting EPEC is the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. EPEC employs a...
Mon, 06/26/2017 - 17:00
Maria J. Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R. Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R. Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work...
Thu, 06/22/2017 - 17:00
Marcela de Souza Santos, Dor Salomon, Kim Orth The production of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex is an important mechanism for control of invading pathogens. Herein, we show that the gastrointestinal pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus counteracts reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using the Type III Secretion System 2 (...
Tue, 06/06/2017 - 17:00
Audrey S. Vanhove, Saiyu Hang, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Adam CN Wong, John Asara, Paula I. Watnick Vibrio cholerae is a diarrheal pathogen that induces accumulation of lipid droplets in enterocytes, leading to lethal infection of the model host Drosophila melanogaster. Through untargeted lipidomics, we provide evidence that this process is the product of a host phospholipid degradation cascade that...
Fri, 06/02/2017 - 17:00
Lingyan Jiang, Lu Feng, Bin Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Peisheng Wang, Xiaohan Jiang, Lei Wang Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major intestinal pathogen of both humans and animals. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-encoded virulence genes are required for S. Typhimurium invasion. While oxygen (O2) limitation is an important signal for SPI-1 induction under host...
Tue, 05/30/2017 - 17:00
Britta Peters, Johanna Stein, Stefan Klingl, Nathalie Sander, Achim Sandmann, Nicola Taccardi, Heinrich Sticht, Roman G. Gerlach, Yves A. Muller, Michael Hensel The giant non-fimbrial adhesin SiiE of Salmonella enterica mediates the first contact to the apical site of epithelial cells and enables subsequent invasion. SiiE is a 595 kDa protein composed of 53 repetitive bacterial immunoglobulin (...
Mon, 05/22/2017 - 17:00
Emily M. Eshleman, Christine Delgado, Staci J. Kearney, Rachel S. Friedman, Laurel L. Lenz Interferons (IFNs) target macrophages to regulate inflammation and resistance to microbial infections. The type II IFN (IFNγ) acts on a cell surface receptor (IFNGR) to promote gene expression that enhance macrophage inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. Type I IFNs can dampen macrophage responsiveness...
Thu, 04/20/2017 - 17:00
Tania Gaviria-Cantin, Youssef El Mouali, Soazig Le Guyon, Ute Römling, Carlos Balsalobre The invasion of epithelial cells Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a very tightly regulated process. Signaling cascades triggered different environmental and physiological signals converge to control HilD, an AraC regulator that coordinates the expression of several virulence factors. The expression...
Thu, 04/20/2017 - 17:00
Ciaran E. Finn, Audrey Chong, Kendal G. Cooper, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB,...
Mon, 04/10/2017 - 17:00
Ushasree Sunkavalli, Carmen Aguilar, Ricardo Jorge Silva, Malvika Sharan, Ana Rita Cruz, Caroline Tawk, Claire Maudet, Miguel Mano, Ana Eulalio MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection...
Thu, 03/23/2017 - 17:00
Dominik Rückerl, Sharon M. Campbell, Sheelagh Duncan, Tara E. Sutherland, Stephen J. Jenkins, James P. Hewitson, Tom A. Barr, Lucy H. Jackson-Jones, Rick M. Maizels, Judith E. Allen Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection...
Mon, 03/13/2017 - 17:00
Baoshan Wan, Qiufen Zhang, Jinjing Ni, Shuxian Li, Donghua Wen, Jun Li, Haihan Xiao, Ping He, Hongyu Ou, Jing Tao, Qihui Teng, Jie Lu, Wenjuan Wu, Yu-Feng Yao Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one major type of contagious and foodborne pathogens. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been shown to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity and bacteria-bacteria competition. Here, we...
Fri, 03/10/2017 - 17:00
Marion Russier, Guohua Yang, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Peter Vogel, Bryan S. Kaplan, Richard J. Webby, Charles J. Russell A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans...
Tue, 02/21/2017 - 17:00
Milica Milivojevic, Anne-Sophie Dangeard, Christoph Alexander Kasper, Therese Tschon, Mario Emmenlauer, Claudine Pique, Pamela Schnupf, Julie Guignot, Cécile Arrieumerlou During infection invasive bacteria, epithelial cells contribute to innate immunity via the local secretion of inflammatory cytokines. These are directly produced infected cells or uninfected bystanders via connexin-dependent...
Fri, 02/03/2017 - 17:00
Martina Bielaszewska, Christian Rüter, Andreas Bauwens, Lilo Greune, Kevin-André Jarosch, Daniel Steil, Wenlan Zhang, Xiaohua He, Roland Lloubes, Angelika Fruth, Kwang Sik Kim, M. Alexander Schmidt, Ulrich Dobrindt, Alexander Mellmann, Helge Karch Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused enterohemorrhagic...
Thu, 02/02/2017 - 17:00
Li Qin, Fei Da, Emilie L. Fisher, Daniel C. S. Tan, Thuan H. Nguyen, Chih-Lung Fu, Vee Y. Tan, Joshua W. McCausland, Daniel E. Sturdevant, Hwang-Soo Joo, Shu Y. Queck, Gordon Y. C. Cheung, Michael Otto Bacterial sepsis is a major killer in hospitalized patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) with the leading species Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent causes of nosocomial...
Thu, 01/26/2017 - 17:00
Zdenek Hel, Jun Xu, Warren L. Denning, E. Scott Helton, Richard P. H. Huijbregts, Sonya L. Heath, E. Turner Overton, Benjamin S. Christmann, Charles O. Elson, Paul A. Goepfert, Jiri Mestecky HIV-1 infection is associated with an early and profound depletion of mucosal memory CD4+ T cells, a population that plays an indispensable role in the regulation of isotype switching and transepithelial...
Mon, 01/23/2017 - 17:00
Adi Haber, Sivan Friedman, Lior Lobel, Tamar Burg-Golani, Nadejda Sigal, Jessica Rose, Nurit Livnat-Levanon, Oded Lewinson, Anat A. Herskovits The high environmental adaptability of bacteria is contingent upon their ability to sense changes in their surroundings. Bacterial pathogen entry into host poses an abrupt and dramatic environmental change, during which successful pathogens gauge multiple...
Thu, 01/19/2017 - 17:00
Gabriel I. Parra, R. Burke Squires, Consolee K. Karangwa, Jordan A. Johnson, Cara Lepore, Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev, Kim Y. Green Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Their RNA genomes are diverse, with two major genogroups (GI and GII) comprised of at least 28 genotypes associated with human disease. To elucidate mechanisms underlying norovirus...
Thu, 01/19/2017 - 17:00
Yuri Shibata, Fuminori Tokunaga, Eiji Goto, Ginga Komatsu, Jin Gohda, Yasushi Saeki, Keiji Tanaka, Hirotaka Takahashi, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Satoshi Inoue, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Tsukasa Seya, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yuetsu Tanaka, Kazuhiro Iwai, Jun-ichiro Inoue The Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is crucial for the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a highly malignant CD4+...
Fri, 01/06/2017 - 17:00
Hannah E. Gavin, Nike T. Beubier, Karla J. F. Satchell Vibrio vulnificus causes highly lethal bacterial infections in which the Multifunctional Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxins (MARTX) toxin product of the rtxA1 gene is a key virulence factor. MARTX toxins are secreted proteins up to 5208 amino acids in size. Conserved MARTX N- and C-terminal repeat regions work in concert to form pores in...
Thu, 01/05/2017 - 17:00
Franziska Faber, Parameth Thiennimitr, Luisella Spiga, Mariana X. Byndloss, Yael Litvak, Sara Lawhon, Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis, Sebastian E. Winter, Andreas J. Bäumler Intestinal inflammation caused Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon...
Fri, 12/30/2016 - 17:00
Emily R. Roberts, Diane G. Carnathan, Hui Li, George M. Shaw, Guido Silvestri, Michael R. Betts Poor maintenance of cytotoxic factor expression among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, in part caused dysregulated expression of the transcription factor T-bet, is associated with HIV disease progression. However, the precise evolution and context in which CD8+ T cell cytotoxic functions become dysregulated...
Thu, 12/22/2016 - 17:00
Aaron Mischa Nuss, Franziska Schuster, Louisa Roselius, Johannes Klein, René Bücker, Katharina Herbst, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Fabio Pisano, Christoph Wittmann, Richard Münch, Johannes Müller, Dieter Jahn, Petra Dersch Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the...
Wed, 12/21/2016 - 17:00
Eleanor A. Latomanski, Patrice Newton, Chen Ai Khoo, Hayley J. Newton Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique lysosome-derived vacuole. When Coxiella is trafficked to a host cell lysosome the essential Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is activated allowing over 130 bacterial effector proteins to be translocated...
Wed, 12/21/2016 - 17:00
Sofya S. Perelman, Michael E. Abrams, Jennifer L. Eitson, Didi Chen, Alyssa Jimenez, Marcel Mettlen, John W. Schoggins, Neal M. Alto The type I interferon (IFN) activated transcriptional response is a critical antiviral defense mechanism, yet its role in bacterial pathogenesis remains less well characterized. Using an intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) as a model bacterial...
Mon, 12/19/2016 - 17:00
Dixon Ng, Tony Harn, Tuba Altindal, Subramania Kolappan, Jarrad M. Marles, Rajan Lala, Ingrid Spielman, Yang Gao, Caitlyn A. Hauke, Gabriela Kovacikova, Zia Verjee, Ronald K. Taylor, Nicolas Biais, Lisa Craig Type IV pilus (T4P) systems are complex molecular machines that polymerize major pilin proteins into thin filaments displayed on bacterial surfaces. Pilus functions require rapid extension...
Thu, 12/15/2016 - 17:00
Tobias Dietsche, Mehari Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, Matthias J. Brunner, Patrizia Abrusci, Jun Yan, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Charlotta Schärfe, Susann Zilkenat, Iwan Grin, Jorge E. Galán, Oliver Kohlbacher, Susan Lea, Boris Macek, Thomas C. Marlovits, Carol V. Robinson, Samuel Wagner Bacterial type III protein secretion systems inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells in order to promote survival...
Thu, 12/01/2016 - 17:00
Amber Hsiao, Trevor Toy, Hye Jin Seo, Florian Marks The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected both organisms experience reduced...
Wed, 11/02/2016 - 17:00
Daniel A. Pensinger, Kyle M. Boldon, Grischa Y. Chen, William J. B. Vincent, Kyle Sherman, Meng Xiong, Adam J. Schaenzer, Emily R. Forster, Jörn Coers, Rob Striker, John-Demian Sauer Obstacles to bacterial survival and replication in the cytosol of host cells, and the mechanisms used bacterial pathogens to adapt to this niche are not well understood. Listeria monocytogenes is a well-studied Gram...
Wed, 10/26/2016 - 17:00
Kshipra Singh, Nicole T. Al-Greene, Thomas G. Verriere, Lori A. Coburn, Mohammad Asim, Daniel P. Barry, Margaret M. Allaman, Dana M. Hardbower, Alberto G. Delgado, M. Blanca Piazuelo, Bruce A. Vallance, Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson Solute carrier family 7 member 2 (SLC7A2) is an inducible transporter of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine (L-Arg), which has been implicated in immune...

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