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PLoS Pathogens

Thu, 10/06/2016 - 17:00
Cherrie L. Small, Lydia Xing, Joseph B. McPhee, Hong T. Law, Brian K. Coombes Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of diverse etiology. Exposure to foodborne pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis produces a long-term risk of CD well into the post-infectious period but the mechanistic basis for this ongoing relationship to disease onset is unknown. We developed two novel...
Thu, 10/06/2016 - 17:00
Punsiri M. Colonne, Caylin G. Winchell, Joseph G. Graham, Frances I. Onyilagha, Laura J. MacDonald, Heike R. Doeppler, Peter Storz, Richard C. Kurten, Paul A. Beare, Robert A. Heinzen, Daniel E. Voth Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are...
Thu, 09/29/2016 - 17:00
Andrew G. Hughson, Brent Race, Allison Kraus, Laura R. Sangaré, Lori Robins, Bradley R. Groveman, Eri Saijo, Katie Phillips, Luis Contreras, Virkamal Dhaliwal, Matteo Manca, Gianluigi Zanusso, Daniel Terry, Jeffrey F. Williams, Byron Caughey Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is produced naturally neutrophils and other cells to kill conventional microbes in vivo. Synthetic preparations containing HOCl can...
Thu, 09/08/2016 - 17:00
Ester Vázquez-Fernández, Matthijn R. Vos, Pavel Afanasyev, Lino Cebey, Alejandro M. Sevillano, Enric Vidal, Isaac Rosa, Ludovic Renault, Adriana Ramos, Peter J. Peters, José Jesús Fernández, Marin van Heel, Howard S. Young, Jesús R. Requena, Holger Wille The structure of the infectious prion protein (PrPSc), which is responsible for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and bovine spongiform...
Wed, 07/20/2016 - 17:00
Jon Paulin Zumthor, Lenka Cernikova, Samuel Rout, Andres Kaech, Carmen Faso, Adrian B. Hehl Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. Trophozoites are non-invasive but associate tightly with the enterocyte surface of the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive morphological and functional adaptations...
Thu, 07/14/2016 - 17:00
Michelle L. Reniere, Aaron T. Whiteley, Daniel A. Portnoy Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that...
Tue, 07/05/2016 - 17:00
Philana Ling Lin, Pauline Maiello, Hannah P. Gideon, M. Teresa Coleman, Anthony M. Cadena, Mark A. Rodgers, Robert Gregg, Melanie O’Malley, Jaime Tomko, Daniel Fillmore, L. James Frye, Tara Rutledge, Robert M. DiFazio, Christopher Janssen, Edwin Klein, Peter L. Andersen, Sarah M. Fortune, JoAnne L. Flynn Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent...
Wed, 06/29/2016 - 17:00
Gopal Sapparapu, Rita Czakó, Gabriela Alvarado, Sreejesh Shanker, B. V. Venkataram Prasad, Robert L. Atmar, Mary K. Estes, James E. Crowe Jr. Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis and cause local outbreaks of illness, especially in confined situations. Despite being identified four decades ago, the correlates of protection against norovirus...
Fri, 06/24/2016 - 17:00
Anna A. Müller, Tamas Dolowschiak, Mikael E. Sellin, Boas Felmy, Carolin Verbree, Sandra Gadient, Alexander J. Westermann, Jörg Vogel, Salome LeibundGut-Landmann, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. The mucosal inflammation is thought to arise from a standoff between the pathogen's virulence factors and the host's mucosal innate immune...
Tue, 06/21/2016 - 17:00
Timothy J. Nice, Lisa C. Osborne, Vesselin T. Tomov, David Artis, E. John Wherry, Herbert W. Virgin In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I...
Mon, 06/13/2016 - 17:00
Sarah E. Clark, Holly C. Filak, Brandon S. Guthrie, Rebecca L. Schmidt, Amanda Jamieson, Patricia Merkel, Vijaya Knight, Caroline M. Cole, David H. Raulet, Laurel L. Lenz Natural killer (NK) cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and thus have been suggested to promote type I immunity during bacterial infections. Yet, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and some other pathogens encode proteins that cause...
Fri, 05/27/2016 - 17:00
Nathalie Rolhion, R. Christopher D. Furniss, Grzegorz Grabe, Aindrias Ryan, Mei Liu, Sophie A. Matthews, David W. Holden Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented...
Mon, 05/16/2016 - 17:00
Allon Weiner, Nora Mellouk, Noelia Lopez-Montero, Yuen-Yan Chang, Célia Souque, Christine Schmitt, Jost Enninga Intracellular pathogens include all viruses, many bacteria and parasites capable of invading and surviving within host cells. Key to survival is the subversion of host cell pathways the pathogen for the purpose of propagation and evading the immune system. The intracellular bacterium...
Wed, 05/11/2016 - 17:00
Justin Bahl, Truc T. Pham, Nichola J. Hill, Islam T. M. Hussein, Eric J. Ma, Bernard C. Easterday, Rebecca A. Halpin, Timothy B. Stockwell, David E. Wentworth, Ghazi Kayali, Scott Krauss, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Robert G. Webster, Richard J. Webby, Michael D. Swartz, Gavin J. D. Smith, Jonathan A. Runstadler Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic...
Mon, 05/09/2016 - 17:00
Aline Dupont, Felix Sommer, Kaiyi Zhang, Urska Repnik, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Mark Kühnel, Fredrik Bäckhed, Yael Litvak, Marcus Fulde, Ilan Rosenshine, Mathias W. Hornef Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the...
Fri, 05/06/2016 - 17:00
Michelle Rengarajan, Arnold Hayer, Julie A. Theriot Vascular endothelial cells act as gatekeepers that protect underlying tissue from blood-borne toxins and pathogens. Nevertheless, endothelial cells are able to internalize large fibrin clots and apoptotic debris from the bloodstream, although the precise mechanism of such phagocytosis-like uptake is unknown. We show that cultured primary human...
Fri, 04/22/2016 - 17:00
Yi Ruan, Saša Rezelj, Apolonija Bedina Zavec, Gregor Anderluh, Simon Scheuring Listeriolysin-O (LLO) plays a crucial role during infection Listeria monocytogenes. It enables escape of bacteria from phagocytic vacuole, which is the basis for its spread to other cells and tissues. It is not clear how LLO acts at phagosomal membranes to allow bacterial escape. The mechanism of action of LLO remains...
Wed, 04/13/2016 - 17:00
David Torres, Arnaud Köhler, Sandrine Delbauve, Irina Caminschi, Mireille H. Lahoud, Ken Shortman, Véronique Flamand Infection Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes serious sepsis and meningitis leading to mortality in neonates. This work explored the ability of CD11chigh lineage DCs to induce CD8+ T-cell immune protection against Lm in mice before 7 days of life, a period symbolized the absence of...
Tue, 04/12/2016 - 17:00
Misha I. Kazi, Aaron R. Conrado, Alexandra R. Mey, Shelley M. Payne, Bryan W. Davies The virulence regulator ToxR initiates and coordinates gene expression needed Vibrio cholerae to colonize the small intestine and cause disease. Despite its prominence in V. cholerae virulence, our understanding of the direct ToxR regulon is limited to four genes: toxT, ompT, ompU and ctxA. Here, we determine...
Fri, 04/08/2016 - 17:00
Jana Kamanova, Hui Sun, Maria Lara-Tejero, Jorge E. Galán Salmonella Typhimurium stimulates inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium, which are essential for its ability to replicate within the intestinal tract. Stimulation of these responses is strictly dependent on the activity of a type III secretion system encoded within its pathogenicity island 1, which through the delivery of...
Thu, 04/07/2016 - 17:00
Lisa Del Bel Belluz, Riccardo Guidi, Ioannis S. Pateras, Laura Levi, Boris Mihaljevic, Syed Fazle Rouf, Marie Wrande, Marco Candela, Silvia Turroni, Claudia Nastasi, Clarissa Consolandi, Clelia Peano, Toma Tebaldi, Gabriella Viero, Vassilis G. Gorgoulis, Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Mikael Rhen, Teresa Frisan Bacterial genotoxins, produced several Gram-negative bacteria, induce DNA damage in the target...
Fri, 04/01/2016 - 17:00
Vidya P. Nair, Saumya Anang, Chandru Subramani, Abhilasha Madhvi, Karishma Bakshi, Akriti Srivastava, Shalimar, Baibaswata Nayak, Ranjith Kumar CT, Milan Surjit Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though self-limiting in normal individuals, it results in ~30% mortality in infected pregnant women. It has also been...
Fri, 03/04/2016 - 17:00
Jie Ren, Yu Sang, Yongcong Tan, Jing Tao, Jinjing Ni, Shuting Liu, Xia Fan, Wei Zhao, Jie Lu, Wenjuan Wu, Yu-Feng Yao The two-component system PhoP-PhoQ is highly conserved in bacteria and regulates virulence in response to various signals for bacteria within the mammalian host. Here, we demonstrate that PhoP could be acetylated Pat and deacetylated deacetylase CobB enzymatically in vitro and in...
Thu, 03/03/2016 - 17:00
Marta I. Sánchez, Inès Pons, Mónica Martínez-Haro, Mark A. Taggart, Thomas Lenormand, Andy J. Green Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show...
Wed, 03/02/2016 - 17:00
Hui Sun, Jana Kamanova, Maria Lara-Tejero, Jorge E. Galán Microbial infections usually lead to host innate immune responses and inflammation. These responses most often limit pathogen replication although they can also result in host-tissue damage. The enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system to induce intestinal inflammation delivering specific...
Thu, 01/14/2016 - 17:00
Ivona Pandrea, Cuiling Xu, Jennifer L. Stock, Daniel N. Frank, Dongzhu Ma, Benjamin B. Policicchio, Tianyu He, Jan Kristoff, Elaine Cornell, George S. Haret-Richter, Anita Trichel, Ruy M. Ribeiro, Russell Tracy, Cara Wilson, Alan L. Landay, Cristian Apetrei Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS...
Wed, 01/13/2016 - 17:00
Gerco den Hartog, Ranajoy Chattopadhyay, Amber Ablack, Emily H. Hall, Lindsay D. Butcher, Asima Bhattacharyya, Lars Eckmann, Paul R. Harris, Soumita Das, Peter B. Ernst, Sheila E. Crowe Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection is an immediate host defense leading to microbial killing. APE1 is a multifunctional protein induced ROS and after induction, protects against ROS-...
Wed, 01/13/2016 - 17:00
Arnault Graindorge, Karine Frénal, Damien Jacot, Julien Salamun, Jean Baptiste Marq, Dominique Soldati-Favre Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the...
Wed, 01/06/2016 - 17:00
Eoin N. Leen, Frédéric Sorgeloos, Samantha Correia, Yasmin Chaudhry, Fabien Cannac, Chiara Pastore, Yingqi Xu, Stephen C. Graham, Stephen J. Matthews, Ian G. Goodfellow, Stephen Curry Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has...
Fri, 12/11/2015 - 17:00
Norberto González-Juarbe, Ryan Paul Gilley, Cecilia Anahí Hinojosa, Kelley Margaret Bradley, Akinobu Kamei, Geli Gao, Peter Herman Dube, Molly Ann Bergman, Carlos Javier Orihuela Necroptosis is a highly pro-inflammatory mode of cell death regulated RIP (or RIPK)1 and RIP3 kinases and mediated the effector MLKL. We report that diverse bacterial pathogens that produce a pore-forming toxin (PFT)...
Fri, 11/13/2015 - 17:00
Christopher J. Anderson, David E. Clark, Mazhar Adli, Melissa M. Kendall Chemical and nutrient signaling are fundamental for all cellular processes, including interactions between the mammalian host and the microbiota, which have a significant impact on health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential component of cell membranes and has profound signaling activity within mammalian cells...
Thu, 11/12/2015 - 17:00
Mary B. O’Neill, Tatum D. Mortimer, Caitlin S. Pepperell Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health emergency. Increasingly drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) continue to emerge and spread, highlighting adaptability of this pathogen. Most studies of M.tb evolution have relied on ‘between-host’ samples, in which each person with TB is represented a single M.tb isolate....
Thu, 11/12/2015 - 17:00
Shabarinath Srikumar, Carsten Kröger, Magali Hébrard, Aoife Colgan, Siân V. Owen, Sathesh K. Sivasankaran, Andrew D. S. Cameron, Karsten Hokamp, Jay C. D. Hinton Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is arguably the world’s best-understood bacterial pathogen. However, crucial details about the genetic programs used the bacterium to survive and replicate in macrophages have remained obscure...
Tue, 10/27/2015 - 17:00
Kevin G. Roelofs, Christopher J. Jones, Sarah R. Helman, Xiaoran Shang, Mona W. Orr, Jonathan R. Goodson, Michael Y. Galperin, Fitnat H. Yildiz, Vincent T. Lee Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors...
Tue, 10/27/2015 - 17:00
Christopher J. Jones, Andrew Utada, Kimberly R. Davis, Wiriya Thongsomboon, David Zamorano Sanchez, Vinita Banakar, Lynette Cegelski, Gerard C. L. Wong, Fitnat H. Yildiz In many bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) controls the motile to biofilm life style switch. Yet, little is known about how this occurs. In this study, we report that changes...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 17:00
Richard Lu, BobBrooke Herrera, Heather D. Eshleman, Yang Fu, Alexander Bloom, Zhigang Li, David B. Sacks, Marcia B. Goldberg The intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella infects and spreads through the human intestinal epithelium. Effector proteins delivered Shigella into cells promote infection modulating diverse host functions. We demonstrate that the effector protein OspB interacts directly...
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 17:00
Yue Zhang, Jason W. Tam, Patricio Mena, Adrianus W. M. van der Velden, James B. Bliska During Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection of C57BL/6 mice, an exceptionally large CD8+ T cell response to a protective epitope in the type III secretion system effector YopE is produced. At the peak of the response, up to 50% of splenic CD8+ T cells recognize the epitope YopE69-77. The features of the...
Fri, 10/09/2015 - 17:00
David A. Tumbarello, Paul T. Manna, Mark Allen, Mark Bycroft, Susan D. Arden, John Kendrick-Jones, Folma Buss Autophagy plays a key role during Salmonella infection, eliminating these pathogens following escape into the cytosol. In this process, selective autophagy receptors, including the myosin VI adaptor proteins optineurin and NDP52, have been shown to recognize cytosolic pathogens. Here, we...
Thu, 10/08/2015 - 17:00
Stéphane G. Paquette, David Banner, Stephen S. H. Huang, Raquel Almansa, Alberto Leon, Luoling Xu, Jessica Bartoszko, David J. Kelvin, Alyson A. Kelvin Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are...
Sat, 09/26/2015 - 01:20
Jin Hwan Park, Youmi Jo, Song Yee Jang, Haenaem Kwon, Yasuhiko Irie, Matthew R. Parsek, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding...
Thu, 09/03/2015 - 01:24
Hilo Yen, Nakaba Sugimoto, Toru Tobe Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are related strains capable of inducing severe gastrointestinal disease. For optimal infection, these pathogens actively modulate cellular functions through the deployment of effector proteins in a type three secretion system (T3SS)-dependent manner. In response to enteric pathogen...
Wed, 08/19/2015 - 01:21
Kirk S. B. Bergstrom, Vijay Morampudi, Justin M. Chan, Ganive Bhinder, Jennifer Lau, Hyungjun Yang, Caixia Ma, Tina Huang, Natasha Ryz, Ho Pan Sham, Maryam Zarepour, Colby Zaph, David Artis, Meera Nair, Bruce A. Vallance Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and related food and waterborne pathogens pose significant threats to human health. These attaching/effacing microbes infect the apical...
Thu, 07/30/2015 - 01:30
Michinori Kakisaka, Yutaka Sasaki, Kazunori Yamada, Yasumitsu Kondoh, Hirokazu Hikono, Hiroyuki Osada, Kentaro Tomii, Takehiko Saito, Yoko Aida Developing antiviral therapies for influenza A virus (IAV) infection is an ongoing process because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. The ideal strategy is to develop drugs that target well-conserved,...
Tue, 07/07/2015 - 01:33
Wu Liu, Yutao Chen, Xi Jiang, Ming Xia, Yang Yang, Ming Tan, Xuemei Li, Zihe Rao Norovirus (NoV) causes epidemic acute gastroenteritis in humans, whereby histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) play an important role in host susceptibility. Each of the two major genogroups (GI and GII) of human NoVs recognizes a unique set of HBGAs through a distinct binding interface that is conserved within a...
Fri, 07/03/2015 - 01:23
Philipp Rausch, Natalie Steck, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Janice A. Seidel, Sven Künzel, Kirandeep Bhullar, Marijana Basic, Andre Bleich, Jill M. Johnsen, Bruce A. Vallance, John F. Baines, Guntram A. Grassl Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are...
Fri, 07/03/2015 - 01:23
Tietao Wang, Meiru Si, Yunhong Song, Wenhan Zhu, Fen Gao, Yao Wang, Lei Zhang, Weipeng Zhang, Gehong Wei, Zhao-Qing Luo, Xihui Shen Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are widespread multi-component machineries that translocate effectors into either eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, for virulence or for interbacterial competition. Herein, we report that the T6SS-4 from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis...
Thu, 07/02/2015 - 01:20
Julie Guignot, Audrey Segura, Guy Tran Van Nhieu Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are specialized macromolecular machines critical for bacterial virulence, and allowing the injection of bacterial effectors into host cells. The T3SS-dependent injection process requires the prior insertion of a protein complex, the translocon, into host cell membranes consisting of two-T3SS hydrophobic proteins...
Fri, 06/19/2015 - 01:27
Christina D. Orrú, Bradley R. Groveman, Lynne D. Raymond, Andrew G. Hughson, Romolo Nonno, Wenquan Zou, Bernardino Ghetti, Pierluigi Gambetti, Byron Caughey Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis,...
Wed, 06/17/2015 - 01:25
Claudine Belon, Chantal Soscia, Audrey Bernut, Aurélie Laubier, Sophie Bleves, Anne-Béatrice Blanc-Potard Pathogenic bacteria have developed strategies to adapt to host environment and resist host immune response. Several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, share the horizontally-acquired MgtC virulence factor that is important for...
Sat, 05/23/2015 - 01:21
Andrew T. Cheng, Karen M. Ottemann, Fitnat H. Yildiz Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are used by bacteria to sense and respond to their environment. TCS are typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). The Vibrio cholerae genome encodes 52 RR, but the role of these RRs in V. cholerae pathogenesis is largely unknown. To identify RRs that...

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