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Poultry Science

Sun, 02/18/2018 - 19:00
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of Campylobacter spp. in frozen and chilled broiler carcasses using real-time PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment. Sixty broiler carcasses were collected: 30 frozen and 30 chilled. Each carcass was submitted to 2 real-time PCR protocols to detect and quantify Campylobacter spp.: one using pretreatment with PMA, which blocks...
Wed, 02/14/2018 - 19:00
AbstractReducing Campylobacter spp. carriage in poultry is challenging, but essential to control this major cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although much is known about the mechanisms and route of Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry, the literature is scarce on antibiotic-free solutions to combat Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry. In vitro and in vivo studies...
Sun, 01/28/2018 - 19:00
AbstractMicrobial colonization of the intestinal tract of commercial poultry is highly variable, likely due to the fact that poults and chicks are hatched and raised without exposure to adult birds and their microbiota. In industrial poultry production, it is hypothesized that most of the microbiota is obtained through horizontal transmission from the environment and very little by maternal...
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 19:00
AbstractSalmonella is one of the major causative agents of foodborne infections. Salmonellosis becomes more dangerous when strains resistant to several antibiotics are found in food, especially in chicken, one of the primary transmission vehicles of this pathogen for humans. The present study aimed to estimate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken carcasses from the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil...
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 19:00
AbstractVertical integration of the broiler industry allows producers to combine different biosecurity and sanitation practices, housing technologies, and feeding regimens to improve food safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and to characterize the antimicrobial-resistant isolates recovered from 7 different integrated broiler...
Wed, 01/17/2018 - 19:00
AbstractHatching eggs collected from resident broiler breeders at 48 wk of age were used to produce male and female chicks that were assigned sex separately to 96 new litter pens and fed either a 0 or 50 g/MT RFC (refined functional carbohydrate feed additive derived from yeast) diet. There were 24 replicate pens of 12 broilers each per diet per sex. Feed intake and BW were determined at 14, 28,...
Fri, 01/12/2018 - 19:00
AbstractSalmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up...
Wed, 01/10/2018 - 19:00
AbstractFood safety of table eggs is vital since many pathogens can contaminate the unfertilized egg, leading to increased risk of foodborne illness for consumers. The eggshell cuticle is the first line of defense to restrict the entry of egg-associated pathogens, such as Salmonella Enteritidis. The thickness and completeness of coverage of the cuticle layer are heritable traits that are strongly...
Tue, 12/19/2017 - 19:00
AbstractThe present study was carried out to investigate the effects of stocking density, fumonisin B1 (FB), and mycotoxin binder (TB) on growth performance, bone quality, physiological stress indicators, and gut health in broiler chickens. Day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks (n = 1,440/experiment) were randomly allocated to 72 floor pens in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, using 3 stocking...
Tue, 12/19/2017 - 19:00
AbstractCarotenoids have been used for many years as an added pigment to enhance egg yolk color. One such carotenoid, astaxanthin, has a strong antioxidant activity and is produced by several microorganisms, including the bacterium Paracoccus marcusii, which has shown promise to be used as a feed additive. Therefore, this study investigated the use of P. marcusii as a possible source of...
Tue, 12/19/2017 - 19:00
AbstractNumerous studies have indicated that yellow semen syndrome (YSS) of turkey is associated with the production of low semen quality, resulting in reduced fertility and hatchability. It is unknown at present if the etiology of YSS also could be linked to low-molecular weight metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolome of white and yellow seminal plasma of turkeys. Two...
Tue, 12/12/2017 - 19:00
AbstractThis study investigated bactericidal activity of 0.05 to 0.50% calcium oxide (CaO) against planktonic cells in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes on eggshell surfaces. The bactericidal activity of CaO against planktonic cells and biofilms of L. monocytogens significantly (P < 0.05) increased log reductions with increasing concentrations of CaO. Exposure to 0...
Tue, 12/12/2017 - 19:00
AbstractThe microbiome of the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been extensively studied, and it has been amply demonstrated that it plays an important role in the health of the host, as it has a positive impact on the immune system, the physiology of the GIT, and productivity. Also, the microbiota is involved in reducing and preventing colonization by enteric pathogens through the...
Tue, 12/12/2017 - 19:00
AbstractCampylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the main causes of human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Chicken is the main reservoir of C. jejuni. The cecum is the primary site of C. jejuni colonization. Our previous study has shown that the CLOCK gene is important to regulate the response to C. jejuni inoculation and has a cross-talking with immune-related genes. Correlation networks between...
Sat, 12/02/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThis study aimed to investigate the effect of yeast cell walls (YCW) on the growth performance, visceral lesions, intestinal integrity, enterotoxicity, and bacteria of broilers challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AF) and necrotic enteritis (NE) from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old broilers were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 design for diets containing AFB1 (0 or 40 μg/kg), NE (challenged...
Fri, 11/17/2017 - 00:00
AbstractDifferences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry...
Thu, 11/09/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThree separate broiler Salmonella Typhimurium challenge experiments were conducted evaluating efficacy of formic and propionic acid feed supplements to suppress environmental and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium prevalence. In experiment 1, broilers were provided feed with 1 kg/ton formic acid or 5 kg/ton propionic acid feed additives or a basal control diet. At the day of placement, half of...
Wed, 11/08/2017 - 19:00
AbstractThree separate broiler Salmonella Typhimurium challenge experiments were conducted evaluating efficacy of formic and propionic acid feed supplements to suppress environmental and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium prevalence. In experiment 1, broilers were provided feed with 1 kg/ton formic acid or 5 kg/ton propionic acid feed additives or a basal control diet. At the day of placement, half of...
Fri, 11/03/2017 - 00:00
AbstractNecrotic enteritis, either in its clinical or sub-clinical form is known to cause massive economic losses in the broiler chicken industry. Currently, the use of in-feed antibiotics as growth promoters is discouraged. Therefore, mechanisms to control NE through diet include reduction of digesta viscosity, promotion of lower pH in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through acidification of...
Fri, 11/03/2017 - 00:00
AbstractOvergrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) on Campylobacter media prevents the latter's selective isolation, thereby making the improvement of Campylobacter-selective media necessary. We evaluated tazobactam (an ESBL inhibitor) to supplement Bolton enrichment broth (Tz-Bolton broth) for the selective isolation of Campylobacter in chicken...
Thu, 11/02/2017 - 20:00
AbstractNecrotic enteritis, either in its clinical or sub-clinical form is known to cause massive economic losses in the broiler chicken industry. Currently, the use of in-feed antibiotics as growth promoters is discouraged. Therefore, mechanisms to control NE through diet include reduction of digesta viscosity, promotion of lower pH in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through acidification of...
Thu, 11/02/2017 - 20:00
AbstractOvergrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) on Campylobacter media prevents the latter's selective isolation, thereby making the improvement of Campylobacter-selective media necessary. We evaluated tazobactam (an ESBL inhibitor) to supplement Bolton enrichment broth (Tz-Bolton broth) for the selective isolation of Campylobacter in chicken...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThe present study evaluated the microbiological properties of three probiotic candidate strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (128; 131; CE11_2), their effect on intestinal epithelial permeability, and their ability to reduce intestinal colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) individually or as a batch culture in neonatal turkey poults. Isolates were characterized morphologically and...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
AbstractSalmonella spp. is a foodborne pathogen that causes zoonotic disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from turkey farms in Taiwan. During the past 2 yr, 243 strains of Salmonella were isolated from 2,040 samples (11.9%) from turkey farms, including 32.5% (52/160) from the intestines of 12-day-old turkey...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
AbstractA study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 (day old) chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; 8 replicates/treatment). A basal starter diet was divided into 5 batches to create 6 dietary...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin in diets contaminated or not with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the productive performance and serum biochemical profile of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in the laying phase. A total of 240 12-week-old Japanese quail was used in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme (additives x...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
AbstractDirect-fed microorganisms (DFM) and exogenous enzymes have been demonstrated to improve growth performance in poultry and are potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). We investigated the administration of a feed additive composed of a DFM product containing spores of 3 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains and an enzyme blend of endo-xylanase, α-amylase, and...
Tue, 10/10/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThis study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on intestinal morphology, microfloras, and barrier integrity of broilers subjected to heat stress. Two-hundred-seventy 21-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. The 3 treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds...
Thu, 10/05/2017 - 00:00
AbstractFumonisins (FB) are among the most frequently detected mycotoxins in feedstuffs and finished feed, and recent data suggest that the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in poultry species might be compromised at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/kg, close to field incidences and below the US and EU guidelines. Strategies are therefore necessary to reduce the exposure of poultry to...
Thu, 10/05/2017 - 00:00
AbstractResearch was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one...
Thu, 10/05/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThe efficacy of two exogenous enzyme combinations and a multi-strain Bacillus probiotic (DFM) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and gut microbial composition was investigated in broilers. One-day old Ross 308 chicks were assigned to 36 pens with 22 birds/pen and 6 pens/treatment (Experiment 1) or 36 cages with 8 birds/cage...
Thu, 10/05/2017 - 00:00
AbstractFoodborne disease caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the important public health and economic concerns. A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation with 2-nitroethanol (NE) and 2-nitropropanol (NP) on Salmonella recovery of internal organs as well as on the immune gene expression in the ileum of laying hens. Thirty-six White Leghorns were orally gavaged...
Wed, 09/20/2017 - 00:00
AbstractCorn with naturally occurring aflatoxin (AF), wheat with naturally occurring doxynivalenol (DON), and barley with naturally occurring zearalenone (ZEA) were used to make rations for feeding turkey hen poults to 6 weeks of age. Control rations with equal amounts of corn, wheat, and barley were also fed. The control rations did contain some DON while both sets of rations contained ZEA....
Wed, 09/20/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThis study analyzed the inhibitory effects of a synbiotic product (PoultryStar® me) on production parameters, intestinal microflora profile, and immune parameters in laying hens with and without a Salmonella challenge. The synbiotic product contained 4 probiotic bacterial strains (Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium animalis, and Pediococcus acidilactici) and a...
Wed, 09/20/2017 - 00:00
AbstractTo elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C,...
Thu, 09/14/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThe hygiene status of raw chicken-meat preparations from retail outlets in North-Western Spain was investigated. Microbial counts (aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliforms, enterococci, pseudomonads, fluorescent pseudomonads, yeasts and molds, and Staphylococcus aureus) were determined for minced meat, hamburgers, nuggets, white sausages, red...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThis study aims to evaluate the microbiological quality and efficacy of antimicrobials to inactivate unstressed or cold-stress adapted Salmonella and Enterococcus on broiler carcasses and wings processed at a small USDA-inspected slaughter facility in West Virginia. The first part of the study included 42 carcasses that were pre- and secondarily-enriched in bacterial media followed by...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 00:00
AbstractAflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production. Moreover, AF residues in fertilized eggs result in huge economic losses by decreasing...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 00:00
AbstractTwo experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an encapsulated sodium butyrate (Na-B) with targeted releasing times on broiler performance, energy digestibility, intestinal morphology, and ceca Salmonella colonization. In experiment 1, 3 different Na-B products (CMA, CMP, and CMS) were evaluated following a challenge with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (STNAR...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 00:00
AbstractWorkers’ boots are considered one of the re-contamination routes of Salmonella for rendered meals in the rendering-processing environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail for reducing Salmonella on workers’ boots and ultimately for preventing Salmonella re-contamination of rendered meals. Under laboratory conditions, biofilms of Salmonella...
Tue, 07/11/2017 - 00:00
AbstractDetailed cleaning and disinfection programs aims to reduce infection pressure from microorganisms from one flock to the next. However, studies evaluating the benefits to poultry performance, the sanitary status of the facilities, and the sanitary quality of the meat are rarely found. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate 2 cleaning and disinfecting programs regarding their influence...
Tue, 07/11/2017 - 00:00
AbstractMycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an important pathogen of domestic poultry and is prevalent in commercial layers. Avian influenza (AI; H9N2) infections are emerging respiratory problems causing huge economic losses to the poultry industry, especially in the presence of other co-infecting pathogens. The possible role of MS vaccination and response to AI (H9N2) virus in commercial layers was...
Tue, 07/11/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThe microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV)...
Fri, 06/23/2017 - 00:00
AbstractAn in vitro study was carried out to investigate the volatile odorous metabolites produced by necrotic enteritis inducing Clostridium perfringens (Cp) type A field strain (EHE-NE18) cultured in two broth media (thioglycollate broth, brain heart infusion broth) at three levels (0, 103 cfu/mL, 106 cfu/mL) using 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with each replicated three times. The...
Wed, 06/21/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThe thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. This infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in Europe. It is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of Campylobacter infection. As emerged from the reported...
Tue, 06/20/2017 - 00:00
AbstractTo investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4...
Tue, 06/20/2017 - 00:00
AbstractNecrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. A standardized blend of plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloids (IQA) derived from Macleaya cordata has shown to have anti-inflammatory potency and promoted animal productivity. This study investigated the effects of IQA supplementation on...
Sat, 06/17/2017 - 00:00
AbstractOwing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne...
Thu, 06/08/2017 - 00:00
AbstractFoodborne diseases represent a major risk to public health worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria can live in the form of biofilm within the food industry, providing a permanent source of contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the types of adhesion surfaces on Salmonella biofilm formation at eight different times, and analyze the action time of a bacteriophage pool...
Wed, 05/17/2017 - 00:00
AbstractThis study investigates the integrated approach of spice extracts and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) chicken meat preservation. Specifically, extracts from clove (CL), cinnamon (CI) individually and in combination (3% w/w) along with MAP (30% CO2/70% N2 and 10% O2/30% CO2/60% N2) were used to increase the shelf life of fresh chicken meat stored at 4°C. The parameters evaluated as...

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